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and to the means of the parents and the age at which the regular education of the scholars is obliged to stop short, as well as to the occupations and opportunities of development to which they may or should look forward in later life. But in no case can the course of a secondary school be considered complete which is not so planned as to carry on the scholars to such a point as they may reasonably be expected to reach at the age of 16. It may begin at the age of 8 or 9 or even earlier. Scholars may pass into it from elementary schools at various ages beyond this up to 12 or 13, and in schools of a high grade which give an education leading directly on to the universities it may be continued up to the age, even, of 18 or 19. But as a rule the years from 12 or 13 up to 16 or 17 will be those during which it is most important that it should be carried on in accordance with a systematic and complete scheme.
(c) The instruction must be graded in its various branches. A defect which is notorious in many schools is that in certain subjects (often from causes for which the school authorities are not responsible) instruction of the scholars is cut down to "marking time," or the repetition of lessons already learned. Instruction which is not progressive, while it may be of some use as drill and discipline, is of little real elucational value. It gives only a superficial and transitory acquirement, while at the same time it fails to interest or to stimulate the scholar.
The grants payable under the regulations are made in respect of a four years' course only.
A certain minimum number of hours in each week must be given in each year of the course to the group of subjects commonly classed as English " and including the English language and literature, geography, and history; to languages, ancient or modern, other than the native language of the scholars, and to mathematics and to science. Ample time is left for a well-planned curriculum to add considerably to this minimum in cne or more of these groups of subjects, as well as to include adequate provision for systematic physical exercises; for drawing, singing, and manual training; for the instruction of girls in the elements of housewifery, and for such other subjects as may profitably be included in the curriculum of any particular school.
In respect of this complete course of graded instruction, grants will be made on a simple and uniform scale. This grant applies alike to all the types of school which come within the general definition of a secondary school, as above given. These types fall, broadly speaking, into three main classes, whether regarded from the side of the standard or of the kind of general education which the school is meant to provide. In the former aspect they fall into one or other of the three grades of the schools inquiry commission of 1864 and the secondary education commission of 1894; the first-grade schools leading up directly to the universities and the colleges of university rank; the second-grade schcols, whiclı stop short of that point as regards the bulk of their scholars; and the third-grade schools, which do not attempt to carry education much beyond the age of 16, and the object of which is to turn out scholars adequately equipped for commerce and business, for entering upon apprenticeship to the teaching profession, or for proceeding, with a sound preliminary general training, into technical and industrial pursuits. In the latter aspect, in respect of the kind of education offered, they may roughly be discriminated into what are known in ordinary usage as the literary, the scientific, and the commercial types of school; the first of these paying special regard to the development of the higher powers of thought and expression, and that discriminating appreciation of what is best in the thought and art of the world, in other ages and countries, as well as in our own, which forms the basis of all human culture; the second to the training of the intellect toward understanding and applying the laws of the physical universe, and the third to the equipment of the scholars for practical life in the commercial and industrial community of which they are members.
The board desire it to be clearly understood that the fact of a uniform scale of grant being given to all these grades and types of school implies no belief that they are of equal importance or have indiscriminate claims to State aid. Still less does it imply the assumption that the cost of maintaining one grade or type of school is the same as that of maintaining any other with a similar number of scholars, or that the return to the State per scholar in the form of trained material for citizenship is estimable in uniform terms of so many shillings a head. The uniform scale of aid given is designed to give impartial encouragement to all well-considered local efforts toward developing a general
system of secondary schools through many channels and in varying directions. Much of the work that has to be done in establishing such a system is experimental and will have to be reconsidered later in the light of its results. The secondary schools are in a sense the educational laboratory of the nation, and the case of elementary schools shows how difficult it is, even after a generation of practical working, to reach any certain conclusion as to the relative efficacy of different subjects and methods and as to the exact point at which the control or influence of the State ceases to be an expanding and stimulating force and tends to fetter or to sterilize individual genius and local patriotism.
