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west passage, and with the discovery of the fate of Sir John Franklin, this chapter naturally ends ; but the thirst for knowledge and the spirit of adventure suffered only a slight abatement by these triumphs of untiring energy and perseverance. To the further exploration of the polar seas and of the adjacent lands Americans have largely contributed; and Hayes, by his perilous voyage, Hall, by his long residence among the Eskimos, and more recently De Long, by the calmness with which he met a terrible death, to name no others, exhibited a heroism unsurpassed by any of the remarkable men who preceded them. The shapeless America, which was all that Columbus and his immediate followers knew, has put on a clearly defined form, and we can now trace on the map all the northern line of the continent, with its intricate windings, and the size and shape of many of the islands. Much, it is true, remains to be learned ; but it has been often doubted -- and the doubt has been a steadily growing one – whether any increase of our geographical or other scientific knowledge can equal in value the costly sacrifices by which alone it can be gained. So long as the present climatic conditions exist, the unvisited north may well remain a closed book.

1 In his first visit to the Arctic regions Hall 374; and Life with the Eskimaux: the Narrative discovered numerous relics of Frobisher's voy- of Capt. Chas. Francis Hall, 29th May, 1860, to ages, which had been seen by no one but the Es- 13th Sept., 1862 (London, 1864), known in the kimos for nearly three centuries. These were Amer. ed. as Arctic Researches and Life among carefully gathered up by him and sent to Eng. the Esquimaux (N. Y., 1865). land. Cf. Frobisher's Three Voyages, pp. 367–

CRITICAL NOTES ON THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

By the Editor.

THE

"HE only extensive bibliography of the (Boston, 1884), and in the official edition, edited

Arctic explorations includes also those of by Nourse, of Hall's Second Arctic Expedition. the Antarctic regions, and was published by the J. C. Pilling, in his Bibliog. of the Eskimo lanGeographical Society of Vienna in 1878 under a guage (1887), in searching for books illustrating double English and German title, – The Liter- his special studies, says that he found the best ature on the Polar Regions of the Earth, by Dr. collection in the British Museum, and the next 7. Chavanne, Dr. A. Karpf, and F. Chevalier de best in the Library of Congress. It is probable Le Monnier. The contents of the book are some- that the same inquiry for the broader field of times obscurely classified, and the proof-reading Arctic exploration will produce a corresponding is far from accurate. It is, however, useful to the student, and it has sections on the maps. English and American periodical literature for

T. R. Jones's Manual of Greenland, etc. (Lon- the last seventy years has been rich in recitals of don, 1875), prepared by authority for the use of Arctic experiences, and in discussions of the probthe Nares Expedition, has a list of publications lems of the Northwest passage and the attainment on the Arctic regions beginning with 1818. This of the Northern pole. This literature is enumerlist is used and continued by Prof. J. E. Nourse ated, in all but the analysis of the proceedings of in his American Explorations in the Ice Zones learned societies, under suggestive headings, in

answer.

1 Cí, ante, Vol. III. p. 97.

Poole's Index and Supplement, though confined kunde (1853), Petermann's Mittheilungen (Gotha,
to the English language; but the analysis in 1855), and the Ocean Highways, Geographical
Chavanne of periodicals, transactions, and pub- Review, and Geographical Magazine (London,
lic documents embraces all languages. His lists covering collectively 1869–76).
show how constantly such publications, as Ber- Up to 1858 there had been, as is stated in
tuch's Neue Allgemeine geographische Epheme- John Brown's Northwest Passage and Search
riden (Weimar, 1817-31), Journal des Voyages after Sir John Franklin, from the time of Cabot,
(Paris, 1818-30), Annales (Paris, 1808–14), and about 130 exploring expeditions to the Arctic
Nouvelles Annales des Voyages (Paris, 1819, etc.), seas, illustrated by 250 books and printed docu-
Bulletin de la Soc. de Géographie (Paris, 1821, ments, of which 150 had been issued in England.
etc.), Journal of the Royal Geog. Society (London, There is a useful tabular statement of Arctic
1832–76), Das Ausland (Stuttgart, 1829, etc.), – voyages, northeast and northwest of Greenland,
were occupied with the Arctic problem. The A. D. 860 to 1876, in the appendix of Samuel
later publications were more directly concerned Richard Van Campen's Dutch in the Arctic
with contemporary results, but their papers were Seas (London, 1877, vol. i. ; vol. ii. never pub-
occasionally historical, as in the Zeitschrift für lished), which is an examination historically and
Erdkunde of the Berlin Gesellschaft für Erd- physically of the north polar problem. A

