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courses of reading in theology, or at least have taught as one of the masters in the arts department for a period of six years. In other words, in order to vote for rector they must have made proficiency in what was regarded the very highest field of study or have made an honorable record in the work of instruction. Thirdly, it becomes plain enough, after a statement of the foregoing facts, why it was that a master or doctor in one of the professional departments was not associated with the masters of arts and the body of students in the nations : He had passed through the more purely disciplinary stage.
(2) ORGANIZATION OF THE FOUR NATIONS.
After much discussion, running through a long period, it may now be considered settled that at the head of each nation, when duly organized, there was a “ procurator,” and at the head of the sereral nations, acting in harmony for a common need, there was a “rector."
As already stated, the rector could only be chosen from among and by the masters in the arts department. His functions were, of course, those of a presiding and administrative officer. After a little while he is found also acting as the executive head of the faculty of arts, so that orders and general communications were officially addressed “To the rector, masters, and scholars.” By 1289 A. D. he had passed the stage of inferiority to the heads of the professional faculties (because of his connection with the faculty of arts), and was mentioned by the cardinal legate as being properly among them and their equal in rank. He had, in fact, come to a virtual precedence, in spite of the opposition of the chancellor of Notre Dame, who still claimed the sole prerog. ative of examining bachelors and issuing the license to teach (the jus ubique docendi) to “ licentiates.” And later still, it is not known just when, the departments of jurisprudence and of medicine were brought under his supervision. But it was not until after other years (in 1341) that he also gained recognition as supreme over the faculty of theology (whose dean up to that time had presided over all general assemblies), and thus became rector and acknowledged head of the whole university, entitled, in making university announcements to use the forinula, " Nos rector et universitas magistrorum et scholarium.”
Quite naturally the faculty of theology had been reluctant to consent to this supremacy, and had succeeded in postponing it thus long. It only came at last through a manifestation of overwhelming odds. The nations and the great faculty of arts were the compelling force, and the Pope himself, seeing the inevitable, in 1358 addressed a bull “ To the rectors and masters of the university."
IV.-GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF TIIE UNIVERSITY FACULTIES.
We have already seen that the several faculties at Paris were near to each other in the time of their inauguration; that while the faculty of arts and the faculty of theology were practically begun at one and the same time, and were for a while all there was of the institution, the others were not slow in following their example; and that in the matter of a complete organization these last were earlier than the faculty of theology, which seems to have been without a dean of its own until the end of the thirteenth century.
But when all were duly organized, the several faculties were similar in their constitution, had ofhcers that were alike in title and function, were under a common general direction, and worked in harmony as one comprehensive institu
The several faculties were also-alike in the constitution of the professorate; having each of them professors and lecturers, and dividing the first-mentioned class into professors “ ordinary and professors “ extraordinary," though inaugurating the latter as giving lectures “ cursory”—whether because outside of the fixed and necessary courses, or because less formal in make-up and delivery, does not appear. In the faculties of law the books used as authorities were also treated as “ ordinary” and “ cursory; in the faculty of canon law, the ordinary being confined to the Decretum of Gratian, while all others were regarded as cursory; or, more correctly speaking, lectures based on other text-books were so designated.
In the other faculties the same books could be made use of in the delivery of lectures both ordinary and cursory; though a distinction was made in the time of delivery, the rule requiring that the ordinary lectures should be given by masters during the morning and on certain days--in the faculty of arts during the earliest hour-and further providing that in summer the ordinary lectures might continue longer than in winter, even until the horn for dinner. Lectures by masters of theology and of canon law were also given in the morning; and the former were expected to choose an hour later than that assigned to the masters in the faculty of arts, in order that these last could attend the theological lectures after the delivery of their own, should they desire.
At first the ordinary lectures were, as a rule, given by masters and doctors, but after a while by bachelors as well; in course of time the teaching in the faculty of theology was almost entirely abandoned " to bachelors; and the lectures were often, quite contrary to the general rule concerning ordinary lectures, given in the afternoon. Except on particular holidays, cursory lectures could be delivered at any time when ordinary lectures were not in progress, whether by a master or a bachelor. Moreover, in vacation, when the ordinary lectures had been discontinued, as usual, cursory lectures, when not contrary to the usage concerning holidays, could be given at any hour of the day.
As relates to place, cursory lectures had the advantage of being deliverable anywhere, whereas ordinary lectures must as a rule be given in the recognized halls of the faculty or nation to which the lecturer or at least the subject belonged.
Originally the little island in the very heart of the city, and on which Notre Dame was built, had been the center of school work; but in course of time, as they multiplied, the schools crossed over the stream and spread themselves over a wide area. At the time now under consideration they were mostly in the Rue du Fouarre, and it will be interesting to take a peep at some of them at the hour of beginning work in the morning. But in order to do this there must be early rising, for, though the dawn has not fully come, the bells of Notre Dame have sounded and the thousands of students from all the countries of Europe have taken warning and are already gathering from river sides and the surrounding heights. The street has been closed to wagons and whatever else would disturb the coming lecturers. The sturdy gatemen are busy opening and closing the great doors for the eager throng, some plainly and some richly clad, with daggers and poniards in view, and all of them with note-book in hand, besides a manuscript copy of the author to be interpreted, if able to buy or borrow one.