To this uniform scale of grants, however, one exception is at present retained as justified on historical and practical grounds and as necessary toward continuity of administration. The schools hitherto known as Division A schools (in these extension is given to the scientific course) form an important element in the provision for higher education, and have grown into existence by the direct encouragement and special aid of the board. A special imperial grant toward aiding the teaching of pure and applied science has for many years been one of the accepted liabilities of the State. This type of school is one which, in the words of previous regulations, “provides a thorough and progressive course in science, forming a part of a general education," and including individual manual instruction and practical laboratory work. The instruction given in it is, upon this side of its work, somewhat more advanced and somewhat more specialized than that of ordinary secondary schools, even of a higher grade, and the cost of maintenance is correspondingly enhanced by the more expensive nature of its apparatus and general organization. For this type of school a special grant is made in addition to the ordinary grant which it receives as a secondary school complying with the general conditions prescribed for all such schools. The amount of this special grant will be fixed by the board, with regard to the circumstances of each school, upon a scale which is the practical equivalent of the scale previously applicable to schools of this type, and may reach a maximum which doubles the total amount of the ordinary grant.
In addition to the general requirements certain specific conditions are laid down by the education board to which a secondary school must conform in order to share in the Government grant. The most important of these conditions are as follows:
The school must be efficient and must not compete unduly with a neighboring schoool; no religious test or requirement as to religious observances or attendance upon religious exercises shall be imposed upon day scholars; the curriculum and time-table of the school must be approved by the board of education; a full account of the income and expenditure of the school must be annually submitted to the board; the fees charged must be approved ly that body; the school premises, equipments, and appliances must be satisfactory; the school must meet regularly during not less than thirty-six weeks in the course of the school year, and for not less than four hours each school day. It is further specified that the teaching staff must be suflicient in number and qualifications; that the salaries offered shall not be subject to variation according to the amount of grant received, and the registers must show not less than 20 qualified students in the approved course of secondary instruction.
To schools fulfilling the conditions required, grants will be paid on account of each scholar attending the approved course of secondary instruction on the following scale:
Shillings. (a) In the first year of the course(b) In the second year of the course
60 (c) In the third year of the course.
80 (d) In the fourth year of the course..
100 No grant is payable for more than four years in all on account of any one scholar, and no scholar is eligible for grant who is reported by the inspector as unfit to attend the course. A scholar promoted during the school year is
regarded for the purposes of grant as a scholar of the year from which he or she was promoted.
No scholar is eligible for grant whose attendance has not been registered at 80 per cent of the meetings of the school during the year, but where a scholar has been prevented from attending through illness or risk of infection, a medical certificate to that effect may be accepted in lieu of any attendance.
In addition to the alove grant a special grant will be paid on account of each scholar attending a special course under specified conditions at such rate as may be determined in the case of each school by the board.
To insure adequate results from the encouragement thus given by the central government to secondary education, it was considered necessary to commence the establishment of an inspectorate for secondary schools under a chief inspector especially responsible for this work.” a
HIGHER” (1. E., SECONDARY, TECHNICAL AND EVENING) SCHOOLS.
The following statistics summarize the operations of the schools for higher education that were under the supervision of the board of education in 1902–3.
Inspection of sccondary schools under section 3, board of education act, 1899.--The number of schools inspected under the board of education in the yer ending December 31, 1903, was 13.), as compared with 95 in the previous year. Of these 25 were inspected on the application of the county authorities aiding them ; 23 were proprietary schools; 33 were private schools; 75 were schools for boys; 49 were schools for girls, and 11 were mixed schools, for boys and girls. Sixty-one were schools receiving grants under the regulations of the board for secondary schools, and in the case of 41 of these the inspection was required for compliance with the regulations.
Secondary schools receiving Government grants.-In 1903 there were 31.090 scholars receiving organized day courses of instruction in 226 secondary day schools, Division A (offering extended courses in science), an average of 137 scholars in each school. Of these pupils 25,047 were taking elementary courses and 6,043 advanced courses of instruction. In 1903, 2,645 scholars were examined in science and 1,191 in art subjects. The grants paid amounted to 1130,470 ($652,350), being an average payment per scholar under instruction of £t 19s (about $2.5).
l'p to the 31st of December (1903) 142 schools in England and 66 schools in Wales and Monmouthshire were recognized as eligible for grants under the regulations for secondary day schools, Division B. Of the schools in England 114 were endowed schools, 2 were county or municipal schools, 6 were estab. lished by stock companies, 10 were conducted by religious bodies, and 10 hy bodies of local managers.
