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$150 per capita for each 180 days of attendance is provided by the State. Instruction is by the oral method. These schools, as well as the State school at Dela van, are under the supervision of an inspector, appointed by the State superintendent at a salary of $1,500 a year, with traveling expenses.
County training school for teachers.—The statute provides for county training schools for teachers. The county board of any county in which no State normal school is located is authorized to appropriate money for the organiza tion, equipment, and maintenance of such a school. The State superintendent shall prescribe the courses of study to be pursued and shall determine the qualifications of all teachers employed in such schools. Any school established and whose courses of study and the qualifications of whose teachers have been approved by the State superintendent, may receive special aid from the State of the sum of one-half the amount actually expended for maintaining each school during the year, provided that the total amount apportioned to any one school shall not exceed $2,500 in any year. The chief objects of these schools are to instruct the teachers in methods of organization, teaching, and management of public schools.
Academic instruction is also given, and any person who completes in a satisfactory manner the course of study prescribed for any county training school shall receive a certificate signed by the principal of the school and by the members of the training school board to the effect that such person has satisfactorily completed the course of study prescribed for the school and is of good moral character. This certificate shall have the force and effect of a third-grade county certificate for the period of three years after graduation. Joint training schools may be established between counties if necessary, and tuition may be charged to persons who may attend and who live outside the county boundaries. Seven such schools have been established in this State, and the reports shown that these institutions are strong factors in educational work and that the statute making provision for them was unquestionably wise.
Normal schools.--Seven State normal schools are in active operation in various parts of the State. The first one was established in 1865. These schools are incorporated under a board of seven local regents and three at large, at least one of whom shall be a woman. These regents are appointed by the governor for a term of five years. The State superintendent is a member ex officio. This board of regents of normal schools has the government and control of all the normal schools. The board shall hold an annual meeting at the capitol on the second Wednesday of July in each year. This meeting is for the purpose of closing up the business for the year just closed and of arranging for the work of the current year. A semiannual meeting is held during the month of February in each year. An executive committee of three members selected by the board meets the last Wednesday in each month for the purpose of auditing accounts. The State superintendent annually appoints a board of three visitors to each normal school. It is the duty of these visitors to examine into the conditions, organization, and management of the school and make a report to the State superintendent. The traveling expenses of these committees are paid from a normal school fund. More than 2,000 persons have graduated from the elementary courses of study and 4,000 from the advanced or four-year courses. It is probable that more than 95 per cent of these graduates have taught a greater or less period in the public schools of this State. The courses of study provided for these schools, while giving due attention to academic and domestic branches, consist of large instruction along lines of pedagogy, school organization, and management.
Institutes.-Institutes for the instruction of teachers shall be held in each year in such counties as may be designated by the State superintendent, with the advice and concurrence of the institute committee of the board of regents of normal schools. The work is outlined uniformly each year by the State superintendent; systematic records of work done are kept by each institute conductor and are sent to the State superintendent at the close of every institute. One and sometimes two institutes are usually provided for each county during the year. Several conductors are usually appointed, and the work is sectioned in order that the best results may be obtained. A school of instruction for institute conductor's is held in the latter part of Vareh each year. The number of persons usually attending this school is more than 200. Fourteen thousand dollars are appropriated from the normal school fund for the maintenance of county institutes, and a fee of $1, collected by ench county superintendent from each applicant for a county certificate, is also made a part of the fund.
Agriculture.-Schools of agriculture and domestic economy are provided for
by an act of the legislature of 1901. This act was amended by the legislature of 1903, providing for at least four such schools and providing that the amount of State aid received by each shall equal two-thirds the amount actually expended for maintaining the school during the year, provided that no more than $4,000 shall be apportioned to any one school in any one year. The course of study covers two years, and includes the elements of agriculture, domestic science, political and domestic economy, with the work in composition, literature, United States history, and civics and commercial arithmetic, with farm accounts. Before these schools are entitled to State aid their work must be approved by the State superintendent and the dean of the agricultural college maintained in connection with the State university. Two schools of this class have been organized and maintained under the law. Their creation seems to be fully justified. The instructors of the school improve every opportunity to talk to the citizens of the county on all suitable occasions. An increased interest in agriculture has arisen as a result. A few acres of land for farming purposes is appropriated for the use of each agricultural school.
