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Teachers' School Dinner Association, Southwark Children's Free Meals Fund. The work of these agencies has been coordinated, so far as the board schools are concerned, by the joint committee on underfed children, which has worked under the segis of the school board."

The committee express the opinion that:

340. In regard to the sum contributed by the parents, Doctor Eichholz said that it amounted to 5 per cent in the case of the London Schools Dinner Association, and 20 per cent in the case of the Destitute Children's Dinner Society.

341. Mr. Libby, who is secretary to the East Lambeth Teachers' Schools Dinner Association, gave a description of the working of the free-meal fund in connection with the association. The fund has been running about twelve years, and is conducted on business lines; it is worked by the teachers through the attendance oflicers, and careful inquiries are made as to the circumstances of each family before a child is given meal. There are breakfast centers and dinner centers. A child can be given a pint of vegetable soup and a piece of brown bread and a piece of cake at the cost of 1d. About 2 per cent of the children pay the full 10., some pay part of the cost, and the rest nothing; not more than 7 or 8 per cent pay anything at all; but Mr. Libby thought this small percentage was due to the thing not being sufficiently worked. In spite of the fund there are still many underfed children, because there is not sufficient organization; it is difficult to get sufficient organization by voluntary methods.

312. Mr. J. B. Atkins, the London editor of the Manchester Guardian, gave a description of the free feeding system in Manchester. There the funds are derived entirely from voluntary sources; but the school board recognized the charity and the teachers helpeil in distributing the food, etc. The movement has grown steadily, and in 1902, 139,000 free dinners were given, at the cost of a little over £100. In this case also the circumstances of the family are carefully investigated by the attendance officers, but no attempt is made to l'ecover payment from the parents.

343. In Glasgow Doctor Chalmers said there is an institution called the “ Poor Children's Dinner Table," by means of which the condition of every child is inquired into, and meals are given to the underfed; the system is very comprehensive apparently, so that no child in Glasgow ought ever to go to school starving." but no detailed account was given to the committee. Sir Frederick Maurice, however, referred to the Glasgow system and stated that the difficulty as to parental responsibility had there been solved by means of a very thorough system of investigation, and that the applications for gratuitous food have diminished rather than increased.

314. Free meals are given in Edinburgh to about 2,000 children, but the evidence given by Doctor and Mrs. Mackenzie makes it doubtful whether this number by any means exhausts the number of children who are underfed.

345. The most complete scheme described was started by the late Mr. George Dixon, and has now been in operation for twenty years in Birmingham, with Doctor Airy, II. M. I., as chairman of the organization. In considering the principles on which they would act it was decided in the first place that only those should be helped who could expect practically nothing if it was not given to them; and secondly, that only such a meal should be given as rould not compete in any way with the meal which could be provided even in a very poor home. It was next decided that cases for help should be selected with the greatest care. This is done by three different people by the bead teacher of the school, by the class teacher in whose class the boy or girl is, and by the visiting officer. The cooperation of these three, Doctor Airy states, has been so successful that lie does not believe there has been 5 per cent or anything like it of abuse. The number of children fed in normal times is 2,300 and the plan pursued is thus described :

We began with ten centers. We had large coppers for soup at ten centers, to which the children came from all outlying schools. The school board allowed us in each of those centers to canvas off some 20 or 30 yards of playground, perhaps 5 yards wide, and the cooking was done at one end. There the soup, a good lentil soup with some animal stock, and the bread and jam, were prepared. The process was simply this. We had to do everything to simplify matters. It bad to be a rough business, but it was an effective one. The children come, and form file, and then they walk up, and as they walk up they take a spoon out of a basket and go up to where the voluntary helpers are distributing the soup. They take their bowl of soup and go on to benches on the other side of the canvassed shed and sit down and eat their soup. The moment they have done

they put their basin and spoon into another basket, and as they go out they take a large slab of bread and jam, and eat that in the street. The school board allowed us to do this without any rent, and they gave us the gas. Then the cooking of those meals is done by paid labor, but the distribution is done by the voluntary help of ladies at each center. There is a rota at each center and there are two ladies who attend each day. Our manager I will refer to directlyhe is a most capable, suggestive man. We were very much distressed at the fact that the children would come a mile or a mile and half to eat this poor dinner, and they would come through slush and snow and wet, and we wanted to prevent that. A system of baskets was invented. There is a system of baskets at present in use by which the soup can be kept absolutely hot for more than an hour. I have tried it at both ends, and I find it is almost as hot as when it comes out of the copper. We reduced the number of centers to four or five, and now all the outlying schools send their baskets with a paper saying how many dinners they want. Those dinners are put into the baskets at a quarter to 12 or 12 o'clock, and then the staff of the school help in distributing the meals at that school.”

346. The committee have thought it worth while to print this part of Doctor Airy's evidence in the body of the report because of the remarkable economic fact with which he concludes:

“ We give that dinner, a large bowl of soup-in fact, they have two or three bowls if they like-and a large slab of bread and jam, for less than a halfpenny, and in that expense is included £150 or £100 a year to the manager."

