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in these two phases of the subject than ought to be done. It seems to me that nearly all the time devoted to the subject of so-called “physiology" should be given to hygiene, which necessarily includes the discussion of the effects of alcohol and narcotics. No more physiology and anatomy should be taught than is absolutely necessary to make the instruction in hygiene rational.

The instruction to our teachers in the grades calls for an oral lesson once a week in all grades but the sixth, wliere the subject is studied daily through the year, the recitation period being about twenty minutes. A text-book is used in the sixth grade and in some of the other grades. I do not know that the methods in this subject differ from the methods used in teaching other similar subjects. The experiments suggested by the text-book are presumably made for the benefit of the class, and an effort is made to secure effective work and permanent results. In fact, the subject is treated in essentially the same way as other subjects which are not classed with arithmetic, reading, spelling, geography, and language. We give more time to physiology than we give to civil government in the grades, and about one-third of the time we give to history. Of course due attention is given to the effects of stimulants and narcotics.

As to time: Iu grades I-V, one recitation period a week ; grades VI-IX, about two recitations a week. Generally in the higher grades instruction is not given throughout the year, in which case there is solid work throughout the spring term, a recitation daily.

As to material: How to Keep Well is used in intermediate grades, and Conn's Physiology and Ilygiene in the eighth and ninth grades; we use the Pathfinder series in the fourth and fifth grades; Blaisdell's How to Keep Well in the fifth and sixth grades; Blaisdell's Our Bodies, and How We Live, in the seventh and eighth grades; and Martin's Human Body in the ninth grade and high school.

As to method : Little is done in the primary grades that could be called more than health talks. Most of the instruction is oral up to the sixth grade. Pupils are supplied with books from the fourth or fifth grades up.

The teachers are instructed to give one lesson in temperance physiology each week. These lessons are given by the teacher in the form of talks, except in the ninth grade, where it is made a regular study. The normal teachers have material that they have used in the normal school.

In one town we take up the study of physiology in the ninth grade in a very thorough way. In the other grades we take it up during the winter term, using topics that I assign. These lessons are given by the teacher. We have tried using a book, but I think it is the unanimous opinion of the teachers that they can get better results by taking topics in the form of talks. We employ none but normal or college graduates in this town, the largest in my district, and all these have material that they are familiar with and can present in a more interesting way than they could from a text-book.

We give the equivalent of one period each week in each grade to this subject. It is not always the case that it is taken by weekly periods; it sometimes seems better to give it consecutively, allowing it to take the place of some other subject for the time being. I find that the teachers vary in their ability to keep the interest of the pupils if several days pass between the successive periods of study in this subject.

This work is supplemented by the teacher according to her spirit and enthusiasm. The work indicated is the minimum. The results vary in different schools, and under various conditions in the same schools.

The materials for illustrating the subject are very limited in addition to the text-books. We use the New Century physiologies, and find them well adapted to our needs.,

Grades I to Il'.-One lesson a week. General lessons on the care and cleanliness of the hands, face, hair, and body. Lessons on eating, drinking, breathing, and sleeping, with reference to the formation of right habits and self-control. Simple talks on the senses, and what we learn through them. Pauts of the body, their uses and care. Special lessons on the care of the teeth and nails. Teach temperance in all things." Temperance implies self-control, obedience to the law, to right feeling, and right living.

In the schools of this district physiology is taught incidentally in grades up to and including the fifth. The instruction is a long the lines of personal cleanliness, decency, and morality. In grades VI, VII, and VIII we use Colton's Ele

mentary Physiology as the basis of our work, and complete it the three years.

Directions are sent to teachers, suggesting materials and methods.

Teachers are expected to give lessons weekly to all grades, the time varying from fifteen minutes to thirty.

We give two periods a week to the study in all grades above the first or second, depending upon the classes. No books are used below the fourth grade.

We put special stress upon such things as teach care of the body, cleanliness, temperance in eating, drinking, thinking, speaking, doing.

In all grades excepting the very lowest time is given to a consideration of the effects of narcotics and stimulants.

Our teachers take hold of the work with interest and common sense methods.

Some teachers are interested in the subject and get good results; others do not like to teach it.

The general tendency seems to be toward oral instruction and the use of some reading matter treating of hygiene and temperance in the lower grades, with considerable use of books in the upper grades. The time element varies in different schools and with different teachers. The opinion is held that too much or too little time may be given to the topic to secure the best results. Interest must be maintained. The salient points of temperance instruction should be emphasized in some way during each year of school life, that they may make a lasting impression for good.

