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Professors at the universities are either ordinary or associate, of which the latter have smaller salaries and are not entitled to a pension. There are also permanently appointed laboratory assistants in the various medical and scientific laboratories, an astronomical assistant for each of the observatories, and an assistant in the theological faculty. Besides these, an indefinite number of docents can be appointed for each professorship. The practical instruction in modern languages is given by lecturers. Special teachers, called “instructors,” are appointed for the teaching of gymnastics, music, and drawing.

Appointments. — Vacant professorships are filled either on application or by direct appointment. In the former case the position must be publicly announced vacant. When candidates, within a prescribed limit of time, have applied and presented their testimonials of competency, the respective faculty or section, upon the written argumentation of at least three specialists in the subjects concerned, express themselves regarding the fitness and relative competency of the applicants. Then the greater consistory proposes three of these applicants for appointment in the order of their relative merits. Against this recommendation an appeal may be made to the King. After the vice-chancellor and the chancellor have expressed themselves, the appointment is made by the Government. But if there is a prospect of acquiring for the vacant professorship a scientific man known for extraordinary skill, the respective faculty or section may, before the place is publicly declared vacant, by a majority of two-thirds of its members, determine to offer him the position. In such a case the method of procedure is simplified by sending the recommendation of the faculty, together with the opinion of the greater consistory and of the vice-chancellor, to the chancellor, who presents it, together with his own opinion, to the Government for decision. Laboratory and observatory assistants are appointed in a similar way, only that the chancellor makes the final appointment. Docents are appointed by the chancellor on application, or on recommendation by the professor concerned, after the faculty or section in question has given its opinion. The above system of promotion being, in many cases, considered antiquated, the Government has appointed a committee to propose reforms, and this committee has recently (1901) submitted its report, recommending various changes in existing conditions.

The total number of teachers at the universities and the Caroline Institute amounted in 1900 to 289, of whom 76 were professors in ordinary, 56 associates, 20 laboratory and astronomy assistants, lecturers, etc., and 137 docents. Of the 132 ordinary and associate professors, 14 belonged to the faculty of theology, 15 to the faculty of law, 48 to the faculty of medicine, 31 to the humanistic section of the faculty of philosophy, and 24 to the section of mathematics and natural sciences of the same faculty. Of the whole number, 61 belonged to the l'niversity of lpsala, 49 to the University of Lund, and 22 to the Caroline Institute.

The salary of the professors in ordinary is $1,608 (with an advance of $131 after five years of service, and another after ten); of the associates, $1,206, likewise with the two said advances. Assistants in the medical faculties receive $1,206, those in the philosophical faculties and observatories $804. The docents have no fixed salaries, but the State has established for their benefit a number of docent stipends of $402 and $322, which, on the recommendation by the respective faculty, are given by the chancellor to deserving docents for a period of three years, subject to extension. The university lecturers in modern languages each receive a yearly fee of $536.

Ordinary professors (but not associates) are entitled to a pension of $1,206 to $1,474 on attaining 65 years of age. This latter amount is given to those who have held their professorship ten years at least. In some cases the Riksdag has granted a pension of $804 to associate professors. Widow's and children of deceased professors (ordinary or associate), as well as those of any deceased official of the universities, receive pensions from special pension funds, to which every official must contribute.

The academical year begins September 1, and is divided into the autumn term (September 1-December 15) and the spring term (January 15-June 1). Both the ordinary and the associate professors are, as a rule, bound to lecture publicly on their science one hour four days a week. All public instruction, whether by lecture or seminary exercises, is free of charge, but the private instruction given for the most part by the docents is paid for.

The courses of study are at Swedish universities unusually long. On an average sis to eight years are required for the degree of licentiate of philosophy, seven years for the candidate's degree in law, nine years for the candidate's degree in theology (for the ordinary examination for holy orders five years), and for licentiate's degree in medicine as much as eleven years. In part, this condition of things depends upon the comprehensive studies which are required, but in part also upon the somewhat unpractical arrangements in regard to teaching. Attempts have been made during the last few years to find a remedy for the latter defect by the establishment of the socalled propæedeutical courses for the preparatory examinations, and at present a royal committee is busy with working out a plan for the reorganization of the academical examinations.

Students. To matriculate at the university a student must have passed the university entrance examination (the final examination at a higher state secondary school).

Every student must belong to one of the nation societies, or "landskap," into which the body of students has been divided from olden times for the promotion of industry and morality and for mutual aid. At Upsala there are 13, and at Lund 12 “nations,” each comprising in the main students from special parts of the country, and each under the control of an inspector chosen by the society itself from among the ordinary professors of the university. At Upsala these societies usually have their own houses (clubs), and the disposal of pretty large funds; at Lund the students possess in common a large building called the academical society's building. The part played by the nation societies in Swedish student life has been notably great and important.

