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* From Gerrit de Veer's l'raye Description (Amsterdam, 1600). † After a reproduction in the Encyclopédie, Suite du Recueil de planches (Paris, 1777).

there is an early summary of the matter in A ories and reduplicated notions which prevailed Concise Account of Voyages for the Discovery of may be traced in the maps of such representaa North West Passage, Undertaken for finding a tive compilers as Cluny, Vaugondy, and Forster, new Way to the East Indies. With Reflections - not to name others. There were at the same on the Practicability of gaining such a Passage. time some positive experiences recorded, as by By a Sea Officer (London, 1782).

Samuel Hearne in his Journey from Prince of During the latter part of the eighteenth cen. Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern tury there were little or no positive additions to Ocean, for the discovery of a North West Passage, the knowledge which the geographers had of etc., 1769-72 (London), 1795); with some commerthe higher American North, and the varying the cial prophecy, as in John Meare's Voyages in the

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Years 1788-9, from China to the North-west O'Reilly's Greenland, the adjacent seas and the Coast of America, with Observations on the Prob. N. W. passage to the Pacific Ocean, illustrated in able Existence of a North-west Passage, and Ac- a voyage to Davis's Strait in 1817 (Lond., 1818). count of the Trade between the North-west Coast His map indicates how there had grown up, as to of America and China (London, 1790).1

the traditionary views of Baffin, a distrust, which It was in 1817 and 1818 that the interest was it was the work of the rising interest to dispel. revived, in a way that has been maintained ever No effort attracted much attention, however, since in a remarkable manner. One of the ear- till Capt. John Ross, of the royal navy, published liest of these new discussions, but before the new his Voyage of Discovery, made under the Orders interest was fairly developed, is in Bernard of the Admiralty, in his Majesty's Ships Isabella

1 There was a French translation, Paris, 1775, and a German, Berlin, 1796, with annotations by J. G. Forster.

* After the Encyclopédie, Suite du Recueil de planches (Paris, 1777).

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and Alexander, for the Purpose of exploring Baf- in his Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery fin's Bay, and enquiring into the Probability of a of a North-west Passage from the Atlantic to the North-West Passage (London, 1819).

Pacific ; performed in the Years 1819-20, in his Capt. Wm. Edward Parry, of the British navy, Majesty's Ships Hecla and Griper. With an Aphaving commanded the “ Alexander " of Ross's pendix, containing the Scientific and Other Obserfleet, had published a personal narrative of that vations. Published by Authority of the Lords expedition in his Journal of a Voyage of Discov Commissioners of the Admiralty (London, 1821).2 ery to the Arctic Regions, Apr.-Nov., 1818 (Lon- Capt. John Franklin conducted at the same don, 1819), and was put in command of a new time an overland expedition, which was printed expedition the next year, of which he gave record as a Narrative of a journey to the Shores of the

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1 There was a second edition the same year; a German translation at Jena in 1819; a French at Paris in 1819, 1821, and 1822; a Dutch at the Hague in 1821. A later English edition (1834) is not complete. There grew out of this publication a controversy represented in Edward Sabine's Remarks on the account of the late Voyage of Discovery to Baffin's Bay, published by J. Ross (London, 1819; two eds.), and Ross's Explanation of Sabine's Remarks (London, 1819). Ross's map shows his development of the geography of Baffin's Bay.

2 This is usually accompanied by a reprint of a paper published on the ships : The North Georgia Gazette and Winter Chronicle (London, 1821). Both were reprinted in Philadelphia (1821); a German version appeared at Hamburg, 1822, and a Dutch at Amsterdam, 1821, 1832.

A correlative account is Alexander Fisher's Journal of a Voyage in the Hecla and Griper, 1819-1820 (London, 1821).

NOTE. — The opposite map is a part of the map given in The Journal of a Voyage by the Hon. Com. modore Phipps, etc. (London, 1774).

* From Historische, Statistische, Geographische Belustigungen (Leipzig, 1782). The shape of Baffin's Bay here given accorded with a prevalent notion. Cf. Harris's Voyages (1705), vol. ii., and Prévost's Voyages, Xv., and the Allg. Hist. der Reisen, xvii. (1758). Cf. ante, Vol. I. 132; Gerard Mercator's Circumpolar map in Engel's Neuer Versuch (Basel, 1777); and that in E. A. W. von Zimmermann's Die Erde und ihre Bewohner, Dritter Theil. Die westliche arctische Welt (Leipzig, 1811).

Polar Sea, 18191822, by John Franklin, Com- this was followed by his Journal of a Third Voymander of the Expedition (London, 4o and 89, age for the Discovery of a North-west Passage 1823 and 1824 — 3 eds.).1

from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in The accounts of Parry's next explorations were the Years 1824-25, in his Majesty's Ships Hecla presented in his Journal of a Second Voyage for and Fury. Published by Authority of the Lord's the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Commissioners of the Admiralty (London, 1826).3 Atlantic to the Pacific ; performed in the Years A coöperating voyage by Capt. F. W. Beechey, 1821-22-23, in his Majesty's Ships Fury and on the Pacific side, is recorded in his Narrative Hecla. Published by Authority of the Lords Com- of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait, missioners of the Admiralty (London, 1824),” and to co-operate with the Polar Expeditions ; per.

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1 Reprinted (Philad., 1824). An ed. in 4 vols., to which was added a Brief account of the second Journey, in 1825-27, was published at London, 1829. Franklin's Narrative of a second Expedition to the shores of a Polar Sea, 1825-27, was published in London, 1828, and reprinted in Philadelphia the same year. A German translation appeared at Weimar in 1829.

A. H. Beesly's Sir John Franklin (N. Y., 1881) is based on Franklin's narratives and on the monograph on Franklin by M. de la Roquette (Paris, 1860).

2 It was reprinted in New York (1824), and Sabin gives a German version (Jena, 1824). Growing out of the same explorations, we have two further records by Captain G. F. Lyon :

The Private Journal of Captain G. F. Lyon of H. M. S. Hecla, during the Recent Voyage of Discovery under Captain Parry (London, 1824). Reprinted, London, 1825, and Boston, 1824. It is of value as respects the characteristics of the Eskimos.

A Brief Narrative of an Unsuccessful Attempt to reach Repulse Bay, through Sir Thomas Rowe's Welcome,in his Majesty's Ship Griper, in the Year MDCCCXXIV. (London, 1825). This is his official report

8 It was reprinted in Philadelphia (1826), and a German version was published at Jena, 1827. His Three Voyages was later included in Harper's Family Library (N. Y., 1840). Parry's narratives are of importance in the study of the Eskimos. Cf. Edward Parry's Memoirs of W. E. Parry (London, 1857).

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