University of Wisconsin.—The government of the State university is vested in a board of regents, consisting of one member of each Congressional district and two from the State at large (thirteen in all). At least one of these regents shall be a woman, and all are appointed by the governor for a term of three years. The State superintendent and president of the State university are ex officio members of this board. The faculty consists of 228 professors and instructors for the year ending June 30, 1904, and the enrollment of students in each department was over 3,000. The school buildings are of the most commodious character and are constantly being added to. The establishment of the short course for agricultural and dairy students has been of incalculable benefit to the State. Two years of fourteen weeks each are required in order to complete these short courses, and tley are open to those who have completed the course of study in the common schools or an equivalent course.
State superintendent.-Wisconsin has no State board of education with general power. The State superintendent has general supervision of all public schools. The law until 1903 was to the effect that the term of office should be two years and that he should be nominated at convention and elected at the general election, as other State officers are elected. For many years an effort has been made to have the election of the State superintendent removed as far as possible from politics. For this purpose various amendments to the constitution have been attempted, but not until the fall of 1902 was one passed by a majority vote of the electors of the State. Under an amendment to the constitution women as well as men were authorized to vote on this amendment, which proposes that the State superintendent shall possess educational qualifications as high at least as any required by any certificate which he is authorized to grant, that he must have taught at least five years, and that his term of office shall hereafter be four years. He is to be elected the first Tuesday in April, at the same time the supreme court, circuit, and county judges are elected. The salary is fixed at $5,000 per year. He has general supervision over the common schools of the State, over establishment and management of county schools of agriculture and domestic science, manual training schools, county training schools for teachers, and day schools for the deaf. He must formulate courses of study for schools of all grades and appoint one high school inspector, an inspector of day schools for the deaf, and two graded school inspectors, whose duties are to visit the different schools, examine into their management, organization, courses of study, and equipment, and report to the State superintendent. He also apportions chool funds, decides appeals, holds at least one convention of county superintendents each year, and is required by law to make a report to the governor in each even-numbered year containing a statement of the condition of all schools, including the normal schools and the State university. He is also required to appoint a State board of examiners on the last Wednesday in August of each year. This board conducts the examinations for State teachers' certificates. These certificates are of two classes, limited and unlimited. The limited certificate is good for five years, and the unlimited for life, unless revoked by competent authority.
County.superintendents. Each county is under the supervision of a county superintendent. Two counties in the State are divided into two superintendent districts each. The county superintendent will hereafter be elected at the
same time and in the same manner as the State superintendent is elected. He must hold some form of State certificate as an educational qualification and must have had at least eight months experience in a public school. It is his duty to examine and license teachers, visit all schools annually or oftener and report their condition to the board of supervisors of his county and also the State superintendent. Women as well as men may hold this office. The county superintendent may grant certificates of the first, second, and third grade. The branches required for a certificate of the third grade are: Orthoepy, orthograply, reading, penmanship, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, history of the United States, Constitution of the United States, constitution of the State of Wisconsin, physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effect of stimulants and narcotics on the human system, the theory and art of teaching, manual of the elementary course of study for the common schools of Wisconsin, and the elements of agriculture. This certificate legally qualifies the holder for one year. For the second-grade certificate the applicant must pass an examination in all the foregoing branches and also in algebra, physical geography, American literature, and English composition. This certificate is good for three years. For the first-grade certificate the applicant must pass an examination in all the branches above named and also in physics, plane geometry, English literature, and English history. A certificate of the first grade is a legal qualification for five years. The law also provides that certificates may be secured in counties other than the one in which the applicant was examined by transfer of the papers written at the examination to the superintendent of the county in which a school has been engaged.
District board.—The district board consists of three members-a clerk, director, and treasurer-each elected for a term of three years. This board has full power to contract with teachers, select text-books on their own motion when a new district is created, and by a majority vote of the electors in case a change is desired in an old district. The members exercise general supervision over the schools of the district. In township districts all the subdistricts constitute the township board.