Entering the school most conveniently reached, we find the professor already at his rude desk and the thirong of students crowded together on the ground, with note-book and pencil in hand, ready for the first word of the lecture after the morning's thanksgiving. It seems that the lecturer belongs to the faculty of arts, for he wears a black gown reaching down to his heels, and before him
are several text-books, as is common with members of that faculty. The students are on the ground instead of benches or chairs, first, because it is cheaper; secondly, because it is wholesome to keep as near as may be to Mother Earth ; and, lastly, " that they may escape all temptation to pride."
And now the lecture begins, for it is full 6 o'clock, and at 9 the hall will be needed for other lecturers. IIis reading is from one of Aristotle's philosophies, and at the mention of that great master's name every face brightens and every eye kindles with a new light. The reading is slow and with the most distinct utterance, while the pencils are exceedingly active the moment the professor's interpretations and comments begin, that no word may be lost. The tout ensemble is deeply interesting, and if we each had a comfortable seat we should be loath to leave until night. But the hour of 9 has struck and we reluctantly go forth.
1.-FACULTY OF ARTS.
As in most American colleges and so-called universities of to-day, the faculty of arts in the University of Paris was of a mixed character, including so large a proportion of youthful students doing much elementary, as well as those doing secondary or college and university work proper, as we would term it nowadays, that it never attained to a rank beyond the secondary, in the view of those who were connected with the professional departments. And this, notwithstanding its supremacy by reason of greater numbers, and its direct association with the “nations” in matters of general administration.
As relates to the courses of instruction, such a thing as a definite curriculum seems not to have been thought of until some years after the first beginnings of the institution. Each teacher gave himself to instruction in what he assumed to have superior knowledge and drew together pupils as he could, and taught them in his own fashion. But all were careful to present, not their own ideas and results of their own inquiries and original investigations, but simply what some authority had said of the subject. The methods of Irnerius and Abelard involved some originality of powers and a great amount of intellectual labor.
The first step in the matter of a grouping of studies other than that of their division into trivium and quadrivium is credited to the Cardinal-Legate Robert de Courçon. Whether he was an Englishman or not is of small consequence. His plan of studies, examinations, and rewards was a decided innovation upon the time-worn rule of no rule, and entitles him to enduring honors. The revolution which led to real university work came of the intense interest in dialecties aroused by Abelard. As a study prominent in the field of the trivium, it rose at once to a new dignity, and did great service in partially rescuing the learned world from the ancient habit of accepting without examination. Of course none of the old-time studies were omitted. The changes were in the proportion of time accorded to them, respectively. Thus, instruction in the Latin language was limited to grammar, and it was to be taught from the text-books of the Priscians-great favorites at that time. In the field of rhetoric, little or no attention was given to the orators, poets, or historians of old Rome, and philosophy was made to include the several fields of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astrology-in other words, the entire quadrivium, though without specification of the author's recognized besides that vast field which of necessity embraced metaphysics, ethics, and natural philosophy.
Doubtless there were many text-books for some of the branches taught, but in logic and philosophy Aristotle was regarded as so supreme that there seem to have been no scholars bold enough to make even an effort at competition. There were those who offered introductions to his several great works, as well as others who annotated and interpreted them; and there were competitors
in the translation of them, from both the Greek and the Arabic, into the Latin as well as into modern tongues. For example, they had his old work on dialectics (then known as the new logic ") Latinized by Boethius, with portions of the Organon interpreted by Porphyry; the Categories, translated into Latin by Victorinus; annotations of the Categories by Boethius. They also used the Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle, but not his Metaphysic or his Natural Philosophy. Courcon was so far controlled by his conservative theology that he even forbade their use in the following terms: “Let no one read either the Metaphysics or the Natural Philosophy of Aristotle, or the abridgments of those works; nor the writings of David Dinant, the heretic Amauri, or the Spaniard Mauricius.” As a matter of course the rejected works were bound to gain acceptance when better understood and universally desired. Even the bull of Gregory IX, in 1231, excluding his works on natural philosophy “until they shall have been examined and expurgated," could not long hinder their
Consequently his Physics, the use of which had been prohibited under penalty of excommunication up to 1255; they, too, with his de Animalibus and his work on the soul, were officially approved. This made his victory complete. He was now supreme in the world of letters, science, and philosophy, and so remained right through the centuries.
