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State board of examiners.—There shall be a State board of examiners, consisting of five competent persons, one from each Congressional district, to be appointed by the State superintendent, to serve for four years. (See also Teachers-Appointment and qualifications.) Each member receives a per diem of $5 for time actually spent in discharge of duty and 6 cents a mile for distance traveled.

State board of the school fund.-(See Finances.)

County superintendent.--A county superintendent of free schools shall be elected every four years by the county electors. He shall visit each school within his county at least once during the school year and note its scholastic character and physical surroundings, and shall labor steadily to procure uniformity of instruction throughout the county and promote the efficiency of the teaching force, reporting concerning these facts annually to the State superintendent. He shall make up a report to the State superintendent from the district reports to him concerning the condition of schoolhouses, the value of apparatus, and the volumes in and value of school libraries, and, further, to report the districts failing to make a return of the number, etc., of youth within them, and those that have failed to make the annual district levy for support of primary schools.

County board of examiners. There shall be in every county a board of examiners, composed of the county superintendent and two experienced teachers, who shall be nominated by the county superintendent and appointed by the presidents of the district boards of education for a period of two years, one retiring annually. They shall each receive pay at the rate of $3 per day of actual service, to be paid out of the fees collected from applicants for certificates. The county board of examiners are under the government and control of the State superintendent, who shall designate the time of examinations, to be held simultaneously in all counties of the State, not exceeding five in any one year, for which the State superintendent shall prepare questions and send them under seal to the county superintendent, who, with the other examiners, shall open them in the presence of the applicants assembled for the examination. The examiners shall collect the manuscripts and send them under seal to the State superintendent, who shall grade them and issue the certificates. All applicants pay an examination fee of $2.

District board.The district board of education shall be composed of a president and two commissioners, elected by the voters of each school district (coextensive with each magisterial district of the county) for terms of four years, the two commissioners to retire at biennial intervals. They shall appoint for each subdistrict three intelligent trustees, each to hold for three years, one to retire annually. The board of education shall fix the salary of the teachers and elect a secretary, who shall not be a member. The board shall have general control and supervision of the schools and school interests, determining the number and location of its schools, provided that every village of 50 or more inhabitants shall be included in one subdistrict. The district board shall cause a sufficient number of primary scliools to be kept, require every teacher to enumerate the youth (6 to 21), and report the following facts: Youth 6 to 16 years of age, youth 16 to 21 years of age, distinguishing sex and race, determine the rate of taxation necessary for teachers' and building funds, and furnish record books and blanks to teachers. The members receive $1.50 per diem, not exceeding $10.50 a year, one day of which shall be spent in attending a teachers' institute.

Subdistrict trustecs.-The trustees of the subdistricts are three in number, appointed for three years by the board of education, one retiring annually. They shall have charge of the schools in their district and appoint teachers, making a written contract; visit every school under their charge, once within two weeks after the opening and again within two weeks before its close, thoroughly inspecting the premises, the character of instruction, and the proficiency of the pupils ; may purchase fuel, brooms, and other things incidental to schoolroom use, and make repairs, rendering an account to the secretary of the board of education,


Appointment, qualifications, and duties--Preliminary training-Jeetings. Appointment, qualifications, and duties.—No teacher shall be employed without having a certificate of qualification to teach and govern a school. Examinations are conducted by the county board of examiners under the direction and control of the State superintendent, who issues the certificates. No college

diploma or certificate of recommendation shall supersede the necessity of an examination. The certificates shall be graded as follows: The first-grade certificate shall be issued for five years to all applicants who obtain an average of 90 per cent (not less than 75 in any subject) on examination in all the branches required to be taught in the primary schools, the theory and art of teaching, general history, civil government, and bookkeeping. The second-grade certificate shall be issued to all applicants who obtain an average of 80 per cent (not lower that 70 in any branch) on the same branches as required for first-grade certificates, and is good for three years. The third-grade certificate shall be issued to those who obtain an average of 70 per cent (not lower than 60 per cent in any one branch) on the same branches as required for first-grade certificates ; it is valid for one year and may be reissued once only. Failure to attend a county institute without good excuse disqualifies for teaching that year.

