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every line of work. The State Forestry Association exhibited publications of the society. The State Forestry School exhibited the work of students, various forestry scenes, seeds, and sections of timber grown in Nebraska, photographs of the Dismal River, Government forestry reserve, 50 large colored photographic views of timbers and forests, 100 framed charts tinted to show the distribution of each tree in Nebraska and in the United States; also photograplis of J. Sterling Morton, the founder of Arbor Day, and his home at Arbor Lodge.
The State Normal School at Peru was represented by a series of enlarged colored photographs and by the work of its art department.
The University of Nebraska was represented by colored enlarged photographs of its campus, buildings, and equipment; by a particularly creditable display by the art department; by original models and charts from the department of zoology and medicine; by large relief maps, geological maps and sections, crystal models, and published reports; by an elaborate set of photographs and drawings showing the laboratories and equipment of the electrical department, which also exhibited original apparatus, theses of students, and published reports; by photographs of the psychological laboratories; photographs and statistics of the University School of Music, with published reports and printed and manuscript music; by statistics from the English department, particularly the branch of debating, showing photographs of all contestants, statistics, and victories in the intercollegiate debates; awards from the funds established by the Hon. William Jennings Bryan, etc.; by books and published reports from the departments of botany, geology, zoology, pedagogy, electrical engineering, and psychology; by trophies and statistics of victories in athletics.
Union College, at Collegeview, represented a remarkable industrial and applied system of education, not only showing college work of standard grade, but every phase of practical work in the trades and agriculture, the care of the sick, and the economics and management of the household. This was ably illustrated by photographs, catalogues, and papers printed on the college press and bound in the college bindery. The work in relief maps was of special merit, ranging from crude free-hand work in paper by the first grade to that of the State geological survey and of the University of Nebraska.
The study of geography by the scrapbook method, a very successful method devised and used in the Omaha public schools, was presented for inspection in large bound portfolios, and attracted the notice and elicited the favorable comments of teachers. A new method of teaching crystallography developed in the State University was shown, by which blocks of plaster of Paris with axes of silk are used. By cutting and modifying these with reference to the axes the various forms are produced,
BY S. R. MORSE, DIRECTOR.
The decision to make an educational exhibit from New Jersey at the world's greatest exposition was delayed until late in October, 1903. As the exposition was to be opened on May 1, 1904, this gave a scant allowance of time for the formulation of plans and the preparation, collection, selection, arrangement, ship
ment, and installation of work. Notwithstanding this unfortunate delay, of the 35 States which made an educational exhibit New Jersey's was the first to be in place and ready for inspection.
As soon as the decision to make a display was reached all local school authori. ties were at once notified, but our circular (No. 3) outlining the plan of work was not printed and ready for distribution until November 20. The response to the circular was prompt, cordia), and very nearly general. The principal suggestions contained in it were as follows:
Each county and city superintendent was made chairman of a committee of his own selection to take charge of the preparation of the work forwarded from the schools under his supervision.
Special committees, comprised of experts in each of the several lines of school work, were appointed to assist in the final selection of material to be forwarded to St. Louis.
In order to stimulate healthful rivalry, awaken a general interest in the State exhibit, and give the parents and friends of pupils an opportunity to see their work, a public exhibit of the work of each school was recommended before sending it to the county or city superintendent.
County and city exhibits were also suggested to be made before superintendents forwarded the work received by them to State headquarters. This affordel an excellent opportunity for comparing the work of different schools and gave each teacher an opportunity to see what was best. This local exhibit is the most interesting and valuable factor that can be associated with the preparation of the work for a world's exposition. Nothing is more effective in strengthening educational sentiment or proves more helpful in establishing the closer bond of sympathy so much needed between the home and the school than the local display, in which each parent has an opportunity to see the work of his own and his neighbor's children.
In addition to the preceding, circular No. 3 gave extended specific and general instructions for the preparation, classification, and mounting of school work. All kinds of paper needed for the final work of pupils and the cardboard required, to mount it were furnished by the State.