The statute which next followed that of Courçon (1215 A. D.) came in 1254, and gives us more definite information, while at the same time furnishing gratifying evidence of a larger liberality. Besides Aristotle's Logic, prior and posterior, and his Ethics, it expressly names Physica, Metaphysica, de Anima, de Animalibus, de Generatione, de Sensu, de Sensato, de Somno et Vigilia, de Memoria at Reminiscentia, de Morte et Vita, de coelo et Mundo, the spurious Liber de Causis (saying nothing of his Politics, Economics, and Rhetoric, all of which there is good reason to believe were actually taught), and eren the de Plantis, of quite doubtful origin, and another translation from the Arabic known as de Differentia Spiritus et Animæ; while in grammar and rhetoric the Sex Principia of Gilbertus Porretanus, as well as the Divisions and Topics of Boethius, and the Barbarismus of Donatus are added to the works of the two Priscians.
These statutes also fixed the amount of time that could be given to the sereral studies, and were careful to devote a large portion of it to dialectics. In the language of Compayré
Logic manifestly held the first place. To reason well had become the first duty of the studious man. There was no thought of knowing the history of Humanity, still less of observing the phenomena of nature. If rhetoric was occasionally taken up, it was in order to draw from it certain rules of pure form, not to seek insight into the beauties of pure literature. The masterpieces of classic antiquity were unknown. Dialectics had invaded all things; the syllogism was of universal application,
Few changes were made in the studies regularly pursued during the next hundred years. The revision made by Cardinal St. Mare and Montaigne, in 1366, only substituted Alexandre de la Villedieu's Doctrinale Puerorum for I'riscian's grammar, which held its ground to the end of the medieval period.
Rashdall suggests that a considerable number of text-books less important than those above mentioned were also in use, since they are positively known to have been used in German schools during the period we are dealing with, which schools were chiefly planned and conducted after Parisian usage. Accepting this conclusion as justifiable, we may add the de Consolatione Philosophiæ, other of the more popular treatises of Boethius, and various logical text-books prepared by representatives of the different schools of mediæval thought and so composed as to meet the needs of beginners in logic.
As relates to the distribution of studies in the courses prescribed for the Faculty of Arts, and the conditions to be fulfilled by candidates for the baccalaureate, for licentiate honors, and for the mastership, it may be sufficient to say, that during this period (later in the thirteenth and throughout the fourteenth centuries), the candidate for the “ determinance "—that is, for the degree of bachelor of arts, “must have studied," to use the words of Compayré “either in ordinary or extraordinary courses, all of Aristotle's works on logie, Priscian's grammar, Boethius's Divisions and Topics, Donatus's Barbarisms, and the Six Principles of Gilbert de la Porrée.”
The same author, in a more exhaustive treatment of the subject, states that a candidate for the degree of A. B. must have passed a satisfactory examination in "grammar, logic, and psychology," have attended disputations throughout “one grand ordinary”[course), and himself responded in at least two disputations. He also says that, for the licentiate (the license to teach), a candidate was required to satisfy the examining board that, besides all the requisites to the bachelor's degree, he had added natural philosophy. He adds more fully: “ Aspirants to the licentiate's degree must have studied the same books (those requisite to the bachelorship), and, further, must have heard Aristotle's treatises on physics, psychology, and ethics. They must also have attended a hundred lectures on mathematics and astronomy.”
For the degree of master of arts, yet other attainments were necessaryat least a completion of the course in natural philosophy and moral philosophy.
A decision as to the qualifications of a candidate for B. A. was finally reached only after, first, a preliminary test, known as responsion," in which he disputed in both grammar and logic with a master ; and, secondly, after a satisfactory issue of the disputation, an examination entitled the baccalaudorum,” conducted by a board of examiners appointed by each of the nations for its own candidates. The examination was also a double test. There was, first, an examination by questions and demonstrations in the studies scheduled by his masters, as well as a careful inquiry into the faithfulness of his attendance upon the lectures given. If he passed all these he was then admitted to “determine," and could give cursory lectures should an opportunity offer, after taking the oath of obedience to the rector and faculty and to his proctor and nation. The ceremony of admitting the candidate into ranks of the bachelors consisted chiefly of receiving the bachelor's cappa, putting it on, and taking his seat for the first time among his comrades. But there was also a festive demonstration on the day of determination. Great effort was made by the new bachelors and their friends to fill the halls used for the occasion and to secure the attendance of as many dignitaries as possible seizure of passers-by and literal compulsion being sometimes resorted to. The day ended with processions and feasting at the cost of the determiners, who were also expected to pay the master under whom they had more especially studied and determined for the use of his schoolrooms.
For the higher honors analogous tests were required, and like demonstrations (though on a more liberal scale and with something more of dignity) were made in honor of the newly made licentiates and masters; but in their case the honor was that of “inception " instead of “determination."
I should not omit to state that, while control of the university in general was slowly passing from the lands of the chancellor of the cathedral, he still held on to the right of examination for the licentiate. So that only after the determiner had completed some six years of study, had finished all the books prescribed by the faculty, had taken part in a given number of disputations, given a course of " cursory” lectures, and reached the age of 20 could be present himself for the licentiate's examination. This, although at first serious, as con