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1 A variety of maps have been given in this History (ante, Vols. I., III., IV.) illustrating the early changeful notions respecting the polar regions. Cf. for instance the earliest map of Greenland, 1427 (I., 117); Ruysch, 1508 (II., 115; III., 9); Ptolemy, 1513 (II., 11); Schöner, 1515 (11., 118); Münster, 1532-1545 (III., 201 ; IV.,

• After a plate in the Encyclopédie, Suite du Recueil de planches (Paris, 1777). Cf. the map in connection with Capt. John Wood's Voyage for the discovery of a passage by the northeast (1676) included in An account of several late Voyages and Discoveries (London, 1711).

similar tabular presentation is given by Profes. to solve the problem of reaching Asia by the sor Nourse in the governmental quarto com- northern passage is D. Capel's Vorstellungen des memorating Hall's Second Arctic Expedition. Norden (Hamburg, 1675).1

Osborn says that of the 42 expeditions be- The second volume of Harris's Voyages (Lon. tween 1818 and 1859, 128 men and 2 ships were don, 1702, 1705; again 1744) 2 follows the history lost.

of such attempts to find a northwest passage for The comprehensive surveys of the course of the preceding one hundred and thirty years. Arctic exploration are either grouped as efforts J. G. Forster summarized the voyages in the to effect a northwest passage, – so far as they years next following the voyage of Cook, in his regard America, — or as attempts to attain the Geschichte der Reisen die seit Cook an der nordpole itself.

west und nordost Küste von America, unter nomOne of the earliest summaries of the efforts men worden sind (Berlin, 1791).3

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41, 84); Ulpius Globe, 1542 (IV., 42); Mercator, 1569 (IV., 373); Gilbert, 1576 (III., 203); Frobisher, 1578 (III., 102); Lok, 1582 (III., 40; IV., 44); Hakluyt, 1587 (III., 42); Molineaux, 1592 (III., 90, 91); Judaeis, 1593 (IV., 97); Linschoten, 1598 (III., 101); Quadus, 1600 (IV., 101); Luke Fox, 1632 (III., 98).

i Sabin's Dictionary, iii. no. 10,735.
2 See ante, Vol. I. p. xxxiv.
3 Cf. ante, Vol. I. xxxvi.

* After a plate in the Encyclopédie, Suite du Recueil de planches (Paris, 1777).

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Just at a time when England was making new voyages, when in succession we find W. J. Snelefforts to pierce the northern zone, incited thereto ling's Polar Regions of the Western Continent by the accounts which the elder Scoresby, the Explored (Boston, 1831); a volume in Harper's whaler, had published of the Greenland seas, Family Library called Narrative of discovery and and by the urgency of John Barrow, then secre- adventure in the Polar Seas and Regions by John tary of the Admiralty, this latter officer pub- Leslie, Robert Jameson, and Hugh Murray (N.Y.; lished his Chronological History of Voyages into 1832); and Patrick Fraser Tytler's Hist. View of the Arctic Regions (London, 1818).1

the progress of discovery on the more northern It was not till after 1830 that other efforts coasts of America (Edinburgh, 1832), and later inwere made to condense the results of antecedent cluded in the Edinburgh Cabinet Library and in

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DELISLE, 1703.* 1 Cf. ante, Vol. III. 97. There was a French translation of it issued at Paris in the following year. Barrow at a later day continued the story in his Voyages of Discovery and Research within the Arctic Regions, from the Year 1818 to the Present Time : under the Command of the several Naval Officers employed by Sea and Land in Search of a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; with two attempts to reach the North Pole. Abridged and arranged from the Official Narratives, with Occasional Remarks. By Sir John Barrow, Bart. (London, 1846).

. After a plate in the Encyclopédie, Suite du Recueil de planches (Paris, 1777). The Herrera of 1728, in its map of North America, shows the general conception of Arctic America during the first quarter of that century.

