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than in 1902. Of this increase, 28 schools (10 Church of England, 3 Wesleyan, and 15 undenominational) are schools transferred from private to public control. It is further noticeable that the Roman Catholic and Church of England schools are the only classes of schools under private management that show increase during the year. The former number 6 additional schools and 2,471 additional places; the latter, 2 additional schools and 12,777 additional places.

TABLE II.-Enrollment and average attendance for successive years 1897-98 to

1902-3.

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As pointed out by the official report, the fluctuations in attendance shown by the above table will be better understood by observing the number of children on the registers between 7 and 11 and over 11 years of age, as shown in the following table :

TABLE III.-Classification of elementary pupils by age periods.

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The report observes in reference to the above statistics of enrollment by age periods, that

The number of children between the ages of 7 and 11 has increased steadily, though the rate of increase has tended to become smaller; and that the fluctuations are mainly in the numbers of children over 11 and under 7 years of age, respectively.

(1) The number above the age of 11 has increased very considerably in the three years from 1900 to 1903. There can be no doubt that this is mainly due to the act passed in 1889 to amend the law respecting the employment and education of children, and perhaps partly also to the provisions in the ele. mentary education act of 1900 authorizing local authorities to extend the upper limit of compulsory school attendance from the thirteenth to the fourteenth year of age. The effect of this latter act, however, is mainly to be seen in the increased regularity of attendance, the per cent of average attendance to enrollment having risen from 82.3 in 1900-1901 to $1.5 in 1902-3.

(2) The number of pupils between the ages of 3 and 7 shows an actual decrease between 1898-99 and 1900–1901, while the increase in 1901–2 is very small. The board have no kuowledge as to the reason of this, but it is possible

that it may have been due to the South African war. The withdrawal of a number of men from the country led to removals of their families, and the younger children may have been kept at home instead of being sent temporarily to new schools. If this is the case, a very large increase may be expected in the year 1903– as compared with 1902–3.

The figures may also point to an increasing tendency for children not to attend school until the legal age (7 years) is reached.

The war also may have been the cause to some extent of the diminution of the rate of increase in the number of children over 11 in the year 1899–1900, as many children may have been compelled to leave school prematurely in consequence of the diminished means of subsistence in their families.

Special attention is also called in the report to irregularities in the statistics for successive years due to the use of the terms “infants” and older scholars." These terms refer to the classification of children for the payment of the Government grants and not to the classification for purposes of instruction. In certain small schools the grant on the average attendance of infants is paid as if they were older scholars, and they are then counted as such for statistical purposes. Ilereafter this confusion will be avoided by counting as “infants for statistical purposes all children who are under instruction as infants,

The ordinary age of promotion from the infants' department or class is between 7 and 8 years, but there has been a steady tendency to lower this age. This tendeney has been partially checked since 19900, in which year the regulations introduced the “ block grant” and allowed more subjects to be taught in the infant schools.

TABLE IV.-Number and proportion of children in infant schools and schools for

older scholars at specified dutes.

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The tabulated statistics include the schools classified as higher elementary. These number 29 with accommodation for 9,124 pupils, an enrollment of 8,236, and an average attendance of 7,839.

The following statisties summarize information with respect to schools provided for by the elementary education law (blind and deaf children) of 1993:

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The official report presents the following statements with respect to measures for increasing the efficiency of the class of schools included in the above table:

The school authorities who make provision for the education of blind and deaf children are now consolidating small schools into larger ones, to which they are empowered to convey children from a distance at the cost of the rates (local taxes] when the parent is unable to bear the charges of conveyance. Better classification of the children, improved organization, and, consequently, more successful teaching may be expected, and in London these results are already apparent.

There is also a tendency to replace day schools by small boarding institutions. The children are thereby placed under better care and have improved opportunities for drill, games, and a more regular life. More continuous attendance at instruction is also possible in institution schools, and the progress of the scholar's is greater.

