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aries of $600 and over (one-half of which pay $800 and upward), and 14,193 of $500 and $600, and 17,728 of annual salaries below $500.
The teacher's profession offers, in the elementary and high schools and the office of superintendent, the following positions:
Adding the positions in colleges and universities (20,887) to 53,554 positions with salaries of $600 and above, we have a total of 74,441.
It will be seen, on inspection of the above table, that there are 26,475 positions that pay $800 and upward, which, with the college positions, make 47,362.
Education at the St. Louis Exposition (see Chapters XIV, XV, XXI, XXII, pp. 863-998 and 1177 to 1275).- Four chapters of this report are devoted to a description of the educational exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis, Mo., in 1904. At St. Louis, for the first time in the history of expositions, a separate building was furnished for the display of the exhibits on education and its kindred subject-social economy. The building covered 276,153 square feet and cost $375,000. In it were arranged nearly all of the educational exhibits.
The four chapters devoted to this subject comprise a series of monographs descriptive of educational exhibits, compiled and edited by Mr. George E. Gay, president of the Educational Exhibitors' Association of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The series of monographs was intended to include a description of each separate exhibit, but it was not possible to obtain all of them.
Dr. H. J. Rogers, chief of the department of education at the exposition, points out two features that stood out prominently, namely, the similarity of the exhibits from the several States and cities in the United States, demonstrating the fact that we have a national system of education, and, second, the subordination of the humanities to industrial instruction in the exhibits of foreign nations.
The last monograph in Chapter XV is on the exhibit of the landgrant colleges and agricultural experiment stations. This exhibit was rendered possible by an appropriation of $100,000 made by Congress for the purpose. It was prepared by a committee of the association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations,
and was designed to illustrate the instruction given by the institutions established under act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, in agriculture and the mechanic arts, and the work done by the experiment stations established under the act of March 2, 1887. This collective exhibit occupied about 16,000 square feet of space, and represented on the agricultural side work done in agronomy or plant production, zootechny or animal industry, agrotechny or agricultural technology, rural engineering or farm mechanics, and rural economics of farm management. The mechanic arts side was represented by exhibits illustrating instruction in civil, mechanical, electrical, and mining engineering, technical chemistry, architecture, drawing, and shop practice, including textiles and trades. Instruction in domestic science and ceramics was also represented. The central part of this exhibit was occupied by the exhibits of the Bureau of Education and the Office of Experiment Stations, which represent the United States Government in its relation with these colleges and stations. These exhibits were largely documentary and statistical, intended to show the development of the institutions and stations in respect to numbers, students, material, equipment, etc., and their relation to other educational institutions in the country.
The school systems and exhibits of seven foreign countries are described in Chapter XXII. The organization of the school system of the Argentine Republic is briefly described by a member of the Argentine Commission. Each State manages its schools independently, while the National Government has control over those at the federal capital and in sectional territories. In the city of Buenos Ayres education is compulsory for children between 6 and 14 years of age. Primary instruction comprises six grades covering eight years. Coeducation is allowed only in the first three grades. The exhibit of Argentina was limited to a representation of the work of the schools of the city of Buenos Ayres, and was confined chiefly to a display of statistics, school administration, and pupils' work.
Primary education in Belgium is described by M. A. Genonceaux, chief inspector of primary education. All the elementary communal teaching, including kindergarten, primary, and adult schools, is directed by the communes. The primary school receives children of 6 to 14 years of age. There are in Belgium 18 principal inspectors and 85 cantonal inspectors for a school population of 800,000 children, and about 20,000 teachers of primary schools. Teachers of 55 to 60 years of age are entitled to a retiring pension of about two-thirds of the highest salary they have received. The practical tendency is very prominent in the primary schools. All trades provide their quota of practical exercises, with special reference to local wants. The girl applies her theoretical knowledge to housekeeping and needlework, the boy either to agriculture or to some branch of industry.
The surroundings of the school decide the trend of the practical instruction to be given by the teacher.
In Brazil elementary and secondary education are supported and controlled by the authorities of the federal district and of each State in their respective territories. Higher public education is under the control of the Federal Government, being administered by the secretary of the interior. Schools generally begin in February or March and continue until November or December.
The German educational exhibit covered about 50,000 square feet of space and was divided into five departments: 1, Universities and scientific institutions; 2, Chemistry; 3, Scientific instruments; 4, Medicine; 5, Elementary and advanced education. The exhibit of universities and scientific institutions consisted largely of models, photographs, and books descriptive of the equipment of the institutions. There were also numerous statistical and graphical charts illustrating the work and growth of the institutions. The German exhibit was noted for the large number of books and other printed matter displayed, and the minute and pertinent information on all the subjects of instruction and organization. Its medical exhibit was limited to five departments of medical science, namely, bacteriology, anatomy, surgery, pathological anatomy, and internal medicine, to which was added a Roentgen cabinet furnished with the newest apparatus. The main object of this exhibit was to show the system of medical instruction followed in the German universities and the apparatus used during instruction. The characteristic features of the German school organization are shown in 24 brief tables on pages 1241-1252.
