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much information to the parents as well as the general public and brought both into closer sympathy with the schools and their management.

It was also understood that all exhibits of the State would be assembled at Denver prior to being taken to St. Louis, thus giving the added opportunity to see what is being done in other parts of the State. Thousands visited the collective exhibit. All seemed surprised, and many wondered if the children could do it again.

Second. The course of study of each school should be illustrated as fully as possible by the actual work of the pupils in that school, thus benefiting the entire State, as well as the school, by giving opportunity for comparison, if not furnishing new ideas to students of education at the exposition.

Third. The complete system of public education should be shown as an organic whole-from the kindergarten through the elementary, secondary, and higher schools, including the juvenile court and detention house, the industrial school for boys, and the school for girls, the State home for dependent children, and the school for the deaf and blind, the State university, the State normal, the State agricultural college, and the State school of mines.

Fourth. There should be demonstrated what can be accomplished in manual training and domestic science in a period of eight or ten years, working one and one-half hours per week in the elementary schools, and three or four times as much in the secondary manual schools. Also the relative importance of these subjects in the courses of study of the various schools in the State, and their influence, if possible, on the remaining subjects taught.

Fifth. To show that drawing and art can be correlated with manual training from the kindergarten through the elementary and secondary courses of study, and that they should be so correlated.

Sixth. To show the evolution of the schools of Colorado during the past twenty-eight years, relatively and absolutely, by means of six models of schoolhouses, consisting of the “dugout," sod house, log house, modern rural frame house, modern city graded school, and high school; and by statistical tables showing the growth of interest in education, and the State's position compared with the other States, with reference to expenditures per capita for school purposes.

The substance of the foregoing and many general and special suggestions were embodied in circular form and distributed to superintendents, principals, teachers, and school authorities throughout the State.

In the main only general suggestions were made for the preparation of material to illustrate courses of study. It was not desired to secure uniformity in the work from all the schools of the State, but to give as much freedom as possible to teachers and supervisors in preparing their exhibits, provided that the preparation be made with fidelity to their course of study. Special directions were given with reference to certain kinds of drawings and their mounting; to the form of the manuscript work, the original draft with its indicated corrections in red ink to be preserved and bound with the pupil's corrected copy, thus showing a teaching process; the different steps in the production of certain finished pieces in manual training were to be illustrated, and for the same purpose.

Special visits were made to superintendents and supervisors, to superintendents' and teachers' associations, and to State institutions, in order to gain and disseminate ideas that might prove helpful in preparing the exhibits.

All parts of the State's exhibit were prepared, collected, arranged, and installed in accordance with the purposes and general plan above mentioned.

The various kinds of work from each system of schools were installed as a unit, showing the grades in progression rather than by subjects.

Some of the most striking exhibits—the “ Evolution of the schoolhouse,” the

tissue-paper art windows, and the manual training from various schools were placed in the back part of the booth in such position that no one could fail to see them from the aisle outside.

The walls and partitions were covered with manual work, maps, charts, photographs, and more than sixty educational leaf cabinets filled with drawings, l'hotographs, and paintings. Nearly two hundred bound volumes of manuscript were displayed on the shelves of the cabinet bases.

It was the intention to arrange the exhibits in a simple, orderly, tangible way, so as to attract and hold the attention of the visitor, and at the same time to assist him in following up the illustration of any course of study.

Some of the lessons of the exhibit may be summarized as follows:

First. In order to be of most value an exhibit must consist largely of the regular school work rather than special work or show work. It should be collected throughout the school year, and ought to show a teaching process wherever possible.

Second. Manual training, correlated with drawing and art, is not of importance mainly on its own account, but in its bearing and influence, directly or indirectly, on every other subject studied, and through these on the character of the child. The inference might here be made that if manual training one and one-half hours per week is good, three or four hours per week would be better.

Third. If the general opinion of visitors be taken as the expression of good judgment, an exhibit should be simple enough to be readily understood, yet complex enough to be educative in its general effect.

Fourth. A lesson to the school men of Colorado is that while her schools are doing some things as well as, and some things better than, they are done in other parts of the world, still they are doing other things not so well, and ample room for improvement may be found in many parts of the State.

CONNECTICUT.

BY C. D. HIINE, SECRETARY OF STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION,

THE EXHIBIT.

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The Connecticut educational exhibit was arranged by towns and cities, except in the portion displayed on the walls.

