« AnteriorContinuar »
ber to April. It naturally occurred to the authorities to fix on the summer for women's classes. A beginning was made at the people's high school at Hvilan in 1873, and the plan has since been more and more generally adopted. As a rule, these courses are directed by the manager of the men's school and his wife, with the assistance of the necessary number of the other teachers and of specially appointed female teachers.
The total number of female scholars in 1900 was 614. The age is generally between 18 and 20. Instruction is given in the Swedish language, history, geography, natural science, hygiene, and domestic economy, arithmetic, bookkeeping, writing, singing, and several kinds of needlework and weaving.
Workmen's institutes, located in the towns, offer to the working classes there popular lectures and opportunities for instructive reading. The first institute of the kind was established in 1880, in Stockholm by A. Nyström, M. D. The lectures at it have chiefly pertained to history and natural science. After the pattern of the Stockholm institute, others of the same kind have been organized in several other towns.
Lecture courses.-Of late years an important and steadily increasing activity has been exercised in Sweden by a great number of lecture associations of various kinds. The work has in some cases been entered upon by societies founded for other purposes, as workingmen's associations, trade unions, temperance societies, et cet.; but generally special associations have been founded for the purpose of arranging popular scientific lectures. In a marked degree this movement has of late years been promoted by the establishing of central offices procuring lecturers; by means of these offices a considerable unity and a better organization have been brought into the work. The oldest of these central offices is the one for southern Sweden at Lund (since 1898), from which in the year 1902 more than 900 lectures were ordered to be delivered by about 50 different lecturers at 75 places.
The costs for these lectures were at first defrayed by the fees of the society members and by subventions from the respective communities and county councils, but nowadays to a considerable degree also by State grants. For 1902 the Government thus disbursed a total of $17,000 to 123 different lecture institutions, but as petitions for subvention were sent in by no less than 56 other recent associations, which, however, had to be refused for want of sufficient disposable means, the Government presented a proposal to the Riksdag to increase the annual supply to $27,000, which also was granted. For State subventions to be granted it is enjoined that the respective associations provide as large an amount as the State, and that political and religious controversies or debates be excluded from the lectures. The interest in these lectures has been constantly increasing, but of course it is as yet manifesting itself very differently in different parts. In the thinly populated country districts there are many difficulties to be overcome.
Summer courses at the universities. After the model of the English "university extension” movement, there has annually, since 1893, during the latter half of August, been given a course of lectures of a fortnight's duration at Upsala and Lund alternately, for people who are not able to profit regularly by academical instruction. The number of partakers has in Upsala averaged nearly 400, of whom about two-thirds were male and female common school teachers.
2. SECONDARY EDICATIOx.
Under this head come the public schools for boys supported by the State, as well as the private schools of the same standing, and also the higher schools for girls, which in range of instruction closely approach the former.
PU'BLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR BOYS.
Aim and number of the public secondary schools for boys.- According to the public school act of November 1, 1878, still in force, it is the object of the secondary schools to give a civic education beyond that imparted by the common schools, and also to impart that scientific knowledge which is to be further developed at the university or the higher special schools.
During the school year 1902–3 the entire number of public secondary schools as supported by the State amounted to 82. Those containing nine classes are called higher or complete secondary schools; those containing five or three classes, lower secondary schools, and those containing less than three classes, pedagogies.
During the school year 1900–1901, 36 schools had nine classes, 1 six elasses, 38 five classes, 1 four classes, 2 three classes, and 1 two classes.
Of the 36 schools, 25 have both the lines, classical and modern, complete; 7 only the classical line (3 having a modern line in the sixth class), and 4 only the modern line. All, with four exceptions, have both lines in the fourth and fifth classes.
The number of students in a section of the five lower classes must not exceed 40. But as parallel sections often occur in the same class, there are higher schools with 600 or 700 students, and lower schools with 300 or 400.
All the public secondary schools are located in towns and cities.
Administration.--The public secondary schools, like most of the educational institutions of the country, come under the ecclesiastical department. Within each diocese the bishop is the superintendent (eforus) of its public schools; for schools not located in the cathedral city he appoints as his representative an inspector.
At the head of every public school there is a principal (rector), who is appointed by the Government from among the applicants for a definite term of years-usually five. Besides his duties as head of the school the principal has a certain amount of teaching to do and is responsible for the school finances.
The principal is assisted in the performance of his duties by the faculty (lärarekollegiet), consisting of the teachers of the school, presided over by the eforus" or inspector, if he is present, otherwise by the principal. The faculty determines upon questions of teaching, school discipline, finances, etc.
