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for the statement that "the overwhelming majority of the negroes in all parts of the South, especially in the agricultural regions, are leading sober and industrious lives."

Sometime since Doctor Washington sent out letters to representative southern men asking them for their opinion, as the result of their own observation, on various points relating to the progress and position of the negro. One hundred and thirty-six replies were received, a summary of which is given on pages 576-577. The near approach to unanimity exhibited by these replies in regard to most of the matters that were made the subject of inquiry would seem to indicate a general belief among the Southern people that education had improved the morals of the negro and made him more valuable as a citizen, as a workman, and as a business man. Moreover, there is in these replies but little trace to be seen of the existence of any wide-extended prejudice against his acquiring property or against employing him as a skilled workman. The conviction is forced upon one examining the grouping of the answers to the several questions that active opposition in the South to the negro's advancement must be of insignificant proportions if these answers reflect in any adequate degree the attitude of the public mind in the matter.

Temperance instruction in public schools.-Chapter VII (pp. 581-632) contains a number of documents illustrative of the present position of instruction in the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics. On pages 581-588 the revised law (1901) of Connecticut is given, together with a statement of a committee appointed by the Connecticut Council of Education. The enactment of this law was secured by the joint action of the school people and the temperance people of Connecticut, probably, the committee says, the first instance of such cooperation in any State in support of a temperance educational bill. The new statute differs from the old one in not prescribing temperance instruction below the fourth grade nor in the high school; in not requiring the use of text-books below the sixth grade, and in not requiring any text-books to devote a definite space to this instruction.

Following this is a report by the New York State Central Committee on Scientific Instruction as to the results of the study of physiology and hygiene, being a reply to the State Science Teachers' Association. The central committee sought for their information as to the effects of this study upon the children of the State through the medium of inquiries addressed to their parents and to patrons of the schools. Numerous extracts from the replies received by the committee are given, which go to show that “there is a growth of widespread intelligent practice of general hygiene resulting from this study," and that it is strengthening the children to resist temptation to use" alcoholic drinks and tobacco, and is “helping them and their parents to abandon such use when already begun.”

Some months since a French economist, F. Dupré La Tour, paid a visit to the United States for the purpose of making a study of the various methods employed here for combatting the evils resulting from the abuse of alcoholic drinks. The results of his investigations were embodied in a paper published in the Musée Social, a translation of which is given on pages 602–625 of this report. While his observations were intended primarily for the instruction of his own countrymen, they are not without their value to us in enabling us to see what in our aims or methods particularly impressed an intelligent French observer, or induced comparison with conditions existing in France. Coming from a country where the activities of such temperance societies as exist are limited to the promotion of temperance in its literal sense, and where, indeed, the president of one of the principal ones is himself a wine merchant, he could not but be impressed with the radical character of the views held and methods advocated by temperance reformers in the United States. The total abstinence from alcoholic beverages on the part of the individual and the complete suppression of the liquor traffic are root-and-branch measures which have almost no counterpart in France. The difference in the attitude of the people of the two countries Mr. La Tour attributes to the greater abuse of alcoholic drinks in the United States, which calls for extreme remedial measures, and which is due to racial, climatic, dietary, and other conditions, and to social customs, all of which result in making the United States what he calls a country favorable to alcoholism.

The different agencies and influences for saving people from falling into the drink habit and rescuing those who have become victims to it are considered in turn by Mr. La Tour, including the work of the religious denominations, the temperance societies (notably the Women's Christian Temperance Union), temperance instruction in the schools, the demand for abstinence from alcoholic drinks made upon employees by railroad corporations and other employers, the action of trades unions, the stand taken by life-insurance companies and the force of public opinion. The law for the instruction of publicschool pupils in temperance is considered a “most excellent" instrumentality, but the question is raised whether it is not presuming too much on the patience of the pupils to compel them to listen eight years in succession to the same teaching, as the text-books of the series "vary very little;” also they give to the pupils "ideas of physiology which are a little exaggerated.”

In taking up the different measures for suppressing or restricting the liquor traffic, Mr. La Tour discusses prohibition, the license system, local option, and the State dispensary system. The question of the saloon in politics also engages his attention. He displays throughout a keen insight into and a ready grasp of the conditions

prevailing in this country, which, together with his friendly criticisms from the point of view of an outside observer, render his paper a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject.

Following Mr. La Tour's report is given (pp. 625-630) the translation of another suggestive document proceeding from a foreign source, and tending to show that the movement against the abuse of alcoholic drinks is taking definite shape in other countries. The document referred to is an order issued by the Prussian minister of education, which outlines the character of the instruction to be given in the Prussian elementary and secondary schools regarding “the injurious effects of immoderate indulgence in spirituous beverages" (die Nachteile des übermässigen Genusses geistiger Getränke). So far as appears from the text of the order no attempt is made to prescribe the methods of the instruction, or the frequency or length of the lessons, or the grades in which they are to be given, but the order is confined to a simple statement of such points regarding the nature of alcohol and the evils resulting from its use as are to be impressed upon the attention of the pupils. The injurious effects of overindulgence upon the physical and the moral well-being of the individual, upon the family, and upon the community are successively considered, the statements being reinforced by a few homely illustrations and simple but significant statistics.