City superintendents.-There are 50 cities in the State under city superintendents. These officers are chosen by the board of education for one year. The law requires that no persons shall be eligible to the office of city superintendent who does not possess the legal qualifications required for the principalship of a four-year course free high school.
THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS DURING THE MIDDLE
By John W. Hoyt, A. M., M. D., LL. D.
(Author of Official Reports on Education in Connection with the Paris (1867), Vienna, and
Philadelphia Universal Expositions, Progress of University Education, Outline listories of the Universities of Bologna, Oxford, and Cambridge during the Middle Ages, and of a Memorial (to the United States Senate) concerning a National University, etc.)
The University of Paris holds an important place in the history of higher education during the Middle Ages, surpassing in some respects, especially in the early completeness of its organization, that of the University of Bologna. It has accordingly received a careful study, with such consultation of authorities as the libraries at Washington have made possible, though only such have been mentioned as have seemed entitled to first consideration and were niade the author's final dependence.
The volume of this account could have been greatly and readily increased by the inclusion of many details under each heading, but the object has been rather to present such leading facts as are most important, forming an historic outline that would be at once readable and easily remembered. And for the same reason the author has not burdened the account with the great number of references that would have been necessary, if footnotes were used at all.
The following are the authors that have been chiefly relied on: P. Denifle : Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis, Paris, Delelain, 1889-1891. Crerier : Histoire de l'Université de Paris, 7 vols., 1761. Bulæus: Historia Universitatis Parisiensis, 4 rols., 1663–1673. Jourdain : Histoire de l'Université de Paris, 6 vols., 1761. Boudousky: Die Universität Paris und die Fremden an derselben im Mittelalter, 1 vol., Berlin, 1875. Thurot: De l'organization de l'enseignement dans l'Université de Paris au moyen âge, 1 vol., Paris, 1850. De Remusat: Abelard, 2 vols., Paris, 1815. Duvernet: Histoire de la Sorbonne, 2 vols., 1790. Rashdall: Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, 2 vols., Oxford, 1895. Compayré: Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities, 1 vol., New York, 1893. Laurie: Rise and Early Constitution of Universities, 1 vol., London, 1886. Matthew Arnold: Schools and l'niversities of the Continent. Hauréau : Histoire de la philosophie scholastique, 2 vols., Paris, 1880. Rawlinson: The Five Monarchies of the Eastern World, Lond., 1862-1867. Davidson : History of Education, 1893, 1900.
1. Canses of the University
(1) The Moving Spirit of the Oncoming Renaissance
(4) Civil Government Was no Less in Need.
(1) National Needs and Aspirations--
(4) Also the Men for the Several Departments.
1. The Union of Masters -
(1) General Officers.
(1) Why with Arts Department Only
(2) Organization of the Four Nations. IV. General Development of the University Faculties.
1. The Faculty of Arts--
Methods of Instruction in Arts..
(1) The Civil Law..
(2) The Canon Law
(1) Conditions of Admission.
(4) Spirit of the Faculty Finally ScholasticV. Helps toward University Development--
1. The Part taken by the Christian Church-
3: The Connected and ('ooperating CollegesVI. Some of the Hindrances
1. The Opposing Chancellor of Notre Dame
2. The Opposing Mendicant Order.. VII. Concluding Words.
520 520 520 521 522 523 523 523 523 523 524 524 525 525 526 527 528 529 530 530 531 331 J33 536 538 543 543 544 55-16 546 457 547 547 548 548 549 551 354 554 555 357
1.--ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS--CAUSES.
While it is extremely difficult to determine the origin of the University of Paris with the exactness which attaches to modern institutions, nevertheless quite satisfactory conclusions have been reached, and the originating causes of its rise have been found exceedingly interesting. For convenience, they will be presented as causes general and causes more direct.
1. Among the general causes which brought about its establishment we may properly consider
(1) THE MOVING SPIRIT OF THE ONCOMING RENAISSANCE. The eighth-century awakening, so ably inaugurated and vigorously led by Charlemagne, brought important results in all departments of Europe's intellectual activity. But they were necessarily short-livedl, since so soon after his death they were followed by the break-up of the Frankish Empire, with succes