Instruction.--The school year begins at the close of August and extends over 36 weeks, with a week of Easter and half a week of Whitsuntide vacation. The actual number of school weeks is thus 311. Hence the school year is in Sweden considerably shorter than in most other European countries. Thus it is in Denmark 43, in Prussia and lustria 42, in France 41, and in Norway 381 weeks.
A complete school course is calculated for nine years of work, distributed over seven classes, of which the two highest (VI and VII) cover each two years. The first class is the lowest. The four highest classes are called, respectively, the lower sixth (VI:1), the upper sixth (VI: 2), the lower seventh (VII: 1), and the upper seventh (VII: 2).
TABLE 4.-Time schedule for the public secondary schools."
a Roman numbers denote classes, Ca - classical line A (with Greek); Cb-classical line B (without Greek): M=modern line (the classical and modern lines do not diverge till in the fourth class; and the division of the classical line takes place in Class VI: 1).
b Special hours are given to geography in Classes I-IV, resp. 2, 2, 3, 1, and 1.
In Classes I-III all the students have the same courses. With Class IV the school branches into two lines: The classical line (Latinlinien) with Latin, and the modern line ( Reallinien) without that language. In Classes IV and V, however, the difference in the curriculum of the two lines only touches a few subjects, inasmuch as the seven hours Latin and the one hour drawing on the classical line correspond to six hours English and two hours drawing on the other; the courses in history are, more. over, somewhat different, so that the two lines can not be taught together in that subject. In Class VI: 1 greater differences appear in the two curricula, and at the same time the classical line is subdivided into two sections-Section A, with Greek, and Section B, without Greek.
The teaching extenils over five to six hours daily. Instruction in singing, drilling and gymnastics, military drill (obligatory), and also instruction in English (voluntary) for students in the A section of the two highest classes, and in drawing and instrumental music for boys who desire to learn them, takes place at times outside the regular curriculuin, often in the afternoons. Instruction in singing, obligatory to all students with ear and taste for music, in the lower five classes, but optional in the higher classes, must not occupy over two hours a week. Gymnastics is taught in all classes half an hour every day, or, if this is not feasible, at least in such a way that not less than three hours of instruction in the week is given to every division in gymnastics. Sometimes pedagogical gymnastics are replaced by running games conducted under the teacher's supervision and guidance, preferably in the open air. Military drill, replacing gymnastics, for the boys in Classes VI and VII, extends over five weeks at most at the beginning of the autumn term, for altogether sixty hours; during this period the principal may arrange with the teachers for a diminution in
the number of school hours for those classes to the extent of from seven to twelve hours a week.
In later years obligatory vacation tasks have been assigned to the students during summer vacations. The subject and extent of these tasks, which are the same for all pupils in the same class, are determined upon by the principal toward the close of the spring term.
New pupils are only entered at the beginning of a term. All who apply for entrance must be at least 9 years of age, and they must all pass a special examination, unless they only change schools, and present satisfactory certificates. The requirements for entrance into the first (i. e., lowest) class have been established by
a l'nder date of December 22, 1904, Mr. Lagerstedt has communicated to this Ofice the following particulars relating to the proposed reform oi secondary education in Sweden:
The secondary schools of Sweden are the direct continuation of the monastery, cathedral, and town schools, which were already in existence in the earlier part of the middle ages. The development of these schools since then naturally includes a long series of reforms and changes, each one more or less reflecting the time in which it occurred. In the month of May in this year (1901) the Swedish Rigsdug made a decision to carry through a reform, which probably is one of the most inportant ever effected with regard to the secondary schools of Sweden. The chief features of this reform are as follows:
At present the complete secondary schools have a continuous course of nine years, following upon a course of three years in the common schools. Hereafter the complete secondary schools will consist of a lower modern school or six years, and of a higher “gymnasium” of four years. The "gymnasiun,” however, is not a direct continuation of the modern school, but continues from its fifth class, which makes the complete course of the individual pupils extend also hereafter over a period of nine years.
Outside of the complete schools, consisting of both modern school and "gymnasium," in the larger cities, it is the intention to establish in a number of smaller cities only modern schools of six years.
The modern school course, as well as that of the present secondary schools, is a coniinuation of previous common school course of three years. Pupils who have gone through the modern school undergo a final examination, which, is duly passed, is to entitle them to certain privileges, for instance (as it will in all probability be orderen), that they be received as apprentices in the telegraph or postal service department, etc.
At some places the modem schools may be arranged on the plan of coeducation of boys and girls. This is a very important innovation, being the first instance of the Government in Sweden establishing coeducational schools ior the secondary education. The common schools have always been coeducational. This decision was preceded by a very careful investigation and gathering of information regarding coeducational schools, the experiment that had been made in that direction, their effect on the pupils, etc. Such information was gathered from the United States, as well as other countries.
