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clusions, for their beginning. Amongst these, is Astrologie, considering bodies, and motions celestial, the like also naturall knowledge doing, but in a diverse manner: then prospective, which intreateth of visible line, Steremetrie, being employed touching solide bodies; and musicke, respecting number harmonicall, with other such like: And there be al the sciences and habites, wherewith intellect speculative is adorned, in investigating, and finding out of truth. Practieke habite, is no other, but the knowledge of all those thinges, whereof man is the beginning: and they be divided into two heades, active, and doing, part active, is a firme understanding of those thinges, which appertaine to the good government of himself, his house and finally of the common weale. The doing or performing habite, is that knowledge, which is called arte: this being divided into those mechanicall, and liberall. But leaving apart mechanicall art, as impertinent to a civil man, we wil affirme, that amongst liberall artes, Grammer is numbred, Rhethorike, Dialect, Poesie, Musicke, both of voice and instrument, painting, Architecture, and the art of Phisicke, and amiddest all these, we wil allot the principallest place to art millitarie, as of al other the most excellent, which by the Philosopher was placed in the number of artes, it having belonging unto it, all those conditions, which in an art are required, that is materiall subject, end, and the instrument, which to the end conduceth, neither wanting there also firm beginnings and principles wherewith every day, great souldiers serve their turn: materiall subject is battel, victorie the end, and armes the molument. There are all the perfections (most famous Queene) which may bring a man to his end, beeing felicitie: of which no doubt, those are the most excellent and worthy of greatest honor, that more readily may make a man happy.

ROBERT CAWDRAY. 1600.

A Treasurie or Storchouse of Similies: Both pleasant and profitable, for all estates of men in generall. Noicly collected into Heads and commonplaces: By Robert Caudray. London, Printed by Tho. Creede, duelling in the Old Chaunge, at the Signe of the Eagle and Childe, ncar Old Fish

strccte. 1600. 4to. Education of children.

Like as fruitful fields for lack of tillage wax barren: Or as trees being neglected either bring forth no fruit, or else the same unsavoury, without the diligence of graffing and pruning: Or as dogs be unmeet to hunt the horse, and oxen unapt to the plough, except man's diligence be put thereto: Even so children would become wild and unprofitable, except by diligence and in due time, they should be fashioned and brought in order by good bringing up. Horse kecpers and teachers.

Like as noblemen and gentlemen are desirous to bave a good and skilful horsekeeper, that can keep their horses well and they spare not to give great stipends to such: Even so how much more ought Christian parents to be desirous to have and maintain a good schoolmaster that might godlily bring up their children in virtue and wisdom. Military training and education.

As Alexander the Great attained to have such a puissant army, whereby he conquered the world, by having children born and bred up in his camp, whereby they became so well acquainted and exercised with weapons from their swaddling clothes, that they looked for no other wealth or country but to fight: Even so if thou wouldst have thy children either to do great matters, or to live honestly by their own virtuous endeavours, and not to gape unjustly for other men's goods, but to be content with the blessing of God upon their labours, thou must acquaint them with painis-taking in their youth and so bring them up in the nurture and information of the Lord.

There are thirteen other similes on the subject of the education of children. The schoolmaster.

As it is the part of a good husband, to understand the nature and fertility of the ground, which he doth till: So it is the part of a good Schoolmaster, to discern the disposition and nature of his scholar.

The scholar.

As a drop of water falling from the house-eares, weareth and holloweth the hard stone; not by force, but by his [its) often falling; Even so a Scholar proveth learned, not by power or strength, but by much diligence, and great reading.

As Appelles became an excellent painter, because there was never a day, but he laboured himself to some learning : So in like manner, a Diligent Scholar, by daily applying of his learning, and often exercising of virtue, attaineth to perfect honour and virtue.

There are five other similes on the subject of the scholar.

JOHN DAYE. c. 1600.

Peregrinatio Scholastica or Learneinges Pillgrimage. Containeinge the straundge Adventurs and various entertainements he founde in his traveiles toucards the shrine of Latria. Meliora speramus: Composde and divided and derided into morall Tractates By John Daye Sometimes student of

Gun vill and Caius Colledge in Cambridge. This work was published privately at the Chiswick Press, 1881, by Mr. A. H. Bullen, from a MS. in the British Museum, numbered Sloane MS. 3150, a small 4to of 32 leaves, date unknown. In his introduction Mr. Bullen says: " Day seems to have possessed in no ordinary degree the rare art of disengaging the mind from painful associations and bathing it in a stream of pleasurable feelings. In the winter of his age, battered and broken by neglect, Ben Jonson put forth the sweetest flower of his invention. Something of the graceful fluency and arch fancy that inform the Sad Shepherd may be found here and there in Day's tract." The date of his death is unknown. He wrote as early as 1593 and as late as about 1620.