347. Ile attributed this result (1) to the concentration of the population that lias to be helped, (2) to the good will and assistance of the local authority, and (3) to the organizing skill of "a heaven-born manager," à retired naval officer, and to the cooperation of volunteers. In addition to those dinners, which provide for some 24 per cent of the children of school aga, breakfasts, consisting of cocoa, milk, and bread, ara supplied by the bounty of a private individual to the necessitous children in about 20 schools in Birmingham, as Doctor Airy believed. under similar conditions. The testimony of the teachers is unanimous that the system pursued enables the children to do the ordinary school work, and they report that the difference is perfectly extraordinary.

The committee express the opinion thatin a large number of cases voluntary organizations with the support and oversight of the local authority are sufficient for the purpose, and as long as this is so the committee would strongly deprecate recourse being had to direct municipal assistance.

360. Circumstances, however, do arise which call for more immediate aid, and in which the school authority, taking into account the difficulty in the way of home provision of suitable food and the number of childreu who attend school habitually underfed, are willing to provide regular and sufficient meals, and in such cases the committee agree with the opinion of the royal commission on physical training (Scotland), that“ the preparation and cooking of these meals, where it is found necessary to provide them, ought to be regarded as one of the (harges incident to school management."

361. By a differentiation of function on these terms—the school authority to supply and organize the machinery, the benevolent to furnish the materiala working adjustment between the privileges of charity and the obligations of the community might be reached.

362. In some districts it still may be the case that such an arrangement would pirove inadequate; the extent or the concentration of poverty might be too great for the resources of local charity, and in these, subject to the consent of the board of education, it might be expedient lo permit the application of municipal aid on a larger scale. As a corollary to the exercise of such powers—which should be by scheme sanctioned by the board-ile law would have to be altered so as to furnish means, as was suggested in evidence, to compel the neglectful parent to take his full share of responsibility, and the committee are sanguine that a few prosecutions to this end would have a most salutary and stimulating effect.

CHAPTER XIII.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN ENGLAND AS AFFECTED BY

THE LAW OF 1902.a

TOPICAL OUTLINE.

The law of 1902 in its relation to higher" education.-Present status of secondary

schools in England.--Regulations for secondary schools issued by the board of education for 1905.---Statistics of “higher " (i. e., secondary, technical, and evening? schools.-Action of local authorities in respect to “higher " education.—Provisiou for secondary education in Sheffield and in Liverpool as set forth in reports by Mr. Michael Sadler. --Secondary education in London as disclosed by special investiga tions in 1892 and ly Mr. Sidney Webb in 1903.---Chronological epitome of move ment in England for organizing secondary education,

THE LAW OF 1902 IN ITS RELATION TO HIGIER EDUCATION.

The education law of 1902 marks an import:unt stage in the development of the English system of public education. As regards elementary education, the provisions of the law and its operations for the two years that have elapsed since it took effect have been considered in the preceding chapter. The law, however, reaches much further than this limited field. It recognizes the public responsibility in respect to the provision of schools of a higher grade than the elementary and places upon local authorities definite obligations in this matter. Hence, with the exception only of the education law of 1870, it is the inost important measure ever adopted by the Government in the interests of public education.

The term higher education ” as used in the law of 1902 corresponds in part to the term secondary” as used in this country; but under the heading, " Iligher education," the English law contemplates a variety of institutions, naniely, secondary schools distinctively recognized as such, science and art schools receiving Government grants, and evening schools, covering collectively a wider range than the secondary schools of the United States.

The local authorities for higher education are the same as for the elementary schools-i. e., county and borough councils, a provision which makes it possible to correlate and equilize the educational provision in each administrative area.

As stated in the brief epitome of the law already given, the councils are outhorized to supply or aid the supply of education per than elementary. For this purpose they have at their disposal two sources of revenue, namely, (1) the surplus of the liquor duties as provided by a law of 1890, (2) revenues from

* For previous articles on the higher (i. e., secondary and technical) schools of England see index on p. 799.

For full provision respecting the powers conferred upon the local authorities with respect to higher education see Parts II and it', law of 1902, publisied in the Commissioner's Report for 1902, pp. 1018, 1024, 1025 ; for epitome of these provisions see p. 803 of the present Report. ED 1904 M-53

833

local taxes (rates) which they may levy for the purpose. Thus the law provides for the increase of the means of “higher education," while careful also to conserve whatever has been already achieved in this direction by municipal or private effort.

The measures adopted by the local councils for carrying out these provisions of the law must have the approval of the board of education, which also has organized a service of inspection for the higher school. Furthermore, the board exercises a general control over the whole work through the regulations (codes) defining the classes of institutions that may be recognized as higher and determining the conditions upon which they may have a right to Government inspection or to Government grants.