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According to G. Eneström, and to “ Report on the School Question," by X. Höjer, A. Lindhagen, and S. Boije. bIn Stockholm. c The private University of Stockholm.

The number of university students in Sweden during the years 1870–1902 is found in Table 7. As may be seen, the total number has varied very much. The decline of late years must be partly ascribed to a decrease in the number of matriculated students, but partly also to a more rapid completion of required courses. Among the total of 2,529 students in the autumn of 1900, 276 belonged to the theological

faculty, 443 to the law faculty, 514 to the medical, and 1,296 to the philosophical, in which last number are included students preparing for the preliminary examinations hitherto required for entrance into the three other faculties. Among the students of 1903 (spring) there were 89 women.

The total expenses amounted, in 1902, at the University of Upsala to $272,000; at the University of Lund to $152,000, and at the Caroline Institute to $66,000, or, altogether, to $190,000. Of this amount, the universities supplied part from their own funds, viz, the University of Upsala, about $121,000; the University of Lund, about $40,000, and the Caroline Institute, $6,000. As may thus be seen, these establishments possess considerable private means.


As already mentioned, two such establishments, called Högskolor, have been founded of late years, viz, in Stockholm and in Gottenborg, of which the former commenced its work in 1878 and the latter in 1891. The higher direction of the affairs of these institutions is contided to special boards of directors under the superintendence of the chancellor of the State universities. The institutions are placed under a Government control, the University of Gottenborg from its beginning, that of Stockholm only since 1904; the statutes are confirmed by the Government and the presidents of the boards are appointed by the same authority for such a time as in each case may be decided. The directors determine, within the amount of money available, what offices shall exist at the university, and the salaries attached to them. The directors have also the power, after hearing the reports of the council of teachers and selected specialists, to appoint professors, either after application or directly; but the appointment must be submitted to the approval of the Government. Docents are appointed by the board upon the recommendation of the council of teachers and after chancellor's hearing.

(A) The University of Stockholm (Stockholms Ilögskola). The board of directors is constituted in the following way: As aforesaid, the Government appoints 1 member, viz, the president, the Swedish Academy also chooses 1, the Academy of Sciences 2, and the town council of Stockholm 2; the rector of the university is a member ex officio, and the eighth member is chosen by the 7 before mentioned.

The immediate direction of the institution is exercised by the rector (chosen by the council of teachers for two years at a time), and by the council of teachers, consisting of the ordinary teachers or their temporary substitutes. At present only the faculty of mathematics and natural sciences has been established. Besides, there are professorships in the history of art and history of literature, and lectures have been given in history, political economy, and other subjects.

No examinations have been hitherto passed at the university. Its work has been exclusively in the interest of scientific investigation and education. Yet recently a proposition has been made to secure the privilege of examining for university degrees, which may be decided upon by the Government early in 1904.

In the autumn term (1903) there were at the university 9 ordinary professors, 3 temporary teachers, 15 docents, and 7 amanuenses. Of the professors 3 received $1,876, the others from $1,608 to $1,206.

Teachers who have reachedi 65 years of age and been in the service of the university for at least thirty years have a right to a pension amounting to 70 or 80 per cent of the salary at the time of resignation.

The academical year of the university begins September 1 and is divided into two terms (September 1-December 15 and January 15-June 15). The professors must give two public lectures every week, and impart the instruction and directions necessary for the pupils' studies. Most of them are also directors of some scientific insti. tution. During the years 1901-1903 the average number of students amounted to,

respectively, 47, 55, and 58, and the corresponding number of attendants to 82, 64, and 102.

(B) The University of Gottenborg (Göteborgs Högskola), having from the beginning placed itself under Government control (statutes of 1889 confirmed by the Government), has, in consequence of this, received (in 1893), within certain limits, the right of holding examinations for university degrees.

The board, consisting of nine directors, is appointed in the following manner: The president, as mentioned above, is nominated by the Government for such a time as in each case may be decided, 4 members are chosen by the town council of Gottenborg, 1 by the Royal Society of Science and Literature in Gottenborg, 1 by the directors of the Gottenborg Museum, and 1 by the ordinary members of the united staffs of the higher classical and modern secondary schools of Gottenborg, all (excepting the president) for three years at a time; the rector of the university is a member ex officio. At present only such teaching is carried on as can be considered as belonging to the faculty of humanistics. . Those partaking of the instruction are partly regular students, who have been matriculated after passing the common university entrance examination, and partly specials students, who by permission of the different teachers, and on payment of special fees, attend certain lectures or exercises, and partly auditors, who attend the public lectures free of charge. The number of regular students at the university, during the spring term of 1903, amounted to 85, of special students to 117, and of auditors at the public lectures to 1,576.