The number of pupils following approved courses of instruction in the schools of Division B during the school year 1902–3 was 10,094, and the grants paid amounted to £26,700 or an average payment of £2 13s. for each scholar under instruction,
CLASSES AND SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE AND ART AND EVENING SCHOOLS.
The classes in science and art to which grants are made under the regulations of the board include classes in day secondary schools, as reported above, day classes in schools of a somewhat more advanced character, and classes in evening schools.
a To this post Mr. W. C. Fletcher, M. A., till recently head master of the Liverpool Institute, was appointed in May, and shortly afterwards Mr. J. W. Ileadlam, M. A., Dr. R. P. Scott, and Dr. Frederick Spencer were appointed as staff inspectors to assist him. Each of these officers possesses special qualifications in the literary and linguistic side of secondary school work.
Under the new organization it is impossible to treat the classes in science and art separately from the schools of which they form an integral part, and consequently the following table, presented in the report of the board of education, repeats statistics already given under the head of secondary schools, and those which follow present further details respecting evening schools.
Evening schools.--The present regulations for evening schools, as explained in the official report, apply to the class of schools formerly conducted in accordance with the regulations of the science and art department, and continuation schools regulated by the elementary school code.
The former included very advanced classes held in important technical institutions as well as some elementary classes held in smaller towns and villages. The latter were most typically represented by the village evening school, giving instruction of a somewhat elementary nature.
The following statistics show the classification of evening classes and students by courses of instruction :
Course of instruction.
in respect of
of whom classes.
a grant was paid.
Division I. (a) General or preparatory in character; (b) more specific or
derlying certain trades or groups of trades.
As individual students in some cases attended for instruction in more than one subject of a division, the number of individual students in each division is less than is here shown--e. g., in Division II the number of individual students in respect of whom a grant was paid was 48,55:36, and similarly the number of individual science students was 125,704.
No grant is paid on account of a student who does not attend a class for at least fourteen hours. Students whose attendance at any class fell short of that limit are not included in the numbers here given.
The following table gives a comparison of the number of students who attended, and at the same time indicates their age and sex :
The efficiency of the school is tested by inspection, with or without notice, and in subjects of science or art an additional test is afforded by the annual examinations of the board.
The evening schools which earned a grant during the year ending July 31, 1903, numbered 5,624.
ACTION OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN RESPECT TO
The foregoing survey pertains to schools of an advanced grade in England and Wales and the relations established between them and the board of education, The action of the central Government, however, in respect to education is very general. It is intended to stimulate and supplement local effort, never to suj)plant it; hence the most important part of the current record of education, whether elementary or higher, relates to the action of local authorities (county and municipal councils).
By reference to the conspectus of the education law of 1902 (p. 801, par. 4) it will be seen that the educational functions of the local authorities, excepting that of levying a school tax, may be delegated to education committees. Reports from several of the larger cities show that strong committees have been formed and have applied themselves earnestly to the task of ascertaining the conditions to be dealt with as a preliminary to future developments. The investigation bas been particularly thorough in Sheffield and Liverpool, the educational committees of both these cities having secured the services of Vr. Michael E. Sadler a to aid them in this stage of their work.
As regards elementary education the situation in the cities named was well known from the reports of the former school board, and consequently the investigations authorized by the newly formed education committees related to the province of secondary and higher education as it devolves upon the local authorities under the new law. The results of Mr. Sadler's investigations are embodied in two reports, which set forth in an exhaustive manner the existing provision for education above the elementary stage in the cities n:imed and sub
a Formerly chief of the division of special inquiries and reports, department of education; at present professor of the history and administration of education, Victoria University, Manchester.
City of Shellield, Education Committee Report on Secondary and Iligher Education, by Michael E. Sadler, M. A. Oxon, Hon. LL. D. Columbia. City of Liverpool Education Committee Repo on Secondary Education in Liverpool, including the Training of Teachers for Public Elementary Suhools. Idem.