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It is interesting to note that Mr. Sadler recognizes the need for a manual training school in Liverpool adapted to a class of pupils differing in many respects from those who would naturally enter the typical schools described. The manual training schools, he says, should take boys " at about 13 years of age and keep them in training up to 15 or 16, the latter being the age at which brys may be taken as apprentices in the engineering trades.” The scope and course of study suggested for this school are as follows:
It would not be the aim of such a school actually to teach a trade or to serve as a substitute for apprenticeship. Its purpose would be to fit the boys to learn their trade more quickly when the time came by giving them a well-graded preparatory course in practical handwork, combined with a scientific study of the fundamental principles underlying the occupations by which the pupils intended afterwards to earn their living. Mathematics, drawing, and natural science would thus, along with manual training, form an important part of the curriculum. But the school course should also give ample time for the teaching of English (including composition, national history, and literature) in order to kindle the imagination of the boys, to give them an ideal of citizenship, to cultivate in them a love for some masterpieces of the national literature, and to train their power of expressing themselves in good, clear English. It would be a great mistake to narrow down the course of study at a manual training school to shop work and science. The humanities are needed in it as well. Special care should also be given to physical training. The aim of the school would be to turn out a number of keen young fellows, vigorous in borly, alert in mind, proud of their country, clever with their hands, with a good hold on mathematics, with some knowledge of scientific method, and fitted to do credit to themselves and to Liverpool in the engineering trades, or in other industries which their skill and trained practical ability night in time do much to promote in the city.
Entrance to the school should be confined to those whose work in the elementary school had proved their fitness to profit by the more advanced work of the manual training school. The course should be so arranged as to allow those boys who wished to stay three years to pass through a graded training extending over that time. Many of the boys, however, would probably leave at the end of the second year. If the week's school work were to amount to thirty hours, the division of time between the various subjects might be somewhat as follows:
weekly. English (including written and oral composition, national history, litera
ture, and, for part of the course, geography). Mathematics.-
5 Natural science (physics and chemistry, magnetism and electricity, and a
general course in theoretical and plied mechanics) Manual training and drawing
10 Physical training-
The manual training or workshop course would be correlated with the course in drawing (which should not ignore the artistic side) and with some parts of the instruction in natural science. It might begin, in the first year, with a course in carpentry and joinery, combined with a course in mechanical and freehand drawing. The next year's course, continuing the mechanical and freehand drawing, might include wood turning as preparatory to pattern making work, and the first part of a course in forging and blacksmithing. The latter might be continued in the third year, and be followed by a course in iron-fitting and elementary machine-tool work.
A manual training school of this kind should really be a school with a corporate life of its own, and not merely an aggregate of separate classes. A plain building of simple construction would be the most appropriate for its work, but it would be desirable that the rooms for class work should be well furnished and decorated with good taste.
The difficulty of obtaining suitable teachers for tuis school is admitted. The danger in this respect, says Mr. Sadlerwould be lest the school should fall either into the hands of men who were good at shop work, but had no experience of teaching boys and of organizing school
life, or into the hands of men who knew about school management, but were deficient in their practical knowledge of shop work. What is wanted is a combination of the two kinds of experience.
The suggestion is made that if the education committee venture upon the experiment of establishing the schoolthey should seek some thoroughly qualified, practical man with a strong interest in and experience of teaching, and after nominating him as head inaster, to send him to the United States to make a careful study of what is now being done there in the manual training schools. On his return he should be asked to submit a draft plan of work for the school, and inquiry might then be made for suitable menibers of the teaching staff, the importance of having good English teaching in the school being steadily borne in mind from the first.
Additional recommendations in the report advise means for encouraging and improving private schools which at present provide for about one-third the pupils receiving secondary education in Liverpool, and for strengthening of the upper classes of public elementary schools. If these are adopted the various agencies for “higher" education in Liverpool will be brought within a unified system.
The report is enriched by several appendixes, of which the most important is
“ Memorandum by Mr. Cloudesley Brereton on Suggested improvements in the teaching of modern languages in Liverpool.'” This appendix formulates the conditions for attaining exact and valuable results in the teaching of modern languages, a subject of ever-growing interest to all communities.
Secondary education in London.--The two reports above considered present for the cities to which they relate a more complete statement of the provision for secondary education than is at present available for any other city of England with the exception of London. While in the metropolis no single investigation covering the whole field of education has recently been attempted, the results of several independent investigations made during the past decade enable one to form a pretty clear idea of the provision the city offers for the education of its citizens. From an investigation made in 1892 by Mr. H. Llewellyn Smith, secretary of the National Association for the Promotion of Technical and Secondary Education, it appears that at that date there were in London 36 endowed secondary schools, attended by 12,500 boys, and 10 proprietary or stock company schools, attended by 1,800 boys. The endowed schools are subject to a form of public control through the right of Government to insure that the conditions of the trusts are fulfilled. The proprietary schools also have a semipublic character, being conducted under the auspices of incorporated companies.