Chapter VII closes with a report on temperance instruction in western Massachusetts (pp. 630-632), by G. T. Fletcher, reprinted from the Massachusetts School Report. While not approving in all cases of the text-books in use and methods employed, Mr. Fletcher finds that "much good to the children and to the community has been achieved."

Juvenile criminality in Germany.Chapter IX (pp. 703-713) contains an account of juvenile criminality in Germany. The statisties on which this discussion is based were collected and published by the Imperial Statistical Bureau, and show that the number of young persons convicted increased annually up to the year 1901; moreover, it increased in greater proportion than the number of convicted adults. The author accounts for this partly through the increasing disposition to place responsibility on children whose ethical judgment is not sufficiently developed. The general opinion of those well qualified to pronounce on the subject is that the criminal code has set the age limit for punishment by law too low, fourteen years. This code assumes that responsibility is incurred at that age, in view of the degree of intellectual development commonly then reached; but the author pleads for education, not punishment by law, because though children may have learned to distinguish between right and wrong, between mine and thine, etc., the moral sense and the will power are

often still lacking to uphold intellectual discrimination, to withstand temptation and subdue desires. It is one thing to know what is wrong, and quite another to resolve to abstain from doing wrong. The author is urgent in favor of establishing courts for children, and the confinement of juvenile apart from adult criminals. He strongly denounces the custom of sentencing children to brief terms in jail, where they come in contact with vicious adult criminals, and pass, so to speak, through a school of crime. He also recommends the postponement of the age of criminal responsibility from 14 or 16 to 18 years of age.

Grammar of the Hlingit language.-In circular No. 2 of this Bureau for 1890, some Eskimo-English and English-Eskimo vocabularies were published which were prepared by Ensign Roger Wells, jr., U.S. Navy, and Interpreter John W. Kelly. These vocabularies were republished as Chapter XXVI of the Report for 1896–97. They were expected to be of use to teachers going to Alaska. It is now possible to continue the work then begun by publishing a grammar and vocabulary of the Hlingỉt language of southeastern Alaska, which constitutes Chapter X of this present Report. This work is the joint production of Mr. William A. Kelly, the principal of the training school at Sitka, Alaska, and Miss Frances A. Willard, a teacher at that school, and it is believed that it will be of great assistance both to the teachers in that part of Alaska and to the native scholars as well, besides being a contribution of value to students of languages generally.

Mr. Kelly has been among the Alaskan Indians for twenty years, having been at first in charge of the educational work of the Presbyterian Board of Missions in Alaska, and being afterwards appointed district superintendent under the United States Bureau of Education. Miss Willard was born a member of the Hlingit tribe, was rescued while yet an infant from an unpromising future among her own people through the benevolence of the wife of a missionary, was christened with the name she always afterwards bore, and was carefully educated for many years at a well-known private school for girls at Elizabeth, N. J., where she was given, and faithfully improved, all the best advantages, acquired all the refinements of a well-educated young woman, and became remarkable for really unusual literary attainments. Her death in 1904 was not only a calamity to her own people, to whose civilization she had devoted herself, but it was also a loss to science.

The present work is therefore especially valuable, from the familiarity of the authors with the Hlingit language and their ability to present the subject in such a manner as their experience has shown to be most serviceable to learners. The student will be struck with the concise yet clear and practical exposition of the grammar of this

Alaskan tongue, which belongs to the Turanian or agglutinated languages and is thoroughly alien in its construction to that of the European family of languages.

University of Paris.-In Chapter V (pp. 519–558) Dr. John W. Hoyt gives a history of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. The historical antecedents and causes of the movement which resulted in the gathering of teachers and students at Paris are pointed out, including both the civil and ecclesiastical conditions of the time. The organization of the students into “nations” and of the teachers into faculties is traced, together with an account of the scope of the mediæval studies, the scholastic method of teaching, and the influence of the university upon contemporary life and the history of France. The recent interest in Oxford University occasioned by the Rhodes bequest has made the organization and purpose of the great universities of the Middle Ages an object of special study in this country with a view to understand better the survivals found even in our later and latest foundations on the border lands.

Development of the public school system in the South.In Chapter XVI (pp. 999–1090) Dr. A. D. Mayo gives an historical account of the final establishment of the American common school system in the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, covering the period from the close of the civil war to the beginning of the present century. In all of these States the friends of popular education had to contend not only with the widespread prejudice against educating the negroes at public expense, but also with the more or less active opposition of those who were antagonistic to any system of free public schools for either race. The story of the alternate successes and reverses of those who were waging the campaign in behalf of the schools until success finally rewarded their efforts is graphically told by Doctor Mayo, whose labors in the South in the cause of education, extending over the greater portion of the period included in his narrative, have given him an intimate acquaintance with the course of events in that section, and render him peculiarly qualified to speak upon the subject.

Schools of Alaska.Chapter XXXVI (pp. 2257–2268) contains an account of the schools in Alaska, which, owing to the delay of the report, has been brought down to the 1st of July, 1905. The historical table, showing the length of school term and enrollment of pupils, begins on page 2263 and includes three pages, giving the months taught and the enrollment for the years beginning 1892-93 and extending to 1903-4. For the years 1903 and 1904 the total enrollment and average attendance are given by months. Owing to the fact that the natives have a winter residence different from the summer residence, the schools vary much from month to month in average attendance, and, as is shown by the comparatively large

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