Technical education at the present moment holds a very high position in Sweden. With regard to the considerable distances, it were, however, to be desired that schools for elementary instruction within this department became more numerous than now is the case, and also the higher institutions stand in need of being enlarged.

Higher scientific instruction in technical subjects is imparted at the Technical High School in Stockholm and at the higher division of Chalmers' Polytechnical College in Gottenborg. In the second rank follow the lower division of the above-mentioned Chalmers' College, the five technical colleges mentioned further on, and a special technical school at Eskilstuna. A multifarious instruction and education are offered at the Technical School in Stockholm; finally, there are about ferty lower technical schools in smaller towns.

The Technical High School includes special divisions for: (A) machine design and mechanical technology, with a triennial or quadrennial course, or else naval engineering; (B) electrotechnics; (C) chemical technology, with a triennial course; (D) mining, divided into classes for mining mechanics, with a quadrennial course; metallurgy and smelting, with a triennial or quadrennial course, and mining proper, with a triennial or quadrennial course; (E) architecture, with a quadrennial course and the instruction so arranged that the pupils after three years' study have the right to proceed with their studies at the Academy of Arts, and (F) civil engineering, with a quadrennial course.

The total number of regular and special pupils was, during the years 1896-1902 (spring terms), respectively 305, 277, 283, 309, 360, 373, and 393. The number of graduates, during the years 1896-1902, was, respectively, 107, 67, 79, 88, 87, 89, and 96.

An institution for the testing of materials, with a director of its own, was established in 1896 in connection with the mechanical laboratory. Its object is to test metals, building stone, cement, and above all the strength of various building materials; and such tests are made also for the public according to fees and regulations fixed by Government.

Chalmers' Polytechnical College in Gottenborg is divided into a lower division with a triennial course; and a higher division with a triennial course and subdivided into five sections or professional schools: One for mechanics, one for electrotechnics, one for technical chemistry, one for the art of building, and one forming a special school for shipbuilding. The number of students during the spring term of 1903 was 431.

The five technical colleges impart both theoretical and practical instruction in the elementary branches of technical knowledge to those who intend to devote themselves to industrial pursuits. The course of instruction covers three years; the school year consists of thirty-six weeks. The minimum age of entrance is fixed at 14. The admission examination embraces Swedish, mathematics, history, and geography. Youths who have passed the fifth class of a State secondary school with certificates of knowledge in these subjects, are exempt from the admission examination within a space of two years after leaving the college. The admission fee is $2.50; the term fee, $2.50 at most. The instruction is at each of these schools imparted by + lectors, a workshop foreman, and a certain number of associate teachers. The number of pupils amounted during the spring term of 1903 to 416 in all the five schools together.

According to the statutes in force, the instruction shall comprise: Mathematics, viz, (a) arithmetic, algebra, planimetry, stereometry, the theory of series and logarithms, plane trigonometry, and the first principles of analytical geometry; (6) descriptive geometry, together with geometrical drawing; (c) practical geometry, surveying, leveling, with drawing and field exercises. Mechanics: (a) The laws of the equilibrium and movement of bodies; (b) the theory of mechanics, machine drawing and design of simple machines and parts of machines; (c) mechanical technology. Natural philosophy: Experimental physics with reference to the most important applications of that science in industries., Chemistry, inorganic and organic, with laboratory work and chemical technology. Mineralogy and geognosy. Swedish and German, English or French, according to the final decision of the different boards of directors. Bookkeeping and the science of commerce. Building: freehand drawing and modeling; work in the workshops. Gymnastics and exercise of arms.

The Techniral School of Eskilstuna, opened under another name in 1855, was enlarged in 1872, and when, in 1888, the town council had voted a grant to a professional school for finer cutlery and metal industries, these establishments were united in 1890 under the present designation. . In the older division, the Sunday and evening school, the instruction embraces: Mathematics as at the technical colleges, with the exception of the first principles of analytical geometry; mechanics, natural philosophy, and chemistry, as at the technical colleges, chemical technology excepted; Swedish, with composition; German or English; copy writing; freehand drawing and modeling; bookkeeping, to meet the requirements of industries; building. In the professional school for cutlery and metal industries: Freehand drawing, with the principles of style; modeling; wood carying; engraving; metal casting; enchasing; embossing; etching; galvanizing; forging; filing, and turning.

The Technical School of Stockholm, opened as a private school in 1844, has since been often enlarged and reorganized, and finally, in 1860, became a State school. It was thoroughly remodeled in 1878 and 1879, when its activity was restricted within the limits of purely technical instruction, and when a higher industrial art school and a professional building school were added. The instruction of the higher industrial art school has been grouped in two sections-one for industrial arts (with five professional divisions), the other a training school for teachers of drawing, writing, and modeling. In 1890 was added a professional school of mechanics with seven professional divisions.

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