The future lives of these children are very largely influenced by the education they receive, and the fact that 75 per cent of the blind and 50 per cent of the deaf population of this country are shown by the census of 1901 to be without occupation, indicates the importance of the industrial training of these children. The usual school courses of manual instruction require to be supplemented by higher industrial work, and it is worth notice that several local authorities are now doing this. At the Anerley Institution for older deaf boys advanced woodwork, tailoring, and bootmaking are being taught under approved educational schemes. At Linden Lodge and Elm Court, blind schools for elder boys and girls, respectively, similar schemes are in use. Manchester, Stoke, and Doncaster schools for the deaf, and Birmingham, Leeds, and Sheffield schools for the blind give instruction of a similar character.

An important departure in the work of educating the blind and deaf has been recently taken by the establishment of schools for children who are not only blind or deaf, but are also otherwise defective. For example, at Homerton very useful work is done by the school for feeble-minded deaf mutes, and at Clapton a school has been recently opened for blind children who are mentally defective.

An innovation in all blind and deaf schools during the past year has been the introduction of a progress book showing by half-yearly entries the progress of each child in elementary attainments, manual work, character, good habits, and physical powers.

Some of the institutions for the blind, in their attempt to deal with the industrial side of the work, have, through the local education authorities, applied for power to give education other than elementary'. In one case sanction to the proposal has alreadly been granted. TABLE V.--Classification of teachers, number and proportion in each class.

Pupil

Percentage of total
Certifi-

teachers.a
teachers,
cated
Assistant

Total.a

including
teachers.
teachers.
probation-

cated.

Pupil.

Year

Certifi.

Assist-
ant.

ers.

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Not including additional women teachers first employed in 1580 (numbering 17,598 in 1902). TABLE VI.-- Relation between number of pupils in average attendance and nunta

ber of adult teachers.

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TABLE VIII.- Expenditure on public elementary education (England and Wales),

1871-1902 (current and capital).

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1871. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877.

1879. 1890. 1891 1882 1883. 1824 1885. 1886. 1887 1888 18)

£71, 184 £509, 262 £580, 446 $546, 421 £1,126, 867 £600 £441,201 £1,558,668 £927,524 162, 491 581,014 743,505 607, 692 1,351. 197 63, 487 441,201 1,855, 885 1,117,878 251, 905 64/2, 650 894,516 699, 597 1,594, 153 861, 458 441,201 2,896,812 1,246, 851 373, 859 703, 712 1,083,571 826, 244 1,909, 815 1,539, 111 441,201

3,890, 127] 1,341, 089 588,845 799,387 1,388, 232 948,12 2,336,352 1, 435, 989 441,201 4,213,543 1, 496, 471

868,418 878,757 1,747,175 1,049, 892 2,797, (007 1,462, 9:56 441,201 4,701,224 1,642,283 1,108, 316 290,564 2,028,880 1,154,909 3,183,789 1,821, 3:30 441,201 5, 446, 320 1,897, 350 1,328,275 918,390 2,246,665 1,292,615 3,539,290 1,541), 163 441, 201 5, 480,644 2,191,017 1,486,250 913,154) 2,3399,800 1,392, 289 3,792,089 1,033,670 441, 201 5, 316, 926 2,348, 704 1,579, 752 905, 612 2,485,34 1, 452, 792 3.938, 156 1,09), 256 441, 201 5, 469,61 2,523, 512 1,772, 263 897,279 2,669,542 1, 5:31), 9:29 4, 200, 471 982, 151 441, 201

5,623, 8202,636, 936 1,837,566 893,796 2,731,362 1,607, 888 4,339, 250 975, 245 441,201 5,755, 696] 2,824, 462 1,990), 162 891,346 2,881,508 1,684,087 4,565,595 850,051 441, 201 5,856, 847) 2., 866,250 2,207, 806 913,525 3,121,331 1,759, 239 4,880,6:20 1,171,284 441, 201 6,493, 105! 3, 135, 843 2,354, 006 933, 959 3, 287, 965 1,818,579 5, 106, 544 1, 198, 364 441,201 6, 746, 103 3,2-5,227 2,545, 492 917,080 3,462,572 1,840,382 5,302,954 691, 601 441,201 6, 435, 756 3,746,633 2,641,554 923,985 3,515,539 1,862,042 5, 427, 581 430, 462 441,201 6,299, 244 3,511,654 2, 631, 433 932, 403 3,503,836 1,890, 1375, 454, 373 401,114 441, 201 6, 296, 688 3,005, 868 2, 666, 264 941,748 3,618, 012 1,932,607 5,510,619 574,828 441,201 6,556, 648 3,684, 192 2,968,036 945, 114 3,913,210 1,99,032 5,882, 242 377,397 441,201 6, 700, 640 3,741,351 3,331, 473 962, 113 4,233,586 2,000, 676 6, 291, 262 574,064 441, 21 7,309, 527 4,105, 142 3, 462,356 980,342 4, 412,698 1,320, 405 5,763, 103 949,076 441,201 7, 153, 380 6,092,366 3,619, 167 960,012 4,609, 179 393, 251 5,002, 440 914,539 441.21 6,358, 1996, 195, 841 3,732, 342 909.533 4,721,895 360,530 5,082, 425 1,557, 885 411, 201 7,081,511 6,650,869 3,987,790 1,000, 933 4,958, 783 342,900 5,331,683 1,869, 362 441,203 7,612, 246 6,963, 279 5,557, 537

