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The school work is carried on in five head departments: (1) The technical evening and Sunday school, (II) the technical school for females, (III) the higher industrial art school, (IV) the professional building school, and (V) the professional school of mechanics. Besides, instruction is imparted in the principles of style, art needlework, professional and decorative painting, photography, form anatomy with drawing, a course for electrical fitters, and gymnastics.

During the school year 1901–2 there were 2,171 students, a considerable number, testifying strongly to the importance of this school. The number of teachers was 92, of whom 32 in ordinary. At present a plan is being worked out with the purpose of a further extension and comprehensive changes in the organization of the school, chiefly by dividing it into several educational institutes in different parts of the city.

Finally there are the lower technical schools—at present 41 in number-whose activity varies according to the special branches of industry prevalent in the districts where they are located. They are supported mainly by the communities of these places, but stand under State inspection, and also receive State grants, in 1900 to a total amount of $16,000. In 1900 the number of teachers at these schools was 293 and that of the pupils 6,817, of whom 1,275 were females.


The Swedish gymnastics derive their origin from Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839). Before his time, it is true, interest had been awakened in favor of a more thorough exercise of the body, but there existed nothing of gymnastics in the present sense of the term.

According to Ling's idea, the selection and kinds of exercises must be grounded on the requirements of the body itself. The body itself is consequently the object of, as well as the principal instrument or implement for, the performance of the work to be done. In many exercises, however, external implements are also needed, and these have been devised with exclusive regard to obtaining a good result from the necessary exercises. Through the correct use of the implements it becomes increasingly possible to limit more precisely the form and the scope of action of a movement. This limitation has been called localization, sometimes isolation, to distinguish it from a combination of forces which is also necessary to obtain the effect desired. Such combination has been called synergy or cooperation.

What has been done after Ling's death for the consummation of his work has been, for the most part, effected by his immediate successor, Gabriel Branting (1799–1881), and by his son, Hjalmar Ling (1820–1886). Hjalmar Ling represented by very striking drawings, made by himself, thousands of forms of movements, and he formed a collection of these and arranged them, in harmony with his father's plan and views, according to their effect on the organism, into different classes. Ten classes of gymnastic movements are thus shown to exist. Some of these may with advantage be further subdivided into two or more groups. lle also drew up lists of movements suited to different ages, and rendered possible pedagogical gymnastics in common schools and in female education.

The movements in each of the above-mentioned classes have been arranged in progression according to the degree of effort they call forth. In practice, movements calling for about the same degree of effort should, out of all the classes, be arranged together for a programme of exercises-a so-called “day's exercise”—for daily use. A number of movements requiring less exertion should be inserted among the specific ones from each class so as to fill out the day'a exercise into a complete set of gym

nastie exercises. It is, namely, requisite that every part of the body and the organs in general should receive each its needed share of the day's exercise, which, as a whole and in detail, must be accommodated to the degree of development of the pupils. The number of pupils practicing at one time, which is sometimes rather large, must therefore be divided into several smaller sections, so that those who have attained the same degree of development may practice together.

That a sufficiently great effort may be called forth, and at the same time overstraining prevented, the arrangement of the movements in the day's exercise should, moreover, be such as constantly to promote an equilibrium between respiration, the action of the heart, and muscular work. This is obtained by making the movements act upon the provinces of the different vessels alternately, so as to increase or relax the circulation to and from various parts of the body. In connection with this the rate of breathing must by turns be increased and slackened, while the breathing itself is drawn deeper. Besides the various movements with their different effects a means to this end consists also in a gradually increasing exertion in the day's exercise up to rather beyond the middle, after that in decreasing the exertion more rapidly toward the end; and when the whole day's exercise has been gone through both the action of the heart and the breathing ought to be strong and deep but calm.

The great expectations which Ling entertained in regard to the Central Gymnastic Institute are being regularly and surely realized. The institute has, during its ninety years' existence, developed to a very considerable extent. All teachers of gymnastics, women as well as men, are trained there for all the educational establishments throughout the country, thus also for the military schools. For this purpose there are a one-year, a two-year, and a three-year course for men and a two-year course for women. The three first

mentioned courses follow one another immediately and are preparatory each for the next; the third year's course is devoted exclusively to instruction in subjects for training in medical gymnastics. The number of pupils at the institute has so increased that at present it amounts to about 115, of whom 55 are women.

In all the State secondary schools of at least five classes in the Kingdom there are well-lighted and airy gymnastic halls, in which the exercises are conducted by teachers trained at the Central Gymnastic Institute. According to the statutes in force, every pupil whom the physician has declared sufficiently strong must practice gymnastics at least half an hour daily, besides which the pupils in the sixth and lower seventh classes must have two hours' instruction per week in fencing.