The following special exhibits were solicited: Specimens of minerals corrertly labeled and boxed ready to be set up, each label to state the name of the sprecimen, when and where found, and the name, age, and grade of the contributing pupil; mounted specimens of plants and leaves; homemade apparatus Ful physical and chemical experiments; text-books, monographs on special topics, and other literary productions prepared by teachers, principals, and superintendents engaged in public school work ; photographs showing the architecture of school buildings, their class rooms, furniture, apparatus, and the personnel of teachers and pupils; also any special literary, scientific, mechanical, or artistic work of pupils.
In common with all other States, New Jersey exhibited copies of school law, annual reports, courses of study, catalogues, rules and regulations, and the various blank forms found necessary in modern school administration.
The New Jersey educational exhibit differed in some features from that of other States. It had the same wing cabinets that were designed and used exclusively by the New Jersey department of public instruction at Chicago in 1893, but for the display of books and various lines of work not readily shown upon the walls or in the cabinets, drawers instead of shelves were placed under the cabinets. These enabled the work to be put in convenient form for inspection and had the additional merit of keeping it clean.
Another feature entirely new and used for the first time at this exposition was the index key, of which the following is an explanation :
The exhibit was divided into sections lettered from A to M, inclusive, and these were subdivided into units numbered from 1 to 08, inclusire. Each unit consisted of a leaf cabinet with six drawers directly underneath. The units from 15 to 21, inclusive, were arranged to serve as an index to the entire public school exhibit. Unit No. 15, for instance, directed to first year's work, and unit No. 16 directed to second and fourth years' work, etc. In order to find the work from a particular school it was simply necessary, first, to find in one of the index cabinets the card containing work from the county or city in which said school is located. This card directed you to the section, to the unit, and to the volumes in which all the work of the school, except that placed upon the walls, could be found. Different lines of school work were bound in different colored volumes, as shown by index cards. Other unique features of the New Jersey exhibit were as follows:
The manual-training work of each school was shown in connection with its academic. An exhibit, consisting of sketches prepared by pupils of the public schools, of historical events that have occurred in the State was accompanied by photographs of historical places and served to stimulate unusual interest in a most important line of investigation. The educational value of an exhibit of this character was duly appreciated, eren by unprofessional sight-seers. A combined exhibit of music and art was exceptionally fine and attracted much attention. By means of systematic arrangement, a large amount of work was displayed within small compass. The work in the leaf cabinets was not shown in single sheets, but in the majority of cases from five to twenty sheets were fastened in a single space, so that the entire work of a class could be conreniently inspected.
The general arrangement of the work in the New Jersey educational booth was as follows:
Beginning at the left entrance, there came first that of the New Jersey normal and model schools, next that of the State Industrial School for Colored Youth, and then followed in regular order the general exhibit of primary, grammar, and high school work.
The State normal and model schools of Trenton furnished a complete exhibit of their work, filling six cases, the wall space above these cases, and a number of bound volumes. In preparation for the exhibit, the teachers of the various grades and departments of the schools were requested to select typical exercises from the regular work of the pupils and hare these exercises copied by the pupils on uniform exhibition paper without criticism by the teachers, so that so far as the pupils were represented the work should be distinctly their
In the normal school the types chosen represented not only the efficiency of the pupil, but the plan of the work, or, rather, the method. For instance, a number of typical exercises in English would show the method of taking up the study of English with different grades of pupils, the subjects of English study, and their application to the various grades of pupil development,
In the model school the exercises exhibited typical academic work from eaclı one of the subjects taught in the school and were so arranged as not only to show what was regarded by the authorities of the school as good work, but also to constitute an expression in practice of the theory of the normal. For instance, in the department of drawing there were specimens of constructive, representative, and decorative drawing and color work, and applications of designs in mechanical drawing, posters, pen and ink sketching, etc., all so applied as to meet the standards of practical use in the arts and crafts.
The work as a whole was so systematically arranged that a compreliensive
panoramic view of the school work of the State was clearly presented and the visitor furnished concrete proof of the progressiveness of the Garden State and the excellence of its public school system.
BY M, W. PORTERFIELD, COMMISSIONER,
New Mexico's educational institutions were represented at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition by excellent exhibits from the normal school at Silver City, the Normal University at Las Vegas, the University of New Mexico at Albuquerque, the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Mesilla Park, the School of Mines at Socorro, the Military Institute at Roswell, and from a large number of graded schools and country schools, fully demonstrating the educational facilities of the Territory.