The four year “gymnasiums," as proposed, are of two different kinds, namely, “ Latin gymnasiums. and modern gymnasiums," and are concluded by an entrance examination to the university. This examination is, in the main, the same as at present, and gives the same privileges, including entrance to the university, etc. In the Latin gymnasium opportunity is presented for those who so desire to study Greck. A very important change for the gymnasiums is that the students during their last two years are allowed a certain liberty in choosing their subjects of instruction. They may be entirely relieved from pursuing one or two subjects in order to enable them to study other subjects more thoroughly.
One of the most important features of the new reform, perhaps the most important of them all, is the curtailing of the study of the classical languages in the secondary schools. Hereafter Latin will be studied only during the last four years previous to the entrance examination to the university, and the Greek language ouly during the last two years. At present the Latin language is studied during six years and the Greek during four years. The commencement of Latin is consequently postponed for iwo years. It is now about thirty years since the study of Latin, on the initiative oi Gunnar Wennerberg, the poet and composer, at that time cabinet minister and chief of the ecclesiastic department (education department), was reduced from 8 years to 6. The classical languages in our country, as well as in other countries, are consequently being ever more and more forced backward from their dominating position. Their retrogression is also manifested by the smaller number of pupils that apply themselves to the study of them. In the Swedish school exhibit in St. Louis there were some graphic tharts exhibited, showing this very clearly. It might be seen from these, for instance, that while during the year 1875, 85 per cent of all pupils in the sixth and seventh classes (the last four years) studied Latin, and only 15 per cent belonged to the modern line, this condition gradually changed, so that in 1901-1903 only 47 percent studied Latin, while 53 per cent belonged to the modern line. In 1871, 50 per cent of all the pupils in the above-mentioned classes studied both Latin and Greek, while in 1901-1903 only 15 per cent of all the pupils studied the two languages.
An important measure decided upon in connection with the new reform is the institution of a superior board for the secondary schools of the country, consisting of five members, to which board affairs hitherto manageal immediately by the ministry of education or by the chapters of the dioeeses are going to be handed over.
In conclusion may be mentioned the names of two men who were most instrumental in establishing the reform, the main features of which have just been given. They are Mr. Carl von Friesen, at present cabinet minister and chief of the ecclesiastic department (the education department), and Prof. Ernst Carlsen. The former was, before becoming minister, principal of a higher public secondary school in Stockholm und vice-chairman of the committee appointed by the Government, whose suggestions are the foundation of the reform now adopted. The latter was professor of a higher secondary school in Gothenburg. It was on his motion that the Rigsdag of 1899 made the decision which is the foundation of the present reform. He also was a member of the above-mentioned committee. A short time ago he was appointed by the Government chairman of the first superior board for the secondary schools of Sweden.
law, and were modified to some extent (1894) in order to make it easier to pass from the common schools to the public secondary schools.
At the close of every spring term a general promotion to higher classes takes place throughout the school. All students considered worthy of it are moved up without special examination to the next class. The others may, if they wish, present themselves for examination at the beginning of the autumn term, being then moved up if that examination results satisfactorily; this category usually embraces some 20 per cent of those who are promoted. A boy who has spent two years in a class without promotion is, as a rule, excluded from the school.
Table 5.— Vumber of students in the public secondary schools for boys.
Every year, some time between April 15 and June 21, an examination of students reporting themselves for it is held at the various public secondary schools. This is the final or university entrance examination. The examination is conducted under. the control and supervision of “censors" temporarily appointed by the Government, as a rule from among the university professors.
The examination is partly written, partly oral. The written examination takes : place several weeks before the oral, and lasts from four to six days, the same at all schools. The papers are determined by the chief of the ecclesiastical department on the basis of suggestions made by the censors. The candidates who pass the written examination are entitled to enter also for the oral. As a rule, to gain the university entrance certificate, a student must pass satisfactorily in all subjects.
This final examination is required for entering not only the universities, but also : various higher special schools, such as the military school, the veterinary institute, the pharmaceutical institute, and others. To enter the technical high school this: examination is not necessary, though it entitles to such entrance, provided it has been passed on the modern line. So likewise the final secondary school examination, without being required, yet entitles the student to enter the State railroad, postal, or telegraph service, and it is required for entering the customs service.
The annual examination of the various classes at the close of the spring term, ta: which the principal issues a public invitation, together with his annual report, is; only to be considered as an exhibition before the public a solemn completion of the work of the year, before summer vacation, and has no connection with the promotion of the students to higher classes on the ground of meritorious work, which has already been made previously.
Students.-As seen in Table 5, it is only in recent years that a marked increase in the number of public school students is noticeable. A significant discrepancy between the various lines is clearly seen, the modern line having gained in attend-ance, while the classical (especially the A line, with Greek) has lost.
ED 1904 M-50