Superintendents and teachers generally manifest an interest in temperance instruction. Not all think alike regarding a method, and a few seem to lack confidence in the educational value of the instruction or are in doubt regarding the best method. Good has evidently been accomplished.

CHAPTER VIII.

NOTICES OF SOME EARLY ENGLISH WRITERS ON

EDUCATION, 1578-1603.

WITH DESCRIPTIONS, EXTRACTS, AND NOTES.

By PROF. FOSTER Watson,
Of University College, Aberystwyth, Wales.

CONTENTS. [NOTE.—The date given to the left of the title is the date of the earliest edition of

the work.] John Stockwood :

Page. 1578. Sermon on religious instruction.

634 1390. Accidence

637 1589. Bartholomew Fairing

638 Other works.

639 John Lyly : 1379. Euphues, The Anatomy of Wit--

639 Anonymous : 1579. Civil and I'ncivil Life.

643 Christopher Ocland : 1580. Anglorum Prælia

643 Richard Mulcaster : 1581. Positions.

047 1582. First Part of the Elementarie.

654

BOOKS OX THE RELATION OF CHILDREN AND ADI'LTS.

1581. B. Batty: The Christian Man's Closet. Wm. Lowth, translator.--

Other books on parents and children.
1590. Newnam's Nighterowe -
1599. James 1 : Baolixov Aupov-
1612. Martyn's Youths' Instruction.
1614. P. Ayrault: A Discourse for Parents.
1614. Dod's Bathsheba's Instructions,
1617. Lord Burleigh's Precepts.-
1620. Patrick Scot: A Father's Advice
1621. Mrs. Dorothy Leigh : The Mother's Blessing-
1624. Mrs. Jocelin : The Mother's Legacie---
1638. J. Seudamore (translator): Emperor Basil.
1632. Sir Walter Raleigh's Instructions to His Son
16:33. Cardinal Sermonetta's Instructions to Young Gentlemen.

1651. H. Delaune: Ilatpekov Awpov William Bullokar :

1580. Book at Large, for the Amendment of Orthographie. A. J. Ellis's authorities on early English pronunciation Early books on the teaching of English--

660 001 662 662 063 664 664 664 603 665 666 666 667 067 667

667 668

670

a Notices of English writers on education, preceding in point of time those here treated, have appearded in previous Reports of the Commissioner as follows : Report of 1901, Vol. I, chap. 17 (pp. 861-884); Report of 1902, Vol. I, chap. 10 (pp. 481-508) ; Report of 1903, Vol. I, chap. 6 (pp. 319-350).

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W. S., Gentleman :

1581. Examination of Complaints--Abraham Fleming :

1581. Footpath to Felicitie. W. Averell :

1584. Dyall for Dainty Darlings. Adrianus Junius (c. 1512-1575) :

1585. Nomenclator-----Angel Day :

1586. The English SecretarieWilliam Kemp (fl. 1590) :

1588. Education of Children.Louis Leroy (translator, R. Ashley) :

1594. The Interchangeable CourseJohn Huarte (translator, Richard Carew) :

1594. Examination of Men's Wits. J. B. Nenna (translator, William Jones) :

1.5.3. Nennio, Or a Treatise of Nobility-Edmund Coote (1). 1597):

1596. The Englishe Scholemaister. Nicholas Ling:

1597. l'oliteuphuia. Wits' Commonwealth. Richard de Bury :

1598. Philobiblon (written in Latin, 1314) Count Hanniball Romei (translator, J. Keper) :

1598. The Courtiers Academie Robert Cawdray :

1600. Treasurie or Storehouse of Similies. John Daye :

c. 1600. Peregrinatio Scholastica Samuel Daniel :

1602-3. Musophilus, or Defence of all LearningMichael de Montaigne (translator, John Florio): 1603. Essayes

Other works of John Florio Works for instruction in Italian.

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JOHN STOCKWOOD, 1578.