It must be said for the educators who had the preparation of this work in charge that the brief time allotted to them was well employed, as the late date at which the appropriation was available left them only the few weeks remain
between the 1st of January, 1904, and the opening of the exposition. At a meeting of the educational association, convened at the capitol building at Santa Fe on December 27, 1903, M. W. Porterfield, superintendent of exhibits for New Mexico, appeared before the association and addressed the educators on the subject of providing a creditable exhibit of the educational facilities of New Mexico at the exposition, asking the association to appoint a committee to aid him in outlining a plan which would insure uniform and comprehensive exhibits from all the schools of the Territory. The committee appointed consisted of Dr. C. M. Light, president of the Silver City Normal School; Prof. A. B. Stroup, principal of the Albuquerque High School, and Prof. J. A. Wood, superintendent of the Sant Fe schools, who presented to the association a detailed working plan, which was adopted, and the principals of all schools of the Territory and the presidents of all the higher institutions were appointed to cooperate in the work of preparing the exhibits.
It was agreed that cabinets and wing frames of suitable design would be used, and that the New Mexico commission would furnish to each school as many of these as it could utilize. The cards to be used in the wing frames were shipped direct to each school, and the school work attached to these according to a prescribed rule, ready to be placed in the frames. In this condition they were shipped to St. Louis, where the cabinets and wing frames were ready to receive them.
The work was uniformly prepared in the manner outlined, and the cards numbered, so that when they reached St. Louis everything was in systematic order and readily fitted into the cabinets. In addition to the work suited for installation in the wing frames were specimens from the manual training departments, biological departments, kindergarten work, raffia work, map work, and photographs of the school buildings. These were exhibited on the walls of the booth and in upright show cases along the front of the aisle, making in all a very neat and attractive exhibit.
BY DE LANCY M. ELLIS, DIRECTOR.
The administration of the school system of the State of New York has been more complex than that of any other State in the Union. This was owing to the fact that while the sentiment toward public education is in no State more generous, yet the administration of educational affairs was highly centralized in two departments. The State department of public instruction and the University of the State of New York, the two educational departments under which the schools were formerly administered, were merged by act of the legislature of 1904, and now the controlling power is designated as the education department of the State of New York, consisting of two coordinate branches—the board of regents (the legislative branch) and the commissioner of education (the executive).
The members of the board of regents, numbering eleven, are elected by the legislature on joint ballot, and serve for a term of eleven years, one member retiring each year. The board exercises the powers of the corporation known as the University of the State of New York, with which powers it has been charged since the granting of the charter by the legislature in 1784, and in addition thereto exercises advisory powers on State educational policies as related to, elementary and secondary schools, as well as the higher institutions. The members of the board receive no compensation, but are paid actual expenses while in attendance upon meetings of the board.
The first commissioner of education was elected by the legislature for a term of six years, and his successors are to be appointed by the board of regents and serve during its pleasure. He is the executive officer of the board and has general and administrative supervision of all educational interests in the State. He administers the consolidated school law, the university law, and the general statutes of the State relating to education, and has power to create such departments as in his judgment are necessary and to appoint deputies and heads of departments, subject to the approval of the board. The heads of the several divisions appoint, subject to the approval of the commissioner, the subordinates in their respective divisions. All appropriations of public money made in support of the common school system and all appropriations in aid of secondary education are certified by the commissioner and paid by the State treasurer on the warrant of the comptroller. The commissioner receives a salary of $7,500 per annum and $1,500 per annum in lieu of personal expenses. There are three assistant commissioners, appointed on the nomination of the commissioner and the approval of the board, each receiving $5,000 per annum. The first assistant commissioner is in charge of universities, colleges, professional and technical schools, and of the execution of the laws concerning the professions, also the relations and chartering of institutions. The second assistant has charge of high schools and academies and of the training of teachers therefor, including the oversight of the State Normal College. The third assistant has charge of the elementary schools and of the training of teachers therefor, including normal schools, training classes, and teachers' institutes. It devolves on each assistant to guide the work and uplift the institutions of his class. In the absence of the commissioner, the assistant commissioners in their numerical order act in his stead.