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EDUCATION AT THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION.
A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHIS COMPILED AND EDITED BY
GEORGE E. GAY,
Presiilent of the Elucational Exhibitors' Association of the Louisiana Purchase Erposition.
1.--PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES.a
STATES, TERRITORIES, AND INSI'LAR POSSESSIONS.
890 894 897
James B. Ragan, director
Chapter XV treats of polytechnical and art schools and certain other institutions at the St. Louis exposition. Universities and colleges in the United States and the educational systems of foreign countries are treated of in other chapters in Volume II of this Report.
The Educational Exhibitors' Association of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was composed of the directors of the educational exhibits in the Palace of Education and was established to promote social intercourse among its membership, to advance the interests of the several exhibits, and to promote the cause of popular education in all possible ways. The organization was successful in all departments of its work and added much to the pleasure of exhibitors and the benefits received by them.
It was early proposed by the association to publish a volume describing the educational exhibits and giving the lessons to be derived from them. The nature and form of this volume were discussed for a long time, and rarious propositions were entertained concerning its publication. It was finally decided, however, to offer the volume, when prepared, to Commissioner Harris for publication in his annual report. Doctor JIarris accepted the same, and it now appears in this form. The editorial charge of the several manuscripts was committed to me, with directions to combine them into an organic whole, so far as possible, and I have endeavored to comply with the wishes of the association.
Monographs were prepared in accordance with the following directions :
The proposed volume will be devoted to a description of school systems and an account of school exhibits shown at the St. Louis Exposition. It will be composed of a series of monographs, each descriptive of a single exhibit and containing
First. A preparatory essay on the school system represented. [Topics for this were suggested, and a description of the school system of one of the United States was supplied as a model of the kind of description desired.)
Second. An account of the preparation of the exhibit represented. This should be historical in character and should include original features in preliminary circulars, and a brief and orderly account of the steps by which the exhibit was prepared, collected, and made ready for shipment.
Third. A description of the principal features of the exhibit. The following topics are suggested as covering the matter desired, viz, expense, installation, arrangement, contents, principal features, and demonstration. In particular a complete account should be given of unique and original educational work shown in the exhibit, especially experiments of every kind, courses of study, methods of instruction, school devices, statistics, notable schools and depart. ments, and the work of special schools.
Finally, the lessons taught by the exhibit should be drawn modestly, but frankly and fully. They should include those principles of education which the exhibit illustrates and enforces.
Although these monographs were called for by circulars issued on the 4th day of October, and supplementary calls have been made upon all who failed to respond, the collection is not complete, and, much to the regret of the editor, the report does not cover every educational exhibit made at the exposition.
The call for monographs assigned to each exhibitor a definite number of words as the limit of his monograph. This limit was set by the editor after a general examination of each exhibit and an estimate of the amount of space which it occupied, as well as of its educational value. The smallest assignment was to individual institutions, for which a maximum of 300 words was assigned. The largest assignments were made to Germany and to the exhibit of the United States experiment stations and agricultural colleges, to each of which a limit of 8,000 words was set. Some of the manuscripts received have been considerably larger than I could possibly use, and I have, therefore, been compelled to reduce them to the amount of space which could properly be giren them. Others have been smaller than I expected. These I have not attempted to improve upon.
Certain considerations have led me to reduce or change some of the contributions; but, as a whole, except in the amount of matter, the monographs are in the words of their authors. Credit has been given to the authors whenever known. In some instances manuscripts were received without signature, and I had no means of ascertaining by whom they were written.
In the strictly editorial work I have been governed by the following principles: The compilation as a whole should be complete in its description of the exhibits; the style should be varied; there should be no unnecessary repetition, and as a whole the matter should be of general interest. No mention could be made of awards, no comparisons between exhibits could be introduced, and complimentary references to individuals must be avoided. Strict application of these principles has materially reduced the size of the work.
The thanks of the editor are due to the numerous contributors, known and unknown, who made the compilation possible. I believe they will find their reward in the value which it possesses for all educators who study it, and, in particular, for those people of the succeeding generation who will have the duty of preparing for the world's next great educational exhibition.
EDUCATION AT THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION.
BY GEORGE E. GAY.
Education at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition received a recognition at the hands of the managers of the exposition far greater than was ever given to this subject at any previous world's fair. One of the main buildings, in the very center of the exposition, was given up entirely to this department and to the kindred subject of social economy. Here were arranged, with all the skill and fullness which the ingenuity of thousands of investigators could devise, all things that can be presented to the eye and the ear concerning educational systems, methods of school instruction, the means and instruments of school instruction, and the results of school instruction; so that, while the exposition did all that was possible in giving dignity to the subject, educators the world over did all that they could do to take advantage of the opportunity presented. Justice requires that credit in the highest degree should be given also to the chief of the department of education, Howard J. Rogers, and his faithful assistants, under whose direction the department was organized and brought to full efficiency.
The following countries contributed educational exhibits : The Argentine Republic, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Ceylon, China, Cuba, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ilungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Roumania, Sweden, the United States.
The following States, Territories, and possessions of the United States made exhibits: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, liinois, Indiana, Indian Territory, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, the Philippine Islands, Porto Rico, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
The following cities had special assignments of space: Chicago, (leveland, New York, St. Louis.