The remarkable advance of Japan in educational lines in recent years was strikingly shown at St. Louis. Education in its modern sense was unknown in Japan prior to the restoration in 1868. An imperial university was established in 1869, and in 1871 educational affairs were entrusted to an independent department of state.
A noticeable feature of the Japanese exhibit was the evidence it gave of the large provision in its school system for technical education. Institutions for technical education are of three grades, higher technical schools, technical schools of secondary grade, and apprentice schools. In these schools are found courses in engineering, agriculture, fishery, commerce, navigation, etc. The statistical table on page 1254 gives the status of educational institutions in Japan in 1901, and shows an enrollment in all classes of schools of 5,265,006. There are two universities in the Empire, with an attendance of 3,612 students.
The organization of the school system of Sweden and its exhibit at St. Louis are described on pages 1270-1275 by Carl Lidman, commissioner to the exposition. Compulsory education in common
schools was introduced in 1842. Common schools are divided generally into two departments, the infant school for beginners and the common school proper for more advanced pupils. School age is counted from the seventh to the fourteenth year. The obligatory period extends through six years, two in the infant school and four in the common school. In 1902 there were 761,814 children of school age. Of this number 94 per cent received instruction in infant and common schools, and 6 per cent in secondary schools, special schools, and in homes. Instruction in sloyd and in domestic economy is given in the common schools.
State school laws.-In Chapter IV is given a revised digest of the school laws of the various States. The next previous compilation of this kind was published in Chapter IX of the Annual Report for 1894. The matter is arranged under four heads, viz: (1) The organization of the school system in each State, including the superintendents and other officers and the division into districts; (2) the teachers, their methods of appointment, their training and duties; (3) the schools, including attendance and studies; and (4) the financial support of the schools.
Statistics of growth. Chapter II (pp. 25–132) gives in detail the measurements of the school children of Worcester, Mass., made by Prof. Franz Boas with the assistance of a number of students of Clark University. The large number of particulars recorded in the case of each child, and the care with which the work was conducted, render this collection of data peculiarly valuable.
The tables of measurements are preceded by a preliminary investigation of some problems bearing upon the growth of children, the treatment of which at the same time illustrates the methods of reducing observations of this character and discussing the results arrived at. In the prosecution of this study Doctor Boas has had the cooperation of Dr. Clark Wissler, and besides his own measurements makes use of data from other reliable sources. In particular, an attempt is made to correlate the various groups of measurements, so as to determine at what stage of development of children a tendency is shown to vary most from the normal, for all the different measurements to vary in the same direction.
Education in England.-A statistical survey of education in England is given in Chapter XII (pp. 799–833), together with an extended account of the operations of the law of 1902, which effected a radical change in the local administration of elementary education. An epitome of the main provisions of the law comprised in the chapter enables the reader to comprehend the bearing of the year's record. (For full text of the law see Report for 1902, pp. 1017-1026.)
It appears that rapid progress has been made in transferring the local control of the public elementary schools from elected school
boards to the county and municipal councils as required by the law. By this time (1904) the transfer has been completed throughout the country, including the metropolis, which was the subject of a special law (1903) providing for the same administrative change within its area. Confidence is expressed that under the new conditions it will be possible to bring the various agencies of public education into a coordinate whole in each administrative division; in this way overlappings and duplication of schools may be prevented, with a gain in the scope and efficiency of the educational facilities. The local councils, it is reported, are, in general, carrying out their new duties with great energy and with a wise consideration for the various bodies with which they are thus brought into relation. Conflict has arisen in some cases between the councils and the governing bodies of private schools with respect to the limited authority over these schools granted to the councils, but for the most part the questions in dispute have been amicably adjusted.
While on the whole the change in the local administration of the schools has progressed rapidly and smoothly, the financial policy of the law is still bitterly opposed.
Prior to the passage of the law of 1902 sectarian or parochial schools could not draw support from local taxes, but they are now placed in that respect upon the same footing as nonsectarian schools under public control. This provision, at variance with the deep-seated principle in English administration, that public control should follow public funds, has been met by a refusal on the part of thousands of citizens to pay the portion of the school tax that presumably would be applied to sectarian instruction. In Wales this policy of "passive resistance,” as it is termed, has taken on a more threatening aspect, the local councils having refused to turn over any part of the school tax for the use of sectarian schools. To meet the case of these recalcitrant authorities a law was passed at the end of the parliamentary session of 1904, the “Local authority default act,” which provides “that where the local authority fails to perform its duties as defined by the education law of 1902, the board of education may make orders for recognizing as managers of a school any persons who are acting as managers thereof, and may pay to the managers such amounts as are needed for the expenses of the school and charge the same as a debt due to the Crown from the local authorities." It is evident, however, that the board will be slow to adopt coercive measures, while on the other hand the local authorities may evade the charge of illegal action by placing their refusal to aid the denominational schools upon the ground of insufficient staff, equipment, etc., which are recognized by the law of 1902 as sufficient reasons for refusing support." The present indications are that the law of 1902 will be substantially modified in the near future, or that the parochial schools through their inability to meet the