On the south wall are two panels of drawings from the Arsenal, Northwest, Northeast, Second North, Brown, and Washington Street schools of Hartford ; charts from New Ilaven, showing drawing and water colors; charts of watercolor work from New London; charcoal drawings from Middletown. On the north wall are drawings from Middletown; picture of tbe New Haven High School; pottery and basketry, original designs on cloth, leather, and wood from the New Haven schools; woodwork from the Stamford schools. On the east wall are three panels of raffia work and three panels of woodwork from the South School, Hartford ; three panels of machine work, woodwork, forging, Venetian ironwork, and pottery work from the pupils of the Boardman Manual Training School, New Ilaven; four panels of work from the manual training department of the Hartford High School; two panels from the West Middle School, Hartford, showing specimens of the pupils' work in drawing and original design.

The Middletown exhibit is shown in cabinets 1 and 2. It consists of papers and illustrated booklets, showing correlation of nature study, language, and drawing, and history and geography with language and drawing. In the cases below are bound volumes of pupils' work in history, geography, nature study, Latin, physics, essays, drawing; and from the high school, work in French, German, Latin, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, political economy, Greek history, English.

The New Haven exhibit is in cabinets 3 to 15, 53 to 36, inclusive. In these cabinets are exhibited specimens of pupils' work in drawing, kindergarten, nature study, science, English composition and letter writing, technical grammar, local history, United States history, penmanship, sewing, handicraft work, reading, arithmetic, suggestions for busy work. On the shelves are shown bound volumes of pupils' work in the subjects enumerated above, and also of kindergarten work. The high school work is shown in cabinets 12 to 15 and also on the panels above the cases. In the cabinets are shown the blanks used in the high school administration, outline of the courses of study, showing the number of periods devoted to each study, work from the business department, free-hand drawings, mechanical drawings, samples of work in sewing, domestic science, botany. Particular attention is called to the photographs of the pieces in wood carving, pottery, Venetian ironwork, shop work, and sewing actually completed by the class graduating from the Boardman Manual Training School in June, 1903. On the shelves are bound volumes of bigh school pupils' work in drawing, domestic science, geography.

The Hartford exhibit is shown in cabinets 16 to 26 and 32. The high school exhibit is in cabinets 16 to 18, and shows pupils' work in constructive drawing, free-hand drawing, work from the commercial department. In the cases are bound volumes of constructive drawing, blueprints, business forms, and specimens of the work of the pupils in the manual-training department. Other specimens from the manual-training departments are shown on panels above the cabinets. The work from the graded schools is shown in cabinets 19 to 26 and 32, and on the wall space above the cabinets. On the cabinet leaves are shown selected specimens of the pupils' work in geography, arithmetic, technical grammar, drawing, history, language and literature, nature work and science, algebra, geometry, penmanship, both work of the teachers and of the pupils, sewing and cooking outlines. There are on the shelves bound volumes of pupils' work in all of the subjects mentioned, and also an exhibit of kindergarten work, raffia, Venetian ironwork, basketry work, sewing, and a collection of twigs.

The New London schools exhibit, in cabinet 27, work in history, geography, arithmetic, and grammar. The bound volumes include the subjects mentioned and penmanship and portfolios of drawings.

The city of Norwich is represented by work from central district schools and from the schools in the West Chelsea district. The central district shows, in cabinet 28, work from the pupils in the graded schools. There are selected papers in language, literature, history, geography, and nature study. There are bound volumes of work in arithmetic, language, history, geography, literature, spelling, nature work, and in the case some mounted butterflies. The West Chelsea district, in cabinet 37, has selected work in arithmetic, history, geography, language, grammar, literature, and drawing, and bound volumes in the same subjects. In the case is an industrial chart on flax, prepared for school use.

The Stamford schools use cabinets 29 and 30 for showing commercial work from the high school and from the graded schools pupils' work in language, reading, drawing, kindergarten work, and cooking. There are bound volumes of

pupils' work in drawing, history, geography, miscellaneous work, and portfolios of forms in high school commercial department, drawing, and sewing.

In cabinet 31 Bristol shows selected papers in color work, drawing, designs for book covers, sewing, kindergarten work, and on the shelves portfolios of drawing and sewing, bound volumes of pupils' work in arithmetic, physiology, history, geography, language, and drawing.

Work from the rural schools in North Canaan and Prospect is shown in cabinet 33. The work from North Canaan is in English and mathematics, from Prospect in language and in science. There are also bound volumes in English, geometry, and language from these schools. In this cabinet are drawings from Groton, Meriden, and Greenwich, and bound volumes of pupils' work in drawing, writing, arithmetic, language, and music from Westbrook ; in grammar, arithmetic, and spelling from Southington. One volume on this cabinet contains a stenographic report of the entire work of a half day in an ungraded school in Southington.