The discourse is divided into 20 Tractates. From Tractate 14 onwards is a sort of Pilgrim's Progress for learning under the name of Philosophus. The following are the titles: Tractate 14. Learning about to see his infirmity is dissuaded hy Error in the borrowed

habit of Alethe. Tractate 15. By following Error, Learning is cast upon the island Necessitas : what

he saw there ; how narrowly scapt the rock of despair ; came acquainted with

Industry, who brought him out of the island and wished him to seek a service. Tractate 16. Learning's coming to Superbia's Court and Averitia's City; of the enter

tainment he found in both. Tractate 17. Learning goes to a suburb Justice and a country Vicar; his entertainment

and what it was. Tractate 18. Learning, notwithstanding the help of Industry, comes to Beggar's Bush;

the country described and the inhabitants; where whilst he took a nap, he had a

vision. Tractate 19. Learning meets Experience at Weeping Cross, who in a fountain, showed

him many strange marvels: by his advice he sends Industry in search of Chronos

and Alethe, and gives him the true solution of his dream. Tractate 20. Industry's quest of inquiry for Time : where he missed and at last found

him: Truth enlarged, Experience shows him the right way to Latria's shrine ;

et hic Peregrinationis Finis. The scholar in the city.

At the name of scholar, they stopped their noises and cried Lord have mercy upon us! that a scholar should have no more wit but to think he would find entertainment in the City

Being a scholar, and a poor one too, they had no use for him except it were once in a coronation to make a speech for the entertainment of a prince, a pageant at the instalment of a praetor, it set oration for the constable, to give the sleepy watch their charge, or an apology for the churchwarden to excuse the picking of the poor man's box; and for those employments none so fit as the common chronicler.

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Il is experience in the country.

Philosophus next tries the country. Coming to a house, he ventures to approach the owner, who happens to be a justice of the peace. With difficulty he escapes being arrested as a vagrant. He then calls on the vicar. The following is the racy sketch of the vicar:

Sir, you are very welcome (he says), and could my poor living afford it, I would make you better welcome. I love and honour scholars having served a full 'prenticeship to the trade myself ; but as my honest neighbours here know, I have but a poor vicarage, which one Mr. Simon-Money, or more familiarly Simony, helped me to

And though I have no great store of Learning. lying by me (for as you know, omnia mca mecâ porto is the old word amongst scholars), yet I have enough to read a marriage and burial, and if need be, to say a homily of a holiday

My honest parishioners are a company of turbulent mechanics, and yet so proud in their own conceit, I have much ado to please them; for but for reading one Latin word in an homily (and that was out afore I was aware to), some of them called me a papist and shun me as a puritan would do a cross, and never drunk above twice or thrice in my company since. And therefore having neither occasion to use learning nor means to maintain it if I had it, heares the tother half can and so I take my leave of you.

In the twentieth Tractate, Industry, are the places where he sought time. How time is used at the universities.

I found Time of much respect there. It was against a commencement, and there was such scrambling for Time as passed thought; one ready to proceed bachelor, was put back because he wanted Time; another to go out Master and he wanted Time; and many a good scholar that had learning enough was stayed for want of a little time, and some dunces that had too much time, though little or no learning, went out. There was much tugging for Time, he thought he should have been torn apieces amongst the seniors, and therefore stole out of their company to a sort of freshmen that had great need of Time indeed : who, for joy they had got him amongst them, sent for good cheer and wine to make merry with Time; when falling awhitfing tobacco and drinking healths, they made Time sick. Whereupon they enticed him out to take the air; and being hot some went to swim at freshman's boat, some at Paradise, and some in Barnwell Pool, some to Cherry Hinton; some to Hogmagog bills, but a great sort to Batts Folly: when Time seeing himself so much neglected, he in a pelting chaise left them.

SAMUEL DANIEL. 1002-3.

Musophilus, or Defence of all Lcarning. 1602-3? Samuel Daniel was born in 1562 and died in 1619. His father and a brother were music masters. Though perhaps Daniel had nothing new to offer as to teaching or learning, his enthusiastic and eloquent words worthily proclaim the old love of learning and deserve to be recalled. As a teacher Daniel can not be spoken of very highly. His work of tuition, says Mr. Sidney Lee, was “irksome to him. Ir. Lee quotes a letter written to Sir Thomas Egerton in 1601, in which Daniel says: “ Whilst I should have written the actions of men I have been constrayned to bide with children, and contrary to mine own spirit, put out of that sense which nature had made my part." Yet his pupil, the Lady Anne Clifford, seems to have been a girl of great intelligence and very interesting. The blessing of letters.

O blessed Letters, that combine in one,

All ages past, and make one live with all :
By you, we do confer with who are gone,
And the dead-living unto council call :
By you th' inkhorn shall have communion

Of what we feel, and what doth us befall.
Soul of the world, Knowledge, without thee,

What hath the world that truly glorious is?

The blindness of the age.

How many thousands never heard the name

Of Sidney, or of Spenser, or their books?
And yet brave fellows, and presume of Fame,
And seem to bear down all the world with looks?
What then shall they expect of meaner frame,

On whose endeavours few or none scarce looks?
Do you not see these Pamphlets, Libels, Rimes,

These strange confused tumults of the mind,
Are grown to be the sickness of these times,

The great disease inflicted on mankind?
The infinitude of knowledge.

