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of agricultural communities were the unified course of study for elementary schools, as shown by North Dakota ; the organization of teachers' reading circles, as in Indiana and South Dakota ; the use of native material in school work, illustrated by interesting exhibits from Mississippi, Utah, and New Mexico; the general introduction of drawing and manual training, as in village schools of Iowa and Indiana, and the beginning of continuation schools for adults in rural regions, as shown by Wisconsin.

The most comprehensive and perfectly organized exhibit of the rural schools of a State was made by Indiana. It included the evolution of the consolidation county school represented by means of photographs and statistical charts. The former set in striking contrast the old conditions and the new, the latter proved that the gain in all elements of efficiency had been accompanied by a saving in public expenditure.

This running commentary on the education department of the great exposition has been limited to the exhibition features and the general trend of effort which they illustrate. Space forbids more than a reference to the pedagogic problems which it forced upon attention. Critical observers were struck with the remarkable similarity in the methods of the public schools throughout our country. But the net result in any State seemed in large measure proportioned to the resources at command. Hence the serious import of the wide divergences in this respect revealed by comparative statistics. While, however, there are many influences working toward unity of method on certain lines, the dissimilarity in others is equally marked. Manual training shows, for example, progress in three different directions. The St. Louis manual training schools follow the French method of analysis and repetition of fundamental exercises. The St. Paul Manual Training School places emphasis on construction from the beginning, while the Stout Manual Training School (Menomonie) follows the Swedish idea of strict attention to pedagogic form and adaption. Deeper stil! are the differences in the systems of art training, especially as seen from the international standpoint. France holds to classic styles, and England shows the subtle influence of ritualistic and heraldic emblems. Germany of all foreign countries has departed farthest from conventional models and turned to nature with splendid results. The same movement in our own country is rapidly freeing our schools from the cramp of imitation.

The exhibits also brought distinctly to view the conditions of secondary education as it is developed in different countries, and emphasized the need of some international agreement with respect to the limits of this department if nations are, at this point, to profit each by the experience of all others. Such agreement, moreover, is indispensable before the estimate of international juries can carry conviction or stimulate to large endeavors.

It were, indeed, easy to suggest a dozen lines along which select exhibits could have been made from this whole vast collection for the study of particular principles and processes in their historic and social bearings.

As an object lesson in methods of display the exhibit here considered surpassed all former efforts of the kind. In its varied collections two media of expression proved most effective, namely, photographs and statistical charts. The former not only please the eye, but they fix, in living form, subtle suggestions of mental processes to which words seldom give utterance. Statistics, on the contrary, seize and correlate the salient facts of a historic movement or of a national condition as reflected in its chief social activity. They use, moreover, a universal language by means of which a nation like Japan-newly arrived among world powers-escapes the limitation of an unknown tongue and makes intelligible to them the story of her ascent.

In regard to completeness and graphic presentation it would be difficult to choose examples from exhibits so rich in this particular form of expression. It was, however, recognized that our own country had a remarkable advantage in the high degree of uniforinity that marked the statistical methods of independent States and cities. The result was justly attributed to the influence of the Bureau of Education, whose statistical survey of education in the United States formed the principal feature of its exhibit in the Government building. The reason for such location is obvious, but the regret was general that this series of charts, the impressive presentation of a nation's progress on every line of educational effort, could not have been duplicated to crown and complete our exhibit in the education palace.

ARIZONA.

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION.

The earliest record of public funds being used for public school purposes in Arizona is found in the proceedings of the first legislative assembly, which convened at Prescott in 1864. From these it appears that appropriations were made from the Territorial treasury for the benefit of the public schools in the towns of Prescott, La Paz, and Mohave, to the extent of $250 each, on the condition that the said towns appropriated a like sum. Five hundred dollars were appropriated to the school at Tucson at the same time, conditioned on instruction being given daily in the English language. No further mention was made of the public schools in any legislative assembly until 1868, from which it is inferred that whatever schools were in operation during the interim received their support from private sources. In 1868 the first attempt at school legislation was made, and the first public school law was enacted. This law was replaced by another in 1871, and that by still another in 1875, which remained in force until 1879. Changed conditions seemed to require further changes in the law, for in 1879, in 1881, and in 1883 other laws were passed; but these were all repealed in 1885, when the present law was enacted, which, with slight amendments, has governed the schools to the present day. The year 1885 may be fixed as the date when the school system of the Territory was founded. In that year the normal school at Tempe and the university at Tucson were established, which completes the chain from the primary school, through the grades, the normal school, and the university.