The following universities and colleges were represented by exhibits: Amherst College, Boston University, Bryn Mawr, University of California, University of Chicago, Christian Brothers' College of St. Louis, Columbiil University, Cornell
ED 1904 M- 55
University, Forest Park University, Harvard University, Holy Cross College, University of Illinois, Johns Hopkins University, Mount Holyoke College, New York University, University of Michigan, University of Missouri, Simmons College, Smith College, Syrian Protestant College, St. Louis University, Vassar College, Washington University, Wells College, Wellesley College, Western College, Williams College, University of Wisconsin, Woman's College of Baltimore, Woman's College, Frederick, Md.; Yale University.
The following technical schools made exhibits: Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Hampton Institute, Manual Training School of Washington University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Pratt Institute, Purdue University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the United States experiment stations and agricultural colleges.
The following art schools had exhibits: Art Institute of Chicago, Massachusetts Normal Art School, Minneapolis School of Fine Arts, Museum Art School of Boston, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, St. Louis School of Fine Arts.
The following special exhibits were made : The exhibit of Brown's Business College, the exhibit of Jones's Business College, the exhibit of Phillips Exeter Academy, the Lutheran parochial school exhibit, the Philadelphia museum's exhibit.
The exhibits were installed in the Palace of Education and were ready for inspection, with few exceptions, on the opening day of the exposition. Very few of the exhibits, however, were complete at that time, and the work of installation continued during the entire month of May and a portion of June; indeed, not till late in June was the work of installation completed. Nevertheless, the educational building was one of the first buildings in the exposition whose exhibits were completely installed.
The amounts of space assigned to the several exhibits by the chief of the department differed very greatly, for in the assignment he endeavored to take into consideration the size and the worth of the exhibits to be made. The largest spaces assigned to separate exhibits were given to Germany and to the United States experiment stations and agricultural colleges. The smallest space assigned was probably 6 square feet, assigned to several of the smallest exhibits. To divide the entire space justly was a work requiring almost superhuman wisdom and skill, and that the division was made in a manner satisfactory to nearly or quite all the exhibitors seems almost beyond belief, but is, nevertheless, true.
The method of installing the exhibits, with the general style of booth and furnishings, was left to the judgment and taste of the individual exhibitors, subject to the approval of the chief of the department. Accordingly, the methods of installation were very numerous. The booths, in general, were planned as separate rooms, with elaborate ornamentation of the outer walls. The interiors were divided into separate alcoves by partitions and by cabinets, shelves, etc., in such a way as to provide the greatest possible amount of space for the exhibition of the various articles brought by the exhibitors. The furniture was as varied as the styles of architecture. There was some uniformity in cases, arising from the fact that nearly all American exhibitors used exhibit cabinets made by the same furniture company; but with these the similarity ended. A portion of the furniture was made by pupils in manual-training schools, a portion by prisoners in penal institutions, a portion by the contractor who erected the booths, and a large amount was purchased in St. Louis. As a whole, the installation was pleasing, the color effects were satisfactory, and the educational exhibit, as a whole, was much superior to that of any other exposition.
The nature of the several exhibits is fully presented in the monographs which
follow, and it is not my purpose to consider them at any length in this preliminary essay. It is necessary, howerer, for me to make certain general remarks concerning them, designed to be of use primarily to those who shall hereafter hare to do with the preparation of educational exhibits, and these remarks naturally fall under two heads—criticisms and commendations.
Among the excellencies to be commended, I mention the following:
First. A simple chaste booth and installation was a great excellence. This found emphatic illustration in some of the foreign exhibits—for example, those of Germany, Sweden, and Japan, which seemed to say to visitors : " Our exhibit is within these walls. We have given it a suitable temporary abiding place here. Your attention is directed to our exhibit, and not to the house in which we have placed it."
Another excellence to be commended was the bringing of furniture made by pupils in technical and manual-training schools of various kinds. This furniture was often especially well adapted to its purpose and was at the same time a suggestive exhibit in itself.
Another commendable feature of many of the exhibits was the large number and the great value of the charts giving statistical and other information in graphic form. These charts, when displayed upon the walls and easily seen, were among the most striking and useful features of the exhibits. Charts which were concealed from sight in cabinets or small alcoves were, of course, less easily found and examined. Charts which showed courses of study, timetables, and related facts had special interest and value. These charts were numerous in some exhibits and wholly wanting in others. Wherever found, they were well made and told their story simply and effectively.
Models of institutions, grounds, laboratories, etc., were more numerous than at any previous exposition and were most effective in showing material resources. Models are expensive to make, but they show better than anything else what may be called the physical equipment of educational institutions.
Large photographs upon walls, and albums of photographs upon tables, etc., formed a very useful part of the exhibits. As a whole, no doubt it is true that a larger amount of money was expended for photographs than was necessary. This is especially true in those cases where photographs of different objects were practically duplicates of one another. Photographs of one hundred schoolhouses may tell no more than the photograph of one schoolhouse, and photographs of many classes may give no better idea of school conditions than the photograph of one class. But the photographs, as a whole, large and small, on the walls, in cabinets, in albums, formed a very important part of the exposition, as they must of every exposition.
The manual-training exhibits were, as a whole, excellent and attracted a great deal of attention. They were sometimes very well displayed, and the method of display added very much to the interest which was taken in them. Those displays were the most useful which were numbered in series and showed the development of a course of study. Class exercises, showing how well each member of a class bad made some particular exercise, had value for the student of manual training but no special value for the general observer. In my judgment the most effective method of mounting manual-training models that was used was the placing of them upon panels covered with black cloth. This background gave to the models a force which no other mount seemed to give.
Maps of a State or county or city, showing the location of school buildings, with their size and characteristics, are always objects of much attention in an exposition, and possibly for this reason are to be commended. But they are very expensive as a rule, and convey little information concerning the conditions of school work and school life,