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No child under 13 years of age shall be employed to labor or engage in busipess, except during the vacations of the public schools of the city or town wherein such child resides, or as provided for above. No one under 15 years of age shall be employed unless he shall present to his employer a certificate made by or under the direction of the school committee of the city or town wherein such child resides, stating the name, place, and date of birth of said child and the name and residence of the person having control of said child. Every person who shall employ any minor child above described who has not complied with the provisions above recited shall for every such offense be fined not exceeding $20.

The truant officers may visit any places or establishments where such minor children as have been described are employed to ascertain whether the provisions of this law are duly complied with, and may, as often as twice in every year, demand from all employers of such children a report containing the names of all children under 14 that are employed by them, such report to give the names, ages, and residences of all such children; and for any refusal to make such reports as are above provided for, or for any refusal to produce the abovementioned certificates, any employer of such children shall be fined not exceeding $10.

Every habitual truant-that is, every child who is required under this law to attend school and who willfully and habitually absents himself therefrom-and every habitual school offender-that is, every child who is required to attend school, but who persistently violates the rules and regulations of the school which he attends or otherwise persistently misbehaves therein, so as to render himself a fit subject for exclusion therefrom, may be complained of by the truant officer and be committed to the Sockanosset School for Boys or to the Oaklawn School for Girls for a period not exceeding his minority: Provided, That any court or magistrate by whom a child has been convicted of such offense may, in his discretion, defer sentence and place such child on probation in the custody and control of a truant or probation officer of the city or town wherein such child resides for such period of time and upon such conditions as said court or magistrate may deem best, and whenever within such period the child violates the conditions of his probation he shall be brought into court and said court or magistrate may, in his discretion, place such child on further probation in the custody and control of the State board of charities and corrections for such period of time and upon such conditions as said court or magistrate may deem best; and whenever within such period the child violates the condition of his further probation, he shall be brought into court and receive sentence for the offense of which he was convicted when he was placed on probation, but the child may at any time demand that sentence be passed upon him, and the court or magistrate, whenever convinced that the child has reformed, may discontinue the complaint without sentence.

Character of instruction.—The school committee shall prescribe the studies to be pursued in the public schools, and shall include instruction in the injurious effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system. Evening schools may be maintained by the towns under the general supervision of the State board.

Any town maintaining a high school having a course of study approved by the State board of education shall be entitled to receive annually from the State $20 for each pupil in average attendance for the first 20 pupils and $10 each for the second 25. Any town not maintaining a high school which shall make provision for the free attendance of its children at some approved high school shall receive aid upon the same basis as above.

Tert-books.—The school committee of every city and town shall purchase, at the expense of such city or town, text-books and other school supplies used in the publie schools, and said text-books and supplies shall be loaned to the pupils free of charge, subject to rules and regulations prescribed by the committee.

A change may be made in the schoolbooks in the public schools of any town by a vote of two-thirds of the whole committee, provided that no change be made in any text-book in a town oftener than once in three years, unless by the consent of the State board of education,

The sum of $1,000 shall be annually appropriated for the purchase of dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other works of reference, maps, globes, and other apparatus, to be distributed to towns or districts making an appropriation for the same purpose, each town to receive not more than $200 if not divided into districts, districts to receive not more than $20, provided they have raised at least an equal sum.

Buildings.-All schoolhouses shall be located by the town school committee and plans approved by them. No one shall maintain a nuisance, as swine in a pen, within 100 feet of the inclosure of a schoolhouse.

4. FINANCES.

Permanent school fundsTaration.

Permanent school fund.The general treasurer, with the advice of the governor, shall have power to regulate the custody and safe-keeping of the fund for the support of public schools, and shall keep the same securely invested in the capital of some safe and responsible bank or banks or in bonds of towns or cities within this State. The money that shall be paid into the State treasury by auctioneers for duties accruing to the use of the State is appropriated annually to the permanent increase of the school fund. All money for the support of public schools appropriated to towns and by them forfeited shall be added to the permanent fund. All fires under the compulsory-attendance law and all poll taxes shall be applied to the support of the public schools in the town or city where collected, and all dog taxes, after the payment of damages done by dogs, shall be applied in a similar way unless retained by vote of the town.