In addition to the classes of schools named, there were denominational schools and schools for special classes, such as the sons of missionaries, the sons of poor clergymen, and the like, and above 450 private schools for boys and girls.
According to the results of an investigation published the same year as the above (1892). there were for girls 20 high schools, of which 2 were endowed and the remainder proprietary, having accommodations for 4,950 pupils, and 14 middle-class schools, with an attendance of 3,866 pupils.
It is interesting to compare the statistics of enrollment in the secondary schools of London given above with the estimates presented eleven years later by Mr. Sidney Webb, chairman of the technical education board of London. In his work on London education, published in 1903, Mr. Webb says:
There is a common impression that the public secondary schools of London are few and inefficient. Yet, including only foundations of which the manage
a See Studies in Secondary Education, edited by Arthur D. Acland, J. P., pp. 145–199.
See Studies in Secondary Education, chapter on Secondary education in London (girls)." Clara E. Collet.
their classification, but it is fair to assume that the pupils over 14 years of age in grades above the seventh have reached the secondary stage. These pupils in 1904 numbered 5,299.
The information here presented with respect to provision for education above the elementary grade in three great cities of England shows the variety and the peculiarly independent character of the agencies engaged in this work, and further the difficulty of arriving at any fair estimate of the actual amount of such provision in the country as a whole. This it is evident can only be done by special investigations similar to those that have been here reviewed. For conrenience of reference, the following statistics show the kind and amount of instruction given in the London board schools under the head of optional branches :
Subjects and number of students, 1903. Algebra 30, 382 Mathematics
27 Animal physiology 11, 599 Ilygiene
3, 174 Bookkeeping
17, 370 Chemistry
3, 807 Domestic economy-896 Magnetism and electricity
1, 960 Domestic science
7, 498 Elementary physics and chemistry. 11, 352 Physiography
290 Elementary science 11, 953 Sounds, light, and heat
5, 483 Experimental and practical sci
First aid, ambulance, home nurs-
47, 868 German
185, 811 The total, it will be seen, includes many duplications.
The statutes pertaining to the secondary and higher grade elementary schools in the three cities referred to are brought together in the following table, which includes also population and enrollment in elementary schools :
a As indicated in Schoolmaster's Year Book, 1904.
b Also 1,660 in private secondary schools. The statistics tabulated above present a very incomplete view of the actual number of young people pursuing secondary studies in the three cities included, as private schools are omitted, but on the other hand the table indicates quite clearly the extent to which secondary education has come to some degree at least under public management.a
a Evening schools classed now as secondary have not been included in the table, partly because statisties with reference to them are not complete and partly because they differ from day schools in respect to methods, curricula, and standards. The available statis. tics with respect to the registration in evening schools in the cities here considered are as follows:
The reports by Mr. Sadler and the work of Mr. Webb on London education give a very clear insight into the educational policies and conditions of the cities to which they relate, but the statistics drawn from these sources are chiefly valuable as illustrating a movement which has assumed national scope.
Independence and variety characterize English secondary schools, and in the judgment of the experts whose works have been cited are qualities that should be jealously guarded. Nevertheless the need of bringing this great department of education into closer harmony with elementary schools and with higher institutions and of reenforcing it by public funds and public supervision is urgent. The statistics tabulated may be taken both as a measure of what is already accomplished in this direction in the three cities specified and as a standard by which to measure further progress.
PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN TIIE MOVEMENT FOR ORGANIZING SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ENGLAND.
1835. Appointment of select committee to inquire into means of extending a knowledge
of the arts and of the principles of design among the artisan classes. 1836. Grant of £1,500 for the establishment of a normal school of design. 1837. Normal school of design opened. 1852. Department of practical art constituted. 1838. Science department added to the department of art. Reorganized department em.
powered to maintain special schools of art and science, to draw up examination schemes and conduct examinations of schools and classes complying with speci
tied conditions, and to distribute Government grant to the same. 1853. Charity commission appointed to inquire into the condition and management of
charities and to frame schemes for their administration ; educational endow
meats thus brought under supervision. 1856. Control of the department of science and art transferred to the committee of coun
cil on education, 1861. Lord Clarendon's commission to inquire into the nine leading public schools (sec
ondary). 1864. Lord Taunton's commission to inquire into the condition of additional secondary
schools (endowed grammar, proprietary, etc.). Report of commission published
in 1868. 1865. Endowed schools law passed. 1894. Commission appointed (Bryce's) to consider " What are the best methods for estab
lishing a well-organized system of secondary education in England, taking into account existing deficiencies and having regard to such local sources of revenue from endowment or otherwise as are available or may be made available for
this purpose?" 1895. Report of commission published. 1902. Education law passed authorizing local authorities to raise funds for and exercise
a measure of control over secondary education,