A Sermon Preached at Paules ('rosse on Barthelmcı Day, being the 24 of August 1578, Wherein, besides many other profitable matters meet for all Christians to follow, is at large prooved, that it is the part of those that are fathers, householders, and Scholemaisters, to instruct all those under their government, in the crord and knowledge of the Lorde. By John Stockuood, Scholemaister of Tunbridge

Lond. 1578. 12mo. From the dedication to the Worshipful Company of Skinners in London the following passage is taken:

Now concerning my purpose of offering this my simple labour and trarail such as it is, unto your worships' favourable acceptation, there may be many causes and reasons moving me thereunto, but chiefly that this way I might leave unto the world a testimony of a dutiful and thankful mind for your Free School of Tunbridge, honourably founded by that worthy Knight Sir Andrew Judd, somtime Lord Mayor of your famous City of London, and worshipfully and liberally to your great costs and charges maintained against the bad attempts of those that went about to have made it their own private possession, which fact of him, the honourable founder and you the worthy maintainers and defenders, I trust the L. will use as good examples, to move others to do the like, for the training up of youth in the fear of God. Schoolmasters and religious teaching.

But because I am thus far entered into this large and fruitful field of children's education and household government, of fathers and householders generally neglected, whilst where they should daily and continually teach their chil

*

dren and families out of the word of the Lord to fear him, many of them daily and nightly are occupied in Dicing, Carding and Gaming, and yet must needs be counted Protestants. Give me leave, I beseech you a little to direct my speech unto those, whom in respect of their office it chiefly concerneth, to bring up youth, I mean schoolmasters. For among all the diseases that these our days and times are grievously sick withal, there is none wherewith they are either more generally or more dangerously infected, than with this, that the most part of schoolmasters, like as fathers and householders, think it no part of their duty to meddle with instructing their scholars and pupils in the word of the Lord and principles of Christian religion. A ring of gold in a suinc's snout.

Whereas without the fear of the Lord, there is no wisdom, neither is it possible for youth to go well forward in virtue and good manners, things as necessary as learning, which, without these, is but a ring of gold in a swine's snout, if they be not trained up in the knowledge of the word.

Ilearken, hearken all you that be Schoolmasters, there is no other means to have your youth to profit in virtue and godliness, but by taking heed to the word of the Lord. Youths to be godly as well as learned.

And what parent is he that setteth his son to school, but that he would have him as well godly as learned? as well a virtuous child as a toward scholar? as well instructed unto salvation as furthered in profane learning? For if there be any that have other ends in putting their children to school, these being contemned, your schools were better to be without them, than cumbered with them. From whence come the general complaints of the ungraciousness and unhappiness of scholars but from this, that you never teach them their duties out of the book of the Lord ? Methods of orcr-much gentleness and over-much flogging.

Some of you think over-much gentleness to be the way, and others continual and tyrannical scourging and whipping to be the way, whereas indeed you are both sorts far and wide out of the way. For the one with too much lenity encourageth them to a lewd licentiousness and looseness of manners: the others thinking by cruel and butcherly beating to win reformation, engender in them such a mislike and loathing of learning that they abhor with as deadly hatred the school-house, as we do those things which are most loathsome and noisome unto us. I like well of gentleness, if it be such as by it manners be not corrupted and spilled, and on the other side I allow of reasonable correction, so as it be used as the last remedy, that is, when no other will serve. But the first, the best and the chiefest way, is to begin with teaching your youth the fear of the Lord. For that is, as Solomon saith, the beginning of wisdom. Children and religion.

But you fear peradventure that it should be to little profit to speak unto children, of religion. I hear you, and think of that you say, as a cloak to hide your fault and cover for your slothfulness, rather than a true cause to stay this duty. He that hath said, Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not, for unto such belongeth the kingdom of heaven, will no doubt bless your labours, taken in hand in his fear. Begin therefore at length and try : you shall I warrant you, to your comfort, see your youtlı profit in virtue and godliness. Religion and the profane authors.

I would have you that, setting aside all care of religion in your schools, do make it your only profession to read them profane authors, show me the example but of one person, whom, either Tully his Offices, or Aristotle his Ethics, or Plato his Precepts of Manners, ever yet made a godly and a virtuous Ihan. I am not against the teaching of profane writers: I know they have their

But I utterly mislike your preposterous, backward, and earthward care in labouring chiefly about these, omitting that which should be foremost, namely instruction out of the word. Take heed that in respect ye worthily run not into the reprehension that our saviour Christ usetli towards the Scribes and Pharisees, for touching mint and annis and cummin, and leaving the weighty matters of the law, as judgment, merry and fidelity: that is, for taking much pains about trifles, and dealing slenderly and slightly in matters of great importance. Let the name of God and of his Christ be heard often in your schools: let it be familiar unto your scholars by continual beating it into their heads.

use.

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