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Table IVa.- Average number of years of schooling (of 200 days each) that each individual

of the population received at the different dates specified in the table, taking into account all public and private schooling of whatever grade.

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Table IV' ,--The same, taking into account only the schooling furnished by public elementary

and secondary schools.

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Table IVc.- Average entire amount of schooling, public and prirate, since 1800, at different

epochs, given in days (parily estimated).

1800. 1810. 1850. 1860.

Days.

82 208 420 431

1870......
1880..
1890.
1901.

Days. 672 792

892 1,012

Universities, colleges, and technological schools (see Chapter XXV, p. 1417).—The number of higher institutions included in this report is 607, with a total teaching staff of 17,559 men and 4,267 women, and 118,029 students. The matter of retiring allowances for aged professors has been brought prominently before the public by the action of Mr. Andrew Carnegie in giving $10,000,000 as a fund, the income of which is to provide pensions for professors in universities, colleges, and technological schools, without regard to race, sex, or creed. The letter of Mr. Carnegie transferring the fund to a board of trustees, and which contains the general conditions concerning the classes of institutions to which it applies, is given in this chapter. Under the terms of the letter State and denominational institutions are not to share in the fund.

For some years a few of our larger universities have been granting retiring allowances to professors under varying conditions, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, Cornell, the University of California, and Randolph-Macon Woman's College. There may be oth

ers that have adopted the principle from which no information has been received. The conditions under which allowances are granted · vary in the several institutions and are given in the chapter. Another movement for the benefit of college professors is found in the system of sabbatical leaves of absence. Under this system a professor becomes entitled to a leave of absence one year out of seven, usually on half pay. In many cases the leave is spent for the purpose of study, usually abroad, and the institution as well as the professor shares, therefore, in the benefit derived from such leave. At the University of Illinois such leave is granted only on condition that it be spent in study.

The number of students in attendance at these institutions shows a considerable increase over the number for the preceding year. The number of undergraduate and resident graduate students from 1889– 90 to 1903-4 is as follows:

Number of undergraduate and resident graduate students in universities, colleges, and

schools of technology from 1889–90 to 1903–4.

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The number of students in technical courses of study, especially in engineering lines, is increasing very rapidly, and additional courses in those lines are being constantly established. Foreign countries are well represented in the institutions of this country, the catalogues showing the presence of 2,673 foreign students. The number from the several countries is given in a tabular statement in this chapter. From British North America there came 614; Mexico, 308; Cuba, 245; Japan, 236; Porto Rico, 105; China, 93.

Graduate work at the leading universities is expanding very rapidly. A comparative statement including ten universities shows that modern languages attract the largest number of graduate students, followed in the order of their popularity by history and political science, philosophy (including pedagogy), ancient classics, chemistry, mathematics, botany, physics, geology, etc.

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The value of all property amounts to $465,216,545, an increase of almost $33,000,000 in one year.

The income amounted the past year to $40,329,193 and the benefactions to $13,700,559. Of the total income $9,922,903 were received from States and municipalities. The chapter shows that in nine States and two Territories a general property tax is levied for the benefit of the institutions for higher education.

The total number of degrees conferred in 1903-4 was 18,174; A. B. degrees, 5,902 on men, 3,372 on women; B. S., 3,238 on men, 437 on women; A. M., 1,010 on men, 279 on women.

The movement inaugurated several years ago for the granting of but one degree (A. B.) for the completion of any course of liberal studies is still in progress. Seven institutions reported during the year the discontinuance of all degrees except A. B.

Of 301 Ph. D. degrees 272 were conferred on men and 29 on women; Harvard conferred 46, Yale 39, Johns Hopkins 31, Chicago 30, and Columbia 28. In addition, 5 honorary Ph. D. degrees were conferred by three institutions (three by Austin College).

Agricultural and mechanical colleges (See Chapter XXVI, p. 1545).—The statistics contained in this chapter have been compiled from the annual reports required to be made by these institutions to the Secretary of the Interior under the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, and show continued growth and expansion in all lines of work. The courses in agriculture are becoming more specialized, and new courses in engineering lines are being constantly established.

These institutions were established under the land-grant act of July 2, 1862, and the income-producing funds derived from the sale of the lands amount now to $11,737,316, only the income of which may be expended. Under the act of August 30, 1890, each State and Territory now receives annually $25,000 from the General Government for the benefit of these institutions. The total amount paid out under this act from its passage up to and including the installment for the year ended June 30, 1904, is $15,202,000. The reports of the treasurers for the year show that the funds received under the act of August 30, 1890, were expended as follows: For instruction in agriculture, 16.8 per cent; mechanic arts, 29.5 per cent; English language, 12.3 per cent; mathematical science, 11.8 per cent; natural and physical science, 23.4 per cent; economic science, 6.2

per cent.