Daniel suggests that if the learned obtained a better reward for their labors :

Then would they (the Academies) onely labour to extend

Their now unsearching spirit beyond these bounds

Of others' powers
Discoursing daily more and more about,

In that immense and bonndless Ocean a
Of Nature's riches; never yet found out,

Nor fore-clos'd, with the wit of any man.
In praise of the English language.

Whenas our accents equal to the best,

Is able greater wonders to bring forth:
When all that ever hotter spirits exprest,
Comes bettered by the patience of the North.
And who, in time, knows whither we may vent

The treasure of our tongue, to what strange shores
This gain of our best glory shall be sent,

T' inrich unknowing Nations with our stores?
What worlds in th' yet unformed Occident
May come refin'd with the accents that are ours?
Or, who can tell for what great work in hand

The greatness of our style is now ordain'd?
What powers it shall bring in, what spirits command,

What thoughts let out, what humours keep restrain'd,
What mischief it may powerfully withstand,

And what fair ends may thereby be attain'd. It may appear to be straying from the subject of writers on education to include especially this last quotation from Samuel Daniel, but to anyone studying the history of English education the direct call to the consideration and study of English writers, especially in the earlier stages, is a point of great importance; first, directly in itself, and, secondly, indirectly in the competitive position of the vernacular toward the displacement of the classics as the be-all and end-all of the subjects of educational discipline. The direct reference to the "unformed Occident," and the importance of the preservation of the integrity of English and honor for it, because of its indefinitely greater influence there, makes the passage one which should be better known than it is in both England and America.

MICHAEL DE MONTAIGNE (JOHN FLORIO, Translator). 1603.

The Essayes or Morall, Politike, and Millitarie Discourses of Lo: Jichaell de Montaigne, Knight. Of the noble Order of St. Michaell, and one of

a Cf. Sir Isaac Newton : "I seem to have been only a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."

the Gentlemen in Ordinary of the French King, Henry the third his Chamber. First written by him in French. And now done into English by

John Florio. Lond. 1603. folio.
Other editions :
London, 1013.

fol.
London, 1632. fol.
London, 1886 (1885). 8vo. G. Routledge & Sons. Edited by Henry Morley.
London, 1889, 1890. 32mo. The Stott Library.
London, 1891. 8vo. Sir John Lubbock's Ilundred Books.
London, 1892-1893. Svo. Edited by George Saintsbury in "The Tudor

Translations." London, 1897. Svo. The Temple Classics. In the International Education Series, volume 46, Dr. L. E. Rector has put together the chapters in Montaigne which deal with education. These include translations:

of the education of children, Book I, Chapter XXV.
Of pedantry, Book I, Chapter XXIV.
of the affection of fathers to their children, Book II, Chapter VIII.
Of liars, Book I, Chapter IX. Book II, Chapter XVIII.
Of habit, Book I, Chapter XXII.
Of presumption, Book II, Chapter XVII.
of physiognomy, Book III, Chapter VIII.
Of anger, Book II, Chapter XXXI.
of the art of conversation, Book III, Chapter VIII.
Of idleness, Book I, Chapter VIII.
Of experience, Book III, Chapter XII.
History, Book II, Chapter X; Boek I, Chapter XVI; Book I, Chapter XX.

Dr. W. T. Ilarris says in the preface: “Montaigne stands for very much more as a literary man than as an educational reformer.” And again, Nontaigne is a tonic or a sort of corrective against pedantry."

The first French edition of Montaigne's Essays was published 1580-1588, John Florio's translation into English: in 1603.

See also Prof. S. G. Laurie's Montaigne as an Educationalist, in his Training of Teachers and other Educational Papers, page 231.

OTHER WORKS OF JOHN FLORIO.

A Worlde of Wordes; a most copious and cract Dictionaric in Italian and English, Collected by John Florio. Lond. 1598. And in 1611 the 2d edition, entitled : “Queen Anna's New World of Words." The 3d edition was revised by Giovanni Torriano and published in 1659 as Vocabolario Italiano Inglese. Florio published also books of Proverbs :

First Fruites, which yeelde familiar speech, merie proverbes, uittie sentences, and golden sayings, also a perfect Introduction to the Italian and English tongues. T. Daucson, London, 1578. 4to.

Sccond frutes to be gathered of twelve Trees of divers but delight some tastes to the tongues of Italian and Englishmen. To which is annered his Garuline of Recreation, yeelding sir thousand Italian Proverbs. Ital, and Eng. Printed for T. Woodcock, London, 1591. 4to.

WORKS FOR INSTRUCTION IN ITALIAN.

The following are amongst the books up to 1660 for instruction in Italian. Thomas (William).

Principal Rules of the Italian Grammar, with a Dictionarie for the better under. standynge of Boccace, Petrarcha and Dante

Neicly corrected and im. printed.--B. L. 2 pts. T. Powell, London 1562, 1567. 4to. First ed. 1050.

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