Taration.--The sum of $120,000, to be denominated teachers' money," shall be annually paid, out of the income of the permanent school fund and from other money in the treasury, for the support of the public schools, to be apportioned among the several towns by the commissioner of public schools as follows: The sum of $ 100 shall be apportioned for each school not to exceed 15 in number in any one town, the remainder to be apportioned in proportion to the number of children from 5 to 15 years of age, inclusive, in the several towns according to the school census then last preceding. No town shall receive any part of this appropriation unless it raise by tax for the support of public schools a sum equal to the amount it may receive from the State treasury, and neglect or refusal to levy this tax by the 1st day of July forfeits the delinquent town's share of the State appropriation. There is an annual appropriation for the State aid to high schools and for the promotion of the consolidation of schools. A further sum is appropriated in aid of skilled supervision, either by single towns or jointly. There shall be an annual appropriation for the support and maintenance of evening schools in the several towns under the general supervision of the State board of education, who shall apportion said appropriation among them.

Every town shall establish and maintain a sufficient number of public schools, and towns may at any legal meeting grant and vote such sums of money as they shall judge necessary for the support of schools, purchase of sites for and the erection and repair of schoolhouses, and for the establishment and maintenance of school libraries,

SOUTH CAROLINA.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State superintendent-State board--County superintendent-County board

School districts-Trustces. State superintendent.- The State superintendent of education shall be elected at each general election, to serve two years; vacancies filled by governor; shall give bond of $5,000, with sureties approved by the governor, and shall receive $1,900 a year as compensation, with not to exceed $300 for traveling expenses and $900 for clerk hire. He shall have general supervision over all the schools of the State supported in whole or in part by public funds; visit every county as often as practicable for the purpose of inspecting the schools, awakening an interest in education, and diffusing as far as possible, by public addresses and personal communication with school officers, teachers, and parents, a knowledge of existing defects and desirable improvements in the same; secure, with the advice of the State board, uniformity of text-books throughout the State; prepare and transmit to the several county superintendents school registers, blank certificates, reports, and other forms and printed instructions necessary for school officers and teachers to make their reports and perform their other lawful duties; cause the school laws to be printed, with rules, regulations, forms, and

instructions, and shall send copies of the same to county superintendents for distribution. He shall make a report through the governor to the general assembly at each regular session, showing: (1) The whole number of pupils registered and enrolled in the common schools of the State during the preceding year (ended June 30), by counties; (2) number of white and colored, respectively, of each sex in attendance; (3) number of free schools in the State; (4) number of pupils studying each of the branches taught; (5) average wages paid to teachers of each sex, and to principals of schools and departments; (6) number of schoolhouses erected during the year, and location, material, and cost of same; (7) number previously erected, material of which constructed, condition and value, and the number with grounds inclosed; (8) counties in which teachers' institutes were held, and the number attending in each county; (9) such other statistical information as he may deem important, with such plans as he may have matured and the State board may have recommended for the improvement of the public school system ; such statistics shall include those pertaining to all State institutions of higher learning, which institutions for this purpose shall make a report to the State superintendent by September 1 each year.

State board.— The governor, superintendent of education, and seven persons to be appointed by the governor, one from each Congressional district, who shall hold office four years unless sooner removed by the governor, shall constitute the State board of education. The governor shall be chairman and the State superintendent secretary, who shall also be custodian of records, papers, and effects of the board, and shall keep minutes of its proceedings, all of which records, etc., shall be open to inspection by the public. Members appointed by the governor shall receive the same mileage and per diem as members of general assembly, not to exceed twenty days in any year. The board shall constitute an advisory body, with whom the State superintendent shall have the right to consult when in doubt as to his official duty, and shall have power to review on appeal all decisions of county boards. Other powers and duties are: To adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent with law for their own government and the government of the public schools; prescribe and enforce rules for the examination of teachers; prescribe standards of proficiency which will entitle persons examined by county boards to certificates as teachers; prescribe and enforce courses of study and uniform series of text-books (which see) ; grant State teachers' certificates, and revoke same for cause; award scholarships created by the general assembly in State institutions.