A gratifying feature noted in the reports of the institutions is the largely increased aid granted them by the several States and Territories. This aid amounted for the year to $5,654,758, an increase of more than a million dollars over the amount for the preceding year.

The total number of students in attendance was 53,161, of which

number 6,726 were enrolled in separate institutions for colored students.

The chapter gives the legislation enacted during the year in behalf of the institutions, changes in courses of study, descriptions of new buildings erected during the year, and a compilation showing the courses of study maintained by the several institutions.

Secondary schools (Chapter XXIX, pp. 1727-2055).-The statistics of the current year show a total of 8,836 schools engaged in secondary instruction. Of this number, 7,230 are public and 1,606 private institutions. The number of students enrolled in the former was 635,808, and in the latter 103,407. In addition to these numbers, which cover enrollment in the regularly constituted secondary schools alone, 16,999 pupils in public and 66,024 in private colleges and other institutions having preparatory departments received instruction in secondary branches during the year, making a grand total of 822,235. This latter sum represents about 1,010 to the 100,000 of estimated population. Of this number, 800 are in public and 210 in private institutions, an increase in the last fifteen years of 440 for the former and a decrease of 20 for the latter. A total of 87,724 graduates from public and private high schools is reported. This constitutes 11.87 per cent of the total enrollment, a ratio which has remained nearly uniform for the last fifteen years.

From a somewhat extensive canvass of the question in 1903 the conclusion was reached that the proportion of secondary students enrolled during the school year in the four classes of the high school course, public and private, is as follows: Forty-three per cent in the first year; 26 per cent in the second year; 18 per cent in the third year; 13 per cent in the fourth year; more than 11 per cent graduating. Students receiving secondary instruction in public and private high schools and academies

and in preparatory departments of colleges and other institutions.

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United States.. 608, 412 168, 223 776, 635 652,804 169, 431 822, 235 North Atlantic Division.... 198, 843 51,751 250, 594 211,304 51,477 262, 781 South Atlantic Division. 32,879 24, 255 57,134 36, 039 23, 970 60,009 South Central Division. 48,573 | 30, 504 79,077 , 52, 152 29, 731 81,883 North Central Division. 286, 143 49, 119 335, 262 304, 439 51,751 356, 190 Western Division... 41,974 12,594

48,870 12,502 01,372

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54,568

o Decreise.

The decline in the proportion of secondary students preparing for college in the last twelve years in both public and private high schools is worthy of comment. In 1892–93 the percentage of students preparing for college in public high schools was 14.60; in 1903-4 the

ED 1904 M II

percentage was 9.54. The percentages corresponding to these in private high schools are 26.50 and 21.47.

City school systems (Chapter XXIV, pp. 1305-1415).-City school systems, on the whole, are among the most highly organized of all the agencies contributing to the education of the masses of our people. Their evolution from the simple village schools of earlier times to the complex systems of the present, embracing, in addition to those departments dealing directly with instruction, numerous departments having to do with organization, administration, and maintenance, whereby the systems as a whole may effectually subserve the purpose of their being, well merits careful study.

The tables given in this chapter contain the statistics of 1,212 incorporated places of a population of 4,000 and upward. The total enrollment in day schools in these places for the current year was 5,078,664, which number constitutes 31.2 per cent of the entire enrollment in the common schools of the nation. The value of school property as reported for the year was $423,253,680, and the total amount expended for all purposes was $129,836,203; these numbers represent 61.8 per cent and 47.5 per cent, respectively, of the corresponding items for the common schools of the nation. The figures of enrollment, as given above, relate to day schools alone. In the evening schools, maintained as organic parts of city systems of instruction, were e rolled the current year 270,692 pupils, requiring for their instruction 6,318 different teachers. Out of the 178 cities of the first class (population 8,000 and upward), which maintain evening schools, 127 are situated in the North Atlantic States, where industrial activities assume largely the form of manufacturing. An increase in the enrollment in evening schools in 1904 over the year 1903 of 18.1 per cent, and an increase in the number of cities maintaining evening schools from 158 to 178, are noted.

DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS IN THE SEVERAL GRADES. The chapter on city schools in the Report for 1898 (Chapter XLVII) contained a series of tables showing the enrollment in the several school grades in 24 representative cities. The tables below present practically the same data for the present year, but include a larger number of cities.

Enrollment by grades or year's work in elementary schools (58 cities of 8,000 and over).

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