In all the training colleges for common school teachers a staff of equally welltrained leaders is employed to conduct gymnastic exercises for the future teachers, who, during their four-year course, are also trained to teach gymnastics in the common schools, where gymnastic exercises are a compulsory subject. Also at the people's high schools the introduction of gymnastics has begun in earnest in spite of the entirely private character of those establishments. Ten of these have now their own gymnastic halls. Besides, there exist in the larger towns privately organized gymnasties at so-called gymnastic clubs, as well for women as for men; also for individuals who do not belong to any organized association, but practice gymnastics only for the benefit of their health.

In the army and navy the same system is applied in schools of all grades, for recruits, corporals, noncommissioned and commissioned officers. Lastly, it may be added that everywhere in Sweden the Ling system is followed.



Great Britain and Ireland, constitutional monarchy: area, England and Wales, 58 186 square

iniles; population, 32,523,075 in 131. Scotland, 29.820 square miles; population (estimated, 1899), 4,251,850. *Ireland, 32,583 square miles; population (estimated, 1896), 4,535,516.

Information on education in Great Britain in prerious Reports.

Report Pages.

Title of article.


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Detailed view of the educational system in England
Religious and moral training in public elementary schools, England and

Brief view of the educational system, with current statistics
Educational system of Scotland
Elernentary education in London and Paris
Brief view of systems of England and Scotland, with current statistics and

comparison with 1876 (England); 1880 (Seotland)
Provisions for secondary and for technical instruction in Great Britain
Educational system of Ireland.
Elementary education in Great Britain and Ireland, 1892
Technical instruction in Great Britain.
Elementary edncation in Great Britain
Religious instruction under the London school board
Great Britain and Ireland, educational statistics and movements, 1883
Educational systems of England and Scotland, with statistics and movements,

183 84
The English educational bill of 1896
Education in (reat Britain and Ireland, 1895–96, with detailed statements of

the development of the English system Education in Great Britain and Ireland:

Statistics, legislation, 1870 1837.

Elementary education in London.. Education in Great Britain and Ireland: Recent measures pertaining to the administration of the system: to th improvement of the teaching force; the extension of the curriculum-Proposals respecting secondary educa

tion-Universities and university colleges. Brief conspectuses of the systems of elementary education in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, with current and comparative statistics, Details of the current movements in England, with especial reference to recent legislation-Review of recent university movements... Education in Great Britain and Ireland: Current statistics; statistical re

view, 1870-1899 - Board of education; organization and scope --University

movements Education in Great Britain and Ireland: Statistics, current and retrospective;

measures aifecting higher grade and evening schools-Status of secondary education - Statistics of universities and university Colleges - The Government Education Bill, by E. Lyulph Stanley-A National System of Education. by Cloudesley Brereton- The Royal Commission on the State of University Education in Ireland, paper by Judge O'Connor Morris Education in Great Britain and Ireland: Current statisties- Elemntary

<dication (England); retrospective statistics the education law of 1982, reactionary and progressive tendencies; textof the law; opinions on, James Bryce, M. P., London Times; D.C. Lathbury, T.J. Macnamara --Historical survey of secondary education in England, with statisties and typical progrimmes-State of secondary education in Scotland and Ireland - Higher

eiðucation in Great Britain and Ireland; statistics and current notes Eluation in Great Britain and Ireland: Current statistics The English sys

tem as organized under the law of 142; passive resistance to the law; the new law for London, text and criticism of Secondary and technical educatunas affected by the law - Retrospective tables - Scotland: Statistics --Secondary and technical education Universities and university colleges in Great Britain --Ireland: System of national education; secondary and technical education; the university problem.

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Current educatienal statistics, Great Britain and Ireland.—Elementary education, Eng. land.--Brief conspectus of the system as organized under the law of 1902.- Progress in the application of the new law.--Detailed statistics of elementary schools.-Code or regulations for elementary schools authorized by the board of eclucation and to go into effect in 1905.-Chronological epitome of the history of the elementary school system.

System of public education, Scotland.-Brief conspectus of the system.—Comparative statistics of elementary education.

Education in Ireland.---Brief conspectus of the system of national education, with statistics current and retrospective.—Proposed reform of the system.--Preliminary investigations (1) by special inspectors appointed to inquire into the status of schools aided by the intermediate education board ; (2) by inspector appointed to inquire into the condition of elementary schools.--Report of the latter. -Status of higher education in Ireland.

Investigations relating to physical training and physical deterioration in Great Britain.

Summary of current educational statistics-Great Britain and Ireland.

Sources of informa



Date tered Profes-
of re- students sors or
port. or teachers.



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England and Wales. Statesman's Year - Universities: book, 1904.

Oxford (22 colleges, 5 halls, and

noncollegiate students). Cambridge (17 colleges. I hos

tel, and noncollegiate stu

Durham (1 college of arts, 1

medical college, I college of

Victoria (2 colleges).
University of Wales (3 col-

University colleges..

University colleges for women.
Official report, 1903-4.. Elementary day schools

Night schools
Training colleges for elementary


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a London University includes 6 colleges of arts and science, 6 theological colleges, I college of agriculture, 1 technical college, 12 medical schools, and the London School of Economies. 6 Also 443 evening students; the statistics of the medical schools included ara incomplete. c Day and evening.

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