Harper's Family Library. It also appeared with deckungsreisen in alter und neuer Zeit. Eine a continuation by R. M. Ballantyne as The Geschichte der geographischen Entdeckungen, mit Northern coasts of America and the Hudson's Bay besonderer Berücksichtigung des 19. Jahrhunderts, Territory (London, 1854).

von Gerhard Stein (Glogau, 1883). Through the course of these explorations there have been recurrent attempts to square The separate recitals of the Arctic explorers theoretical views by the recorded results, gen. class themselves easily by their efforts to find erally towards the settlement of the question the passage to Asia, and by the search for Franktouching the desirability of further efforts. In lin in his efforts to that end; as well as by an 1836 we find Barrow, Richardson, Franklin, and emulating purpose to approach more nearly than Ross all considering the question, with this aim, before the pole, if not to attain it. in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society The attempts to find the passage, so long the (vol. vi. 34, etc.).

equivalent of a search for the Straits of Anian, Captain Beechey in 1843, in his Voyage, epit are mixed up with the geographical vagaries of omized the earlier discoveries, while Barrow De Fonte and the rest (of which we can see the followed in his supplemental book (1846) already effects in the maps of Buache and Jefferys), mentioned.

and were conducted both on the side of the PaThe interest in the Franklin search gave rise cific and on the side of Baffin's and Hudson's to new summaries: P. L. Simmond's Sir John bays. Some of the early accounts of combats Franklin and the Arctic Regions (Lond., 1851,- with the ice in these high latitudes have come 2d ed.); Epes Sargent's Arctic Adventure by Sea down to us in the books that usually show in and Land (Boston, 1857), which was again issued their thumbing the popularity of their narra. as Wonders of the Arctic World (Philad., 1873), tives. The creation of the Hudson Bay Comwith an additional chapter on later discoveries ; pany was made on the ostensible ground in part and Sir J. Leslie's Polar Seas and Regions of organizing such a search from the regions (Lond., 1855; N. Y., 1859).

brought under their control.4 It was not till well There soon followed some more important into the century following its incorporation that books. John Brown published his Northwest the efforts, since the days of Frobisher, Davis, Passage and the plans for the Search for Sir John and Hudson, were of any importance on this Franklin (London, 1858, 1860), and Sir John side. One of the volumes published by the Richardson his Polar Regions (Edinburgh, 1861). Hakluyt Society chronicles the rising interest: This last book is a summary of the knowledge The Geography of Hudson's Bay ; being the Rethen attained, with a review of the progress of marks of Captain W. Coats, in many Voyages to discovery both towards the north and south that Locality, between the Years 1727 and 1751. poles, and is enlarged upon an article which he With an appendix, containing Extracts from the communicated to the Encyclopædia Britannica. log of Capt. Middleton on his Voyage for the Dis

C. R. Markham's Threshold of the Unknown covery of the North-west Passage in H. M. S. Regions (London, 1873, 2d ed.) is partly a re- Furnacein 1741-2. Edited by John Barrow, print of a series of articles in Ocean Highways. Esq. (London, 1852). This book, which rehearses the story of polar To this may be added, as indicating the conexplorations down to 1873, is considered one of temporary study of the problem: A description of the most successful summaries.?

the coast, tides, and currents in Button's Bay, being It is enough barely to mention some of the the North-west coast of Hudson's Bay ; also from later comprehensive surveys : David Murray the discoveries made in 1742 . by Captain Smith's Arctic Expeditions (Edinburgh, 1875, Middleton and Captain Moor, showing from their etc.), and Recent Polar Voyages, 1848–1876 journals, a probability that there is a passage from (London, 1876). Two German works need to thence to the Western Ocean (London, 1745 [?]). be mentioned: Friedrich von Hellwald's Im An Account of a Voyage for a Discovery of a ewigen Eis. Geschichte der Nordpol-fahrten von North West Passage by Hudson's Straights to the den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart (Stutt Western and Southern Ocean of America, pergart, 1879); and Wilhelm Rubiner's Die Ent- formed in the Year 1746 and 1747 in the Ship

1 There is a life of Richardson by M'Ilraith (1868).

2 J. A. MacGahan, in his Under the Northern Lights (London, 1876), speaks of it as "the only intelligent synopsis of Arctic knowledge” published up to that time.

3 See ante, Vol. II. 468, etc. 4 See ante, ch. i.

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Note. — The opposite map is a part of that in C. R. Markham's Threshold of the Unknown Regions (1873). The same book contains six charts of the Smith Sound route, from Bylot and Baffin to Hall, 1616–1873, compiled by E. G. Ravenstein. Cf. the maps in Lamont's Yachting in the Arctic Seas (London, 1876).

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