The State board of examiners issue two grades of certificates—first class, valid for twelve years; second class, for six years. First-class certificates are issued to persons who possess the requisite scholarship and professional experience; second class, to applicants who, in addition to the branches required for the county certificate, pass in four other branches. Second-class certificates are granted to the graduates of the State normal school, the State university, the Peabody Normal College of Tennessee, and of other schools in the State approved by the board, when such graduates have taught successfully three years in the State under a Wo. 1 county certificate, two of which shall immediately precede the date of the application for certificate. Persons teaching successfully four years under a second-class certificate shall be entitled to a first-class certificate at the expiration of the second class. Each applicant shall pay a fee of $3.

Every teacher shall keep a register, in which he shall enter the date of the beginning and close of the term, the name, sex, age, and studies of each pupil, and other particulars specified by authority. Failure to properly keep and deposit the register forfeits the balance due to the teacher. Teachers are required to take the school census.

Preliminary training.--The West Virginia Normal School (Marshall College), with its five branches, is under the control of a board of regents of the State normal school, appointed by the governor. There are two State institutions for the education of colored youths, and the State superintendent is authorized to arrange with some other institution within the State for the training of a number of colored teachers.

Institutes.-Teachers' institutes are held in each county of the State annually, continuing five days, under the direction of the county superintendent and instructors appointed by the State superintendent. Teachers pay an enrollment fee of $1, and are allowed pay at the rate of $1.50 per day for attendance, and failing to attend they are not allowed to teach unless excused from attendance by the county board of examiners. Members of boards of education are allowed pay for one day's attendance. District institutes, one or more annually in each district, are conducted by county superintendents, and teachers are allowed pay for one day's attendance.


Attendance-Character of instructionText-books-Buildings.

Attendance:-White and colored children are to be taught in separate schools. Every youth between the age of 6 and 21 years shall have a right to receive instruction at the free primary schools. Subdistrict trustees shall provide one or more primary schools for the colored children when they number more than 10, or the board of education shall provide other equal educational facilities. Schools must be kept at least five months.

Character of instruction. In the primary schools there shall be taught orthography, reading, penmanship, arithmetic, English grammar. physiology, general history, history of the United States and of West Virginia, geography, singleentry bookkeeping, civil government, and the theory and art of teaching. It shall be the duty of the State superintendent to prescribe a manual and graded course of primary instruction to be followed in the country and village schools, and for the graduation of those completing the course.

Text-books.--For the purpose of selecting text-books for use in the free schools of the State there is established in erery county a school-book board, composed of the county superintendent, who is ex officio secretary, and eight

other respectable citizens, at least four of whom shall be freeholders and not school teachers, and at least three of whom shall be teachers holding a No. 1 certificate and engaged in teaching. The said eight persons are appointed by the county court, and not more than five shall belong to the same political party. They hold office for four years, and all contracts are made for a period of five years. Boards of education are authorized, at their option, to purchase and supply to the pupils of their district all necessary text-books free of charge.

Buildings.-The board of education of every district shall provide suitable schoolhouses and grounds, but in erecting buildings they must submit the plan to the county superintendent, whose duty it is to be acquainted with the principles of schoolhouse architecture, and in all his plans he shall study economy, convenience, health, and durability. To provide sites, schoolhouses, and furniture a district tax must be levied, not to exceed 40 cents on the $100 of property, except that for the support of district high schools an additional levy not exceeding 30 cents on the $100 valuation may be laid.


Funds (permanent or special)-Turation.

Funds (permanent or special).—The money accruing to this State from forfeited, delinquent, waste, and unappropriated lands and lands sold for taxes, the State's share of the literary fund of Virginia, or other claims of an educational nature upon her, estates of intestates, escheated lands, the taxes levied upon the revenues of corporations and exemptions from military duty, constitute the school fund, now limited by the constitution to $1,000,000. For the management of the fund a board of the school fund is created, composed of the governor, State superintendent, auditor, and treasurer. The interest of the fund is applied annually to the support of free schools.

Taration.—The legislature shall levy for support of free schools an annual capitation tax of $1 on every male inhabitant of 21 years or more.