County silperintendent.--In each county there shall be elected a county superintendent of education, to serve two years; vacancies filled by State board. He shall give $1,000 bond ($5,000 in Saluda County). [Statute specifies salary for each county, ranging from $500 to $1,200 a year), with traveling expenses (not exceeding $100) necessarily incurred in attending meetings called for the purpose of advancing elucational interests, and in visiting schools in other counties in order to become familiar with their management and mode of teaching. Ile shall visit the schools in his county once each year, oftener if practicable, note the course and method of instruction and branches taught, and give such recommendation in each school as may be necessary so that uniformity in courses and methods may be secured as far as practicable; acquaint himself as far as practicable with the character and condition of each school, noting any deficiencies in government, or classification of pupils, or method of instruction, and make such suggestions in private to the teacher as to him shall appear necessary; note character and condition of schoolhouses and furniture, and make such suggestions to trustees as in his opinion may be needful; aid teachers in all proper efforts to improve themselves in their profession, and for this purpose shall conduct teachers' institutes and encourage the formation of teachers' associations, attending the meetings of such associations and giving advice and instruction reg:trding their conduct and management. He shall make an annual report to the grand jury, through the judge of the court of general sessions (third term), showing all claims filed, audited, allowed, and ordered paid by him during the year; by July 15 each year lie shall report to the county treasurer all school claims, by districts, approved by him for the year preceding; and shall furnish trustees of his county copies of reports made by him to county auditor and treasurer as to persons listed and paying poll tax, and shall aid trustees in making all proper corrections. (See also County board.)

County board.-There shall be a county board of eilucation in each county, composed of three members, one of whom shall be the county superintendent

and the other two shall be appointed by the State board every two years. County commissioners shall furnish said county board with a suitable office and supply the same with furniture, fuel, lights, stationery, postage, and other incidentals necessary to the proper transaction of official business. The two members of said county board appointed by the State board shall receive as compensation $3 per day when employed (not to exceed seven days) and 5 cents per mile traveled in such public service, except that in counties having more than 50,000 population, per census of 1900, said members shall be compensated for not less than seven nor more than twenty days. The county board shall constitute an advisory body with whom the county superintendent may consult when in doubt as to his official duty, and shall decide local controversies relating to school law; but either party may appeal to the State board. The county board shall meet at least twice a year, times and places to be appointed by State board. Other duties and powers are: To examine applicants for teachers' certificates; divide their counties into school districts, and appoint three trustees for each district; lery an annual tax of 3 mills on the dollar, and apportion same, when collected, among the several school districts of their respective counties.

School districts.-County boards of education shall divide their counties into convenient school districts, in area from 9 to 49 square miles, and shall alter lines and create new districts from time to time as school interests may demand; but no new district shall be formed except upon petition of at least one-third of the qualified voters within such new territory, and no districts shall be consolidated except upon petition of at least one-third of the qualified voters of same. Territory lying within two or more counties may be united in one school district by joint action of the several county boards. Every such school district is a body politic and corporate for school purposes.

Trustees. The county board, on the first Tuesday in July of each even year, shall appoint for each school district in their county three trustees from the qualified electors and taxpayers residing therein, to hold office two years. The trustees shall have the management and control of local public school interests, subject to the supervision of the county board, and shall visit each school in their district at least once in every school term. They shall hold a regular session at least two weeks before the commencement of any or every school term, and a special session upon call of the chairman or any two members. They are empowered to sell any school property, real or personal, within their district whenever they deem it expedient to do so, and apply proceeds to the district's school fund; but they shall first secure the consent of the county board, and within thirty days after such sale they shall report to county board terms and amount of same. All claims against a school district chargeable to the public school fund must be signed by at least a majority of the trustees. Other powers and duties of trustees are: To provide suitable schoolhouses, and make same comfortable; employ teachers from among those having certificates from their county board, fix their salaries, discharge them for sufficient cause, and may impose any additional examinations or qualifications they deem proper before or after employing teachers; suspend or dismiss pupils when necessary; call meetings of voters for consultation in regard to school interests; care for and control school property; may cross all bridges or ferries free of charge when on official business. It shall be unlawful for any school trustee to be pecuniarily interested in any contract with the school district of which he is a trustee, and no teacher shall be employed by a board of trustees who is related to a member of said board by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, without the written approval of the county board and the written request of a majority of the parents or guardians of the children attending such school.