The Waterbury exhibit is in cabinets 34, 35, 36. A series of photographs shows the changes that have been made in school buildings in that city during the last ten years. There are specimens of free-hand drawing from the pupils of the high and evening schools; work of the pupils of the graded schools in civics, primary language, and local history. On the shelves below are bound volumes of pupils' work in language and history and civics.

The Connecticut State normal schools' exhibit in cabinets 38 to 41. In cabinets 38 and 39 is shown the work of the children in the model schools of the New Britain Normal School in drawing, nature study, science, stories from Connecticut history, translation from French (Grade VIII); the work of the normal school students in the geography of New Britain and vicinity. In the case is shown geological maps of the city and vicinity, prepared by the students. Booklets containing stories from Connecticut history and drawings by the model school children are on the shelves. The exhibit in cabinet 40 was prepared at the Willimantic State Normal School. The organization of the school, course of study, outline of plan for primary arithmetic, primary geography, letter writing, normal school extension, general plan, and typical science lessons are shown on the cabinet leaves. On the shelves are bound volumes of " Outline of work done in practice school in primary arithmetic” and “General plan of teaching letter writing." The New Ilaren Normal School shows, in cabinet 41, a Plan of common school education followed in the State Normal School, New Haven." In the case is a sample of a science cabinet prepared at the school, to be loaned to the teachers in the public schools of the State. A noteworthy feature of this exhibit is the list of books actually read in the different grades of the model schools connected with this school. On the shelves of cabinet 42 are two sets of Connecticut town reports and a set of the reports of the Connecticut State board of education and samples of library and school documents.

The exhibit of the New Britain city schools is shown in cabinets 43 and 44. It consists of papers showing the work of the high school in stenography and typewriting, and graded school work in penmanship, language, spelling, arithmetic, algebra, drawing, and kindergarten work. On the es are bound volumes of pupils' work in language, spelling, arithmetic, algebra, portfolios of drawings, photographs, and kindergarten work.

The exhibit of the Deep River schools (town of Saybrook) is arranged in cabinet 45. It consists of papers selected from pupils' work in algebra, arithmetic, number, papers showing the correlation of drawing with language, geography, history, and literature. There are bound volumes of pupils' work in algebra, arithmetic, and language.

In cabinet 46 the Connecticut public library committee show the library privileges open to the people of the State. There is a map showing the distribution of public libraries, charts showing organization and statistics, photographs of the buildings. On the shelves are samples of library and school documents, a library scrapbook, a sample portfolio of Audubon bird charts, sample portfolio of pictures loaned by the Society of Colonial Dames. In special cases in front are samples of libraries loaned to the library committee by the Audubon Society and the Society of Colonial Dames. These portfolios and libraries are loaned by the committee to the public schools of the State.

The Bridgeport exhibit is in cabinets 47 to 51. In cabinet 47 the Bridgeport City Normal School shows charts prepared by the normal students “ during the discussion and application of the principle concerning the relation of the concrete to the abstract in instruction." In cabinet 50 the city normal school shows methods in geography and the work of the practice and regular departments. In the other cabinets are shown specimens from the art work of the public schools and pupils' work in arithmetic, language, composition, history ; outlines of the methods of teaching music in the schools; a series of photographs illustrating the methods of physical training. There are bound volumes of pupils' work in drawing, composition, and arithmetic.

In cabinet 52 Ansonia shows the city school administration, specimens of the work of the children showing the correlation of drawing and language, pupilso work in number and drawing, and work from the high school. There are bound volumes of pupils' work in language, geography, history, and Latin.

ILLINOIS.

BY ALFRED BAYLISS, STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

ORGANIZATION.

The public school system of Illinois is based upon the statutory provision that “each Congressional township is hereby established a township for school purposes.” The law provides that three trustees shall be elected in each township, to hold office for three years, one being elected each year. The trustees appoint a township treasurer, who is under bond, and whose duty it is to receive, hold, and pay out all school moneys, securities, papers, and effects belonging to the township or the school district. The trustees are authorized to "lay off the township into one or more school districts, to suit the wish or convenience of a majority of the inhabitants of the township.” This provision has led to the establishment of 11,751 districts, 10,677 of them so small as to require the services of but a gle teacher.

In each school district having a population less than 1,000 there is a board of three directors, and in each district having more than 1,000 and not over 100,000 inhabitants there is elected a board of education consisting of a president and six members and " three additional members for every additional 10,000 inhabitants." The term of office of directors and members of boards of education is three years, one-third of the membership being elected annually. The presidents of boards of education are elected as such by the voters annually, and have no vote except in case of a tie. In cities having a population exceedED 1904 M

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