For the support of free schools there shall be a State tax of 10 cents on the $100, which, together with the interest of the school fund, forfeitures, fines, and confiscations, the annual capitation tax, dividends on bank stock held by the board of the school fund, shall be called the general school fund, and shall be annually distributed to the several counties in proportion to the youth therein, less the salary and expenses of the State superintendent; but no district is to receive its share unless it has annually raised enough money in connection with the State apportionment to keep the schools open for at least five months, or as many as have been settled upon by the voters: Provided, That the local tax shall not exceed 80 cents on the $100, the levy and the State money to be called the teachers' fund. To provide buildings, sites, furniture and appliances, and repair them, the board of education shall annually levy a tax on the property in the district not to exceed 40 cents on the $100.


[Although the following digest of the school law of Wisconsin does not formally comply with the scheme prepared by the Bureau, yet, as much of the information called for by that scheme can be found in the digest, it has been deemed advisable to print it as it stands.]

The statute provides for the organization of school districts, which shall consist of contiguous territory, but must not contain more than 36 square miles. It also provides for the organization of towns under the township system of. school government. Under this system the number of square miles which may be organized as a township district is not limited. Under the independent system of school government the electors at the annual school meetings, held the first Monday in July of each year, are authorized to elect a school district board of three members-clerk, director, and treasurer. The term of office is three years. If vacancies occur they may be filled by appointment by the other members of the board if made within ten days. If not made within ten days they are filled by an appointment made by the town, city, or village clerk. Under the township system of school government the town is, for convenience, divided into subdistricts, the annual meeting of which is held the first Monday

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in June. The subdistrict clerk becomes a member of the town board of school directors. This board has two regular meetings in each year, the first for the purpose of organization occurs on the second Monday in June, and the semiannual meeting on the third Monday in March. At the first meeting an executive committee, consisting of a president, vice-president, and secretary, is chosen. The secretary is not of necessity a subdistrict clerk. This executive committee is made responsible for the transaction of all business relating to school matters.

Incorporated cities have, as a rule, a board of education, the members of which are appointed by the mayor. This board transacts all the business relating to the school affairs of the city, subject to review of the common council. Any city under the district system of school government having a high school within its boundaries and expending a sum annually for maintenance of the school exceeding $4,000 may elect a school board of seren members. The laws of 1901 granted State aid to rural districts that established graded schools. These schools are divided into first class (those having three or more departments) and second class (those having but two departments). Special aid is granted to such schools when maintained according to law in the sum of $300 to first class and $100 to second-class schools. Two inspectors are appointed by the State superintendent. It is their duty to visit these schools each year and make report upon the condition of the grounds, outbuildings, building, and the organization of the school and the adoption and pursuit of the courses of study. These courses are recommended by the State superintendent. The inspectors receive an annual salary of $1,000 a year and their traveling expenses. The principal of a State graded school of the first class must hold some form of State certificate. One assistant, holding a third-grade certificate, may be employed. Such person must, however, have had one year's successful experience as an additional qualification. One other teacher may be employed, having at least a second-grade certificate, and all other assistants must hold at least firstgrade county certificates. The principal of a graded school of the second class must hold at least a first-grade county certificate, and the assistant may be qualified with a third-grade county certificate. One year's successful experience as a teacher is also required in this case.

The electors of a school district may authorize the board to suspend the school and provide for free transportation and tuition, or for tuition only, in some adjoining district or districts. Under the township system of school government the secretary of the town board of directors is required to inspect each school in his town at least twice during each term, and he must keep the records of the board. His compensation for his services must not exceed $75 in any one school year. If the electors at the annual town meeting vote a compensation to the president and vice-president of the executive committee of the town board of directors, the amount may be $2 a day for not to exceed fifteen days in any one year. Any school district or subdistrict under the township system of school government may maintain several schools in separate schoolhouses located in different parts of the district. A course of study for common or rural schools printed and commented upon in a pamphlet of some 150 pages is published and distributed under the direction of the State superintendent. The branches which the statute requires shall be taught in the public schools are: Orthography, orthoepy, reaching, writing, grammar, geography, arithmetic, history of the United States, Constitutions of the United States and Wisconsin, and physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effect of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system. All instruction shall be in the English language, except that the board may cause any foreign language to be taught by a competent teacher in each school not to exceed one hour each day. Every teacher in a public school must hold some form of a certificate, otherwise no money can be lawfully paid from the public treasury for services rendered.