2. TEACHERS.

Certificates--Employment and duties-Institutcs.

Certificates.—The county board shall examine all candidates for the position of teacher, and give to each person found qualified a certificate setting forth the branches such teacher is capable of teaching and the percentage attained in each branch, said certificate to be valid for two years unless sooner revoked, and may be renewed with or without examination, at the discretion of the county board. The county superintendent shall keep a register of the name, age, sex,

SOUTH DAKOTA.

1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM.

State superintendent-County board-County superintendent-District school

board-City board of education.

State superintendent.There shall be elected biennially a superintendent of public instruction, who shall be charged with the general supervision of all the county schools and the high schools and of all the city and county superintendents of the State. He shall meet the county superintendents at least once a year, prescribe rules for, attend, and assist at teachers' institutes, as far as consistent with his other duties, render a written opinion to any county superintendent asking it touching the administration of school law, and determine cases appealed to him from the county superintendents. He shall be provided with an office at the seat of government, where the records and other accumulations of his department shall be kept open to the governor or committees of either branch of the legislature. All books presented to his office or purchased therefor shall be catalogued and preserved for use of teachers of the State. He shall print and distribute blank forms, make a biennial report to the governor, prepare examination questions, may appoint a deputy, at $1,500 per annum, shall appoint the institute conductors and convene them in annual session, and may grant life diplomas and State first-grade and second-grade certificates after holding examinations. Ilis compensation shall be fixed by law, and in addition he shall receive $500 for traveling expenses.

County board of education.-- (See Schools-Text-books.)

County superintendent.--There shall be elected biennially a county superintendent of schools, who shall have the general supervision of the schools of his county. Ile shall visit each school in the county at least once annually, rectifying the government, instruction, and classification of the schools; at least once each year examine the records and accounts of the district school officers; encourage county normal institutes and district institutes, holding a couuty institute annually ; require the district school oflicers to assemble annually for the purpose of discussing questions relative to their powers and duties; examine persons applying for positions in the schools and grant special first, second, and third grade certificates and regular third-grade certificates to those qualified ; report the school census to the commissioner of school and public lands; annually report to the superintendent of public instruction a full abstract of the reports made to himself by the district officers; apportion school money; and he shall bold no other office.

Ile shall give bond, with two sureties, in the sum of $500; may provide and furnish at county's expense an oflice at the county seat, where the accumulations of his department shall be kept, and shall receive a salary ranging between $200 and $1,500, to be determined on a basis of property valuation and population. Vacancy in the office is to be filled by the county commissioners. Failure to report to the State superintendent subjects the county superintendent to a fine of $100 and liability to damages caused by bis neglect.

District school board.In all counties organized for school purposes under the district system each school district shall be and remain a district school corporation, and each ciyil townsbip in every county in the State not organized for school purposes under the district system is constituted a district school corporation. Any township district may be subdivided by vote.

In every district a majority of the electors shall have authority to instruct the district school board concerning the management of the school and to levy taxes for the maintenance of the same.

There shall be elected annually one member of a district school board of three persons, who are to be styled, respectively, chairman, clerk, and treasurer.

Boards shall hold regular meetings annually, though special meetings may be I called.

The board shall have the general charge, direction, and management of the school or schools of the district, which they shall organize, maintain, and conveniently locate, and for which they shall employ teachers.

Township high schools may be established.

City boarils of education. When any city or town is divided into wards, there shall be elected annually a board of education consisting of two members from each ward and one at large, each to serve two years, one-half the board retiring

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