8,973,871 6,331, 811 X34,123 7, 165, 934

19,079, 696 6,243, 692 876,360, 7, 123, 052

2,150, 797

19, 339, 404

1891. 1892. 1883 1894. 1895. 1900.

1902-3..

a The law of 1870 authorized school boards to borrow money on the security of local taxes (rates) for the building of schoolhouses. Up to the 1st of April, 1901, the education department had sanctioned loans to the amount of £41,624,104 ($ 208,122,320). The new accommodation thus furnished is sufficient for 2,788,120 children. The estimated cost per child is thus about $14 18s. 7d. ($7:3). The department has also sanctioned loans to the amount of £132,998 to 10 school boards for providing accommodation for 729 blind and deaf children, and also £26,818 18s, to ū school boards for providing accommodation for 390 defective children.

The grant for this year does not include the grant from the science and art department, which is no longer applied to elementary schools. This grant, now limited to socalled higher schools, amour ted in 190.–3 to 1649,702. The Government grant to training colleges, not included in the foregoing totals, was £231,989.

TABLE IX.-Summarized statistics for specified years.?

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Schools (institutions) inspected by Her
Majesty's inspectors.

Voluntary schools.

Board schools.
Departments under separate head

teachers in those schools
Scholars for whom accommodation is
provided..

Percentage to estimated population Scholars on the school registers.

Percentage to estimated population
Scholars in actualaverage attendancea.

Percentage to estimated population
Percentage to scholars on the school

registers...
Average attendance for payment in

infant schools and classes. Average attendance for payment in

schools for older scholars. Average attendance of scholars who

earned grants upon examination in

class subjects.. Scholars qualified for grant in specific

subjects. Number of departments in which singing was taught:

By ear.

By notes
Number of schools in which were
taught

Military drill
Manual instruction
Science

Physical exercises.
Half-time scholars
School libraries
Savings banks.
Certificated and provisionally certifi-

cated teachers,
Assistant teachers.
Additional teachers.
Pupil teachers.
"Annual grant

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a The years selected, with one exception, were characterized by the passage of laws organizing or modifying the system. The year 1894) marked the close of two decades under the Forester law and also brought to an issue the efforts that resulted in the law of 1891, providing for the remission of school fees.

CODE (REGULATIONS) FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FOR 1905.

One of the most important measures of the board of education during the year under review was the issuing of a new code it or body of regulations determining the conditions under which an elementary school may share in the Government graut.

As compared with former codes, the present code has been greatly simplified by the omission of all matter relative to the instruction and training of teachers, which subjects are dealt with in separate regulations. The course of study, which was formerly presented in two parts, one includirg obligatory subjects and the other subjects which might be taught under appropriate circumstances, is now presented as a coherent whole with directions as to minimum and masimum requirements.

The present code proposes also a change in the basis on which the Government grant is distributed to tbe schools--a change which it is beliered will have erceilent results when it is universally applied. Under this new scheme, which does not go into full operation until after July 31, 1905, the principal part of the Government grant will be allotted on the basis of average attendance, as pro

a This code was prepared under the immediate direction of Mr. R. L. Morant, secretary to the board of education, who has given great attention to the subject of chief importance in the code, namely, that of the course of study.

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