Kindergartens.--District boards, town boards of school directors, and boards of education may provide for kindergarten departments in connection with the public schools. In districts under the district system the electors must provide for the levy of a tax for the maintenance of kindergarten departments before they can be established by the board, and but 40 pupils are permitted to each kindergarten department. The school year begins July 1, and all persons between the ages of 4 and 20 years are privileged to attend the public schools in the district in which they reside free of tuition. These schools must be maintained for at least seven months in each year before the district is entitled to share in the annual apportionment made by the State superintendent from the school-fund income, or the apportionment made by the county boird of super

visers, which is raised by a tax upon the property of the town. Attendance on some private or parochial school is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 14, or if the child is not employed until the age of 16, unless such child shall reside more than 2 miles from the public school by nearest traveled highway. The child is required to attend in country or village districts for at least twenty weeks in each year and in cities for at least thirty-two weeks of each year. If a child is not employed the compulsory age is extended until he is 10 years of age.

When a school district is newly organized the board may make the first selection of text-books. No second selection can, however, be made by the board unless first authorized by a majority vote of the electors at an annual meeting, unless the district has voted to furnish text-books free, In such cases the district board is empowered to adopt new text-books at any time. Under other circumstances no change of text-books can be made until at least three years have expired after adoption.

The total amount of tax which may be levied and raised for school purposes in ordinary school districts shall not exceed in any one year 2 per cent of the total assessed valuation of taxable property in the district, and in districts under the township system of school goverument the tax shall not exceed 1 per cent for school purposes.

The power of contracting with teachers and fixing the wages per month, term, or year is vested in the board and is limited only by the amount of money which may be used for teachers' wages. The electors may determine whether the teacher shall be a male or female, and the board in making a contract is bound by the vote of the electors. Every school district board is presumed to purchase a United States flag for every schoolhouse and such apparatus as may be necessary for its display or preservation. The district board has the care and keeping of the schoolhouse, books, apparatus, and other property of the district. They also have power to make all rules needful for the government of the school and to suspend and expel pupils for noncompliance with such rules when the interest of the school demands.

Free high schools were provided for by an act of the legislature of 1873. Special State aid to the amount of $100,000 is now apportioned each year. Courses of study for these high schools are formulated by the State superintendent, and must be followed and adopted by the free high school boards. Two hundred and six of these schools have adopted a four-year course of study, requiring four years for its completion and 32 a course of study requiring three years for its completion. The statute also provides for town high schools, in which the entire town is considered the high school district, and all persons residing in the town prepared to take up the course of study for such schools are permitted to attend free of tuition. The legislature provides that any person of school age prepared to enter a free high school and who may reside in any town or incorporated village, but not within a free high school district, and who shall have completed the course of study in the district in which he resides, or one equivalent thereto, may be admitted to a free bigh school, his tuition not to exceed $2 per month, to be paid by a tax levied upon the town or village wliere he resides.

A high school inspector is appointed by the State superintendent with an annual salary of $1,800 and traveling expenses. It is his duty to visit the high schools and to inspect the courses of study as carried on in them. The statute also requires that the principal of a free high school shall hold some form of a State certificate and that the qualifications of the free high school assistants be approved by the State superintendent. It is rare that any qualifications not earned by an examination before the State board of examiners or by graduation from some State normal school, some college of high standing or some State university, are accepted. The annual apportionment to district high schools is made pro rata, while that to the town free schools is always one-half of the amount actually expended for instruction in said schools. The apportionment for the year ending June 30, 1903, was $134.50 to each district free high school expending $1,000 or more in its instructional force. High schools are, upon application to the State university, inspected with a view to being placed upon the university accredited list. When so placed graduates from these high schools are admitted to the courses of study in the State university without further examination.

Day schools for the deaf may be established in cities and villages on approval of the State superintendent. Eighteen such schools were maintained in this State for the year 1904, with an enrollment of 221. A special appropriation of

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