It will be seen that in dealing with this department of education the law limits itself to matters of general administration and scholastic classification, leaving all further responsibility to the local authorities. In the two years that bare elapsed since the passage of the law little more has been done by the board of education in this matter than to formulate the regulations above referred to and take over the work formerly in charge of the science and art department and the educational duties of the charity commissioners. The councils, upon whom the more onerous task devolves, have done little more than arrange for the continuance of the evening schools, formerly under the school boards, and investigate the actual status of their respective areas in regard to the supply of secondary schools and higher institutions. To complete this survey it will therefore be necessary to consider (1) the regulations issued by the Government for secondary schools distinctively recognized as such; (2) the summarized report of schools under Government inspection or aided by Government; (3) accounts of the preliminary investigations in specified areas.

For the better understanding of the situation as regards the existing schools which are or may be affected by the new measures, the considerations specified are here introduced by a brief account of secondary education quoted from an official statement prepared for the St. Louis Exposition.

SECONDARY SCIIOOLS.

In spite of many warnings as to the necessity for the organization of secondary education, up to the present day the relations of public authorities, both central and local, with secondary schools have been much less close than those with elementary education. The secondary schools may be divided into four classes: (a) The public schools (i. e., the seven principal schools, viz, Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Ilarrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury) dealt with by the public schools act of 1868 and certain others popularly associated with them: (b) the endowed schools (i. e., the endowed secondary grammar schools administered under the endowed schools act of 1869); (c) schools established and controlled by local authorities; (d) schools carried on by private enterprise. It is hardly possible to give an exact definition of a public school, but the term includes all the most important older foundations which maintain very close relations with the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge. They are mainly, though not exclusively, boarding schools, and thus are differentiated from the endowed schools, which, though admitting boarders, have a strong local connection, Educationally, the endoted schools were under the control of the charity commissioners, whose powers in this respect have now been transferred to the board of education. These powers included that of making schemes for the general conduct of such schools, and for organizing administratire inspection to see that these schemes were properly executed, but they did not include any authority to grant financial assistance. This defect was to some extent remedied by the action of the science and art ciepartnient, whose grants could be earned by schools complying with their regulations. Both from this source and from the funds administered by the county councils under the technical instruction acts, considerable financial aid has been given in recent years to secondary schools. In many places there probably still exists a considerable deficiency in this grade of education, but the duty of providing a

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fitting remedy is laid by the act of 1902 upon the new authorities. It may be noted that the greatest part of the provision of girls' education is still made by private enterprise.

Hitherto no special qualifications have been demanded of secondary teachers. High academic qualifications unaccompanied by any professional preparation have sufficed to open the best posts in the teaching profession to men leaving the old universities. But with the establishment of the register of teachers under the act of 1899 this state of things will cease. After the present transitory arrangements have been withdrawn, no teacher will be able to be placed on that register without affording proof of distinct preparation for the practice of his profession.

In the matter of secondary education, Wales has received a different, and, as some maintain, a preferential treatment. It was unusually poor in endowed schools, and the opportunities for secondary education were few. Through the disinterested zeal of one or two individuals, a bill was introduced into Parliament in 1889, and carried with the support of the Government. By this act the treasury undertook to pay to each county and county borough a subsidy not exceeding in amount the sum raised by local rates for the purposes of intermediate education. Through the operation of this act within a very few years the principality has been provided with an excellent system of secondary schools. For the maintenance of an equal standard of attainment throughout the country, a system of inspection and examination has been established, and placed under the control of a central board, to which each county and county borough sends delegates. This organization has been allowed to retain its full powers under the act of 1902.

REGULATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS ISSUED BY THE BOARD OF

EDUCATION FOR 1905.

In the regulations respecting secondary schools issued in 1903 the board of education were careful to define the limits of secondary education, and in so doing clearly recognized the distinction between secondary schools and technical institutes and classes; thus the authority of the Government has been won for those who advocate an extended course of general education as a prerequisite to specialized training.

The term “ secondary as defined by the board applies to “ any day or boarding school which offers to each of its scholars, up to and beyond the age of 16, a general education, physical, mental, and moral, given through a complete graded course of instruction of wider scope and more advanced degree than that given in elementary schools."

As being essential to this course of instruction, the following points are emphasized :

(a) The instruction must be general--i. e., must be such as gives a reasonable degree of exercise and levelopment to the whole of the faculties, and does not confine this development to a particular channel, whether that of pure and applied science, of literary and linguistic study, or of that kind of acquirement which is directed simply at fitting a boy or girl to enter business in a subordinate capacity with some previous knowledge of what he or she will be set to do. A secondary school should keep in view the developinent and exercise of all the faculties involved in these different kinds of training, and will fail to give a sound general education to its scholars in so far as it sends them out, whether to further study or to the business of life, with one or other of these faculties neglected, or with one developed at the expense of the rest. Specialization in any of these directions should only begin after the general education has been carried to a point at which the habit of exercising all these faculties has been formed and a certain solid basis for life has been laid in acquaintance with the structure and laws of the physical world, in the accurate use of thought and language, and in practical ability to begin dealing with affairs.

(b) The course of instruction must be complete_i. e., must be so planned as to lead up to a definite standard of acquirement in the various branches of instruction indicated above, and not stop short at a merely superficial introduction to any of them. Secondary schools are of different types suited to the differet requirements of the scholars, to their place in the social organization,

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