Prior to 1885 the reports and records of the public schools are incomplete. Consequently the progress of educational affairs must date from that year. The normal school at Tempe has grown in many ways. Additional buildings, apparatus of the latest improved types, and a useful library have been added as funds were available. The buildings now on the campus are the main building, training school building, and two large dormitories, all equipped with the latest designs in furniture and modern appliances. These dormitories will accommodate about 100 young ladies and gentlemen. The Northern Arizona Normal School at Flagstaff was established in 1899, and enrolled 35 pupils the first year, with but 2 teachers in charge. From time to time it was found necessary to finish off other rooms of the spacious building to accommodate the increased enrollment and the apparatus required for successful work, and now the teaching force consists of 8 teachers.

The Territorial university at Tucson is well equipped for thorough university work, having commodious buildings on the campus, and a new library building in course of construction to cost $25,000. There are 10,000 volumes in the present library. These buildings are situated at a convenient distance from the city proper. In 1885 there were 137 schools in the Territory, with 10,219 children of school age in attendance, while the last census in 03 gave 467 schools, with 25,951 children of school age.

ARIZONA'S EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT.

In the great palace of education and social economy at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition the Arizona exhibit is found in close proximity to those of California, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. It is not so large and bewildering that the visitor is lost in its study, but attractive, tastefully arranged, and complete in its representation of all the grades of instruction, from juvenile hand work without the embellishment or finishing touches of the instructor to finished specimens of drawing and work in the higher branches, showing most clearly that the educational system and progress thereunder in Arizona compare favorably with those of other States and Territories represented at the exposition.

The exhibit occupies a space of 30 feet on the aisle by 18 feet in depth. The façade of colonial architecture is characterized by four large white columns with gold trimmings, the hand railing being of oxidized brass. The arrangement and display of students' work were planned by the custodian, who tried to make the most attractive exhibit possible with the small capital available. The wall space was decorated with drawings in color, photographs of schools, and work from the manual training department. There are also four large wall disbiays, consisting of census tables, statistics, courses of study, etc. These tables are the work of a student in the university and have received much praise from visitors. Below these are hung two large, swinging-leaf cabinets showing views in and around the university. Extending around the booth at either end are shelves, upon which is displayed written work from the various schools of Arizona. The Tempe Normal School exhibits bound volumes of school work, one case of drawings, one of history and science, one of literature and work from the training school, and a case of photographs of buildings, classes, and class rooms, grounds, and drills. The Northern Arizona Normal School, located at Flagstaff, displays a large four-faced glass case of views of the buildings and class rooms in the school, the case being made of the beautiful white pine from the famous Coconino forest of northern Arizona. On the shelf :und wall immediately back of this case is shown the excellent work from this normal school, consisting of written exercises and drawings. Occupying a space on the right hand wall are four framed maps of great merit from the Nogales Public School. The remainder of that side is given to the Phoenix Indian School. There are six large leaves of work of its students, from the kindergarten through the seyenth grade. The manual training department of the same school displays one glass case of fine lace work and embroidery, three beautiful rugs, and one collection of ironwork. On the right entrance stands a hand-curved oak writing desk, made by a student of the Phoenix Indian School. A glass case on the right is filled with construction work in paper and geometrical solids, pea and toothpick work, clay modeling, eggshell work, and sewing.

The gathering of this exhibit was the work of the Territorial superintendent and others appointed by him, and represents in general the work being done in the Arizona schools.

CALIFORNIA.

BY ROBERT FURLONG, DIRECTOR.

THE EXHIBIT.

The display in the Californian section forms a collective exhibit from the leading cities and counties of the State; also an institutional exhibit from the University of California. Other State institutions are represented in photographic displays. Private schools and institutions have only a small representation.

THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

A pavilion or vestibule, 40 feet square, in the northeast corner of the education building, is used exclusively for a collective display from the University of California. This is the largest space allotted to any one institutional exhibit in the palace of education.

Although somewhat distant from the university section proper, the location is almost ideal. One of the main entrances to the Palace of Education is through the vestibule. There light and ventilation are good, while its nearness to California's general school display serves to unify the State's educational exhibit. Althouglı not obtrusive, the college colors are in evidence to gladden the hearts of U. C. students and other loyal visitors. Iligh on the four sides of the pavilion, in large letters of gold on a field of blue, all the principal activities of the university at Berkeley are set forth in full view, that "he who runs may read.” The most striking feature of this exhibit is the many beautiful photo-transparencies that give light and color to the interior walls of the paviliou. There are nearly 300 of these fine views on glass, many of them 16 by 20 inches in size, illuminated by electric lights concealed behind the framework that holds the pictures in place. It is a picture gallery of itself. Over one-third of these views are from the astronomical department of the university and are almost priceless, having been obtained at great effort and expense. Many of them are of the sun in total or partial eclipse. Some were taken in remote corners of the globe by astronomical expeditions sent out under the auspices of the Lick Observatory. Others in this group are the work of scientific observers who keep nightly vigils on Mount Hamilton, while studying the laws of the universe through the powerful instruments there at hand. A panorama of Berkeley and its environs on four glass plates, a total of 80 inches in length, gives a splendid view of the college town and its surroundings, including San Francisco Bay, with the Golden Gate in the distance. There are a dozen or more photo-transparencies presenting views of the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. Others are of college buildings, classes at work in the laboratories and in the field, the campus, the grand old oaks, the Greek theater, works of art, museum collections, etc. Another feature of the university display is the published bulletins that have been issued from time to time by the university Press. These cover a wide range. Special publications from the Liek Observatory occupy a separate show

Another showcase is occupied by student publications. Books written by authors who have been or who are now connected with the university, either as students or as members of the faculty, fill a good-sized library case. Another library case contains 84 volumes of translations into the Chinese language by Prof. John Fryer, of the chair of oriental languages. This unique exhibit of the work of Doctor Fryer represents a prodigious amount of labor. There are also maps, monographs, etc., prepared by university men and women.

case.

THE CALIFORNIA GENERAL SCHOOL EXHIBIT.

Less than 50 feet distant from the university pavilion is the handsome booth of polished wood inclosing California's general school exhibit for the State. The inclosed area is in the form of a trapezium, containing 1,700 square feet. The facades on three sides are of classic design. Doric columns and fluted pilasters support a rich cornice, 14 feet above the floor. The whole structure, however, has many features that are distinctively Californian. A continuous arcade facing the broad aisles on the three exposed sides is characteristic of California's mission architecture. Two arched windows of art glass, symbolizing California's fruits and flowers, light the office at the sharp angle of the trapezium. No stain or paint mars the natural beauty of the native redwood, furnished only from California forests. The installation is unique and original, as well as artistic. Beneath nine of the graceful arches along the side façades are cabinets that open outward, while at their backs a corresponding number of cabinets open to inner aisles. Cross sections or blocks of eight cabinets each, with aisles between, fill the interior floor space. Four large arches of the front facade and one on the longer side are invitingly open to visitors.

The inner walls of the façades are beautified by framed photographic views of rare size and excellence. A view of the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, 14 feet in length, has attracted the attention of many thousands of visitors. A photograph 12 feet in length is of the Leland Stanford Junior University. One of the State capitol at Sacramento is 8 feet in length; two of 6 feet each are of the State normal school building at San Jose Santa Clara and Notre Dame colleges in Santa Clara County are shown in photographs, each over 7 feet in length. All of these grand pictures are from 2 to 3 feet each in width inside of frame. Except the view of the State capitol, all are by Andrew P. Hill, of San Jose, and came in the educational exhibit from Santa Clara County.

Art work in water colors and crayon sketches by high school pupils, alternated with exhibits in sloyd, Indian baskets, and other constructive work in wood and metal from manual training schools, all harmoniously arranged, form mosaics of the walls above the arches.

Eighty-four ringed cabinets with shelved bases resting on the floor are filled with material from the elementary and secondary schools of the State. It is here in nearly 1,000 bound books and over 10,000 cabinet exhibits that the schools of California have their display. Nearly all of the cities and counties that rank well educationally are represented by exhibit material from their schools.

San Francisco has over 300 bound books, a wall exhibit of manual training. and 10 cabinets filled with pupils' work.

Los Angeles city has 7 cabinets, several bound volumes, a display of sloyd, and a fine exhibit of Indian basketwork from pupils of the elementary grades. Ten cabinets of material are from Los Angeles County, outside the city. This includes Pasadena, Pomona, Whittier, Long Beach, Compton, and other towns, also many rural schools.

The city of Oakland has 7 cabinets filled with drawings, water colors, and sketches, a wall exhibit, showcases filled with the handiwork of pupils, and 80 bound volumes. Berkeley has 3 cabinets and a number of books on shelves and in showcases. The county of Alameda, outside of the cities, presents an attractive display of pupils' work from the town, village, and rural schools, also an exhibit of school administration in the county, a cabinet of the wild flowers of the county, and a cabinet of drawings from the Haywards schools. This exhibit has also a large number of photographs of school build

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