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formed in his Majesty's Ship Blossom, in the 1), and found a wider public in his Narrative of Years 1825, 26, 27, 28. Published by Authority the Arctic land Expedition to the mouth of the of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty Great Fish River and along the shores of the (London, 1831).1.

Arctic Ocean in the years 1833–35 (London, 1836; David Duncan's Voyage to Davis' Strait, Apr. Philad., 1836). Richard King, in his Journey 1826-June, 1827 (London, 1827), commemorates to the Arctic Ocean, 1833-35, under Capt. Back "the only fishing ship that ever (up to that time] (London, 1836), reproaches that commander for passed a whole winter with her crew on board his want of generosity in not acknowledging the in those regions."

assistance he received from others. Back's next Ross again appears in a Narrative of a Second voyage to follow up his first exploration is reVoyage in Search of a North-West Passage, and corded in his Narrative of an Expedition in of a Residence in the Arctic Regions during the H. M. S. Terror, undertaken with a view to Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833. Including Geographical Discovery on the Arctic shores, in the Reports of Commander, now Captain, James the Years 1836-7 (London, 1838). Clark Ross, and the Discovery of the Northern The explorations by Dease and Simpson on Magnetic Pole. [With an Appendix.] (London, behalf of the Hudson Bay Company now fol1835).

lowed, and it was to connect these with the Captain George Back now proposed an expe- coast that Parry in 1819 had found about Meldition to follow a route north from the Great ville Island, which induced the expedition under Slave Lake, in search for Ross, and published Sir John Franklin, the search for which constian explanation of his plan in the Journal of the tuted for the next ten years, and even longer, the Royal Geographical Society (1833, vol. iii. 64); and chief burden of the Arctic recitals. his communication on the route followed by him Richardson, in his Polar Regions (ch. 10), gives was made in the same Journal (1836, vol. vi. p. a convenient summary of this Franklin search.

Discoveries vr"Ness? Dcase & Sinipson in 1838.9.

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Chart of the ionet from Coronation Gulf to Beat River constructed from the narrative.

DISCOVERIES OF DEASE AND SIMPSON, 1838–39.*

1 There was an octavo edition the same year. It was reprinted at Philadelphia (1832), and Sabin gives a German version (Weimar, 1832). Beechey's earlier voyage (1818), recorded in his Voyage of Discovery towards the North pole (London, 1843), was on the side of Spitzbergen.

2 The Appendix usually is found as a separate publication, Appendix to the Narrative of a Second Voyage. The Narrative was reprinted in Philadelphia, 1835; and at Brussels in the same year. A French translation appeared at Paris in 1835, and a German at Leipzig in 1835 and 1845, and at Berlin in 1835-36. Cf. Pilling's Eskimo Bibliog.; Sabin's Dictionary, and references in Allibone, ii. 119.

* From the Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc., X. 274. Their eastern limit was later completed by Dr. John Rae, in the Hudson Bay Company's service, as recorded in Rae's Narrative of an Expedition to the Shores of the Arctic Sea in 1846 and 1847 (London, 1850). Cf. Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc. (viii. 213, with a map) for their account of their explorations, 1837, and again (Ibid., Aug., 1839) for the progress of discovery in the summer of 1839, with a map.

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Regions (Edinburgh, 1820), and the map connecting the discoveries of Ross, Parry, and Franklin, in Frankthe Journal of the Roy. Geog. Soc., vi. p. 10. Cf. the circumpolar map in Wm. Scoresby's Acc. of the Arctic

* Extracted from a map in Back's “ Discoveries and Route of the Arctic Land Expedition, 1833–34," in

ARCTIC REGIONS, 1833–34.*

NARRATIVE AND CRITICAL HISTORY OF AMERICA.

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The literature of it is enumerated in Chavanne's 1852). The author was the surgeon of the expebibliography, under the heads of “Arctic Amer- dition. ica," the “Northwest Passage;" and Nourse, in From Berthold Seeman, the naturalist of the his American Explorations in the Ice Zones (Bos- expedition, we have a Narrative of the Voyage of ton, 1884, p. 34, etc.), makes a useful tabulation H. M. S. Herald during the Years 1845-51, under of the various relief expeditions.

the Command of Captain Henry Kellett ; being a It is not intended now to mention more than Circumnavigation of the Globe, and three Cruizes the most prominent or characteristic accounts of to the Arctic Regions in Search of Sir John these numerous adventures in the track of Frank- Franklin (London, 1853.) 1 lin. W. J. S. Pullen's Proceedings of a boat ex- Captain Sherard Osborn, who commanded pedition from Wainwright inlet to Fort Simpson the “ Pioneer” in the expedition of 1850-51, on the Mackenzie River, July-Oct., 1849, and gives his personal narrative in his Stray Leaves Lieut. W. H. Hooper's Journal, in connection from an Arctic Journal, or Eighteen Months in with the same expedition, were printed by the the Polar Regions (London, 1852; Edinburgh, Admiralty in 1850, as well as Pullen's later Pro- 1865)," and for the first time described Arctic ceedings of the party towards Cape Bathurst in navigation under steam. He also worked up search of Sir John Franklin, July-Oct., 1850, the logs and journals of the commander of the printed in 1851.

expedition, and published the result as The DisDr. Peter C. Sutherland's Journal of a Voyage covery of the Northwest Passage by H. M. S. in Baffin's Bay and Barrow Straits, in the Years Investigator, Capt. Robert M'Clure, 1850-54 1850-1851, performed by H. M. Ships " Lady (London, 1856, 1857, 1859; Edinburgh, 1864, Franklin" and " Sophia,under the Command of 1865). Mr. William Penny, in search of the missing Sir John Richardson's personal share in these Crews of H. M. Ships Erebus and Terror: with explorations is recorded in his Arctic Searching a Narrative of Sledge Excursions on the Ice of Expedition : Journal of a boat voyage through Wellington Channel ; and Observations on the Rupert's Land and the Arctic Sea in search of Si Natural History and Physical Features of the John Franklin. Published by authority (Lon. Countries and Frozen Seas visited (London, don, 1851).*

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1 There is a German translation (Hannover, 1853).

? It was reprinted in New York in 1852, and a rival edition was called The Polar Regions, or a Search after Sir John Franklın's Expedition (N. Y., 1854).

& The coöperating expedition on the side of Behring's Straits is to be explained in a book not yet published, Sir Richard Collinson's Journal of the Voyage of H. M. S. Enterprise in search of Sir John Franklin, with an Introduction by Maj.-Gen. Collinson (London, 1889).

* It was reprinted in New York, 1852, and contains several chapters on the Eskimos and other northern tribes. lin's Narrative (London, 1823). Dr. Rae's Narrative of an Expedition to the shores of the Arctic Sea in 1846 and 1847 (London, 1850) contains maps in which the discoveries of Rae, Parry, Ross, Back, and Dease and Simpson are distinctively marked.

Reproduced from the sketch map given by Osborn in his Stray Leaves (1865), p. 282, which represents the aspect of the northwest passage problem at the time Franklin was sent on his last voyage. The effort was to be made “ to connect the water in which Parry had sailed to Melville Island in 1819 with Dease and Simpson's easternmost positions in 1838.” Cf. the map of the Arctic regions as known in 1846, given in Hall's Second Arctic Expedition.

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Geo. F. McDougall's Eventful Voyage of H. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty (LonM. Discovery Ship "Resolute to the Arctic Re- don, 1855). gions in Search of Sir John Franklin and the What is known as the first Grinnell Expedimissing Crews of H. M. Discovery Ships " Ere- tion, fitted out at the charge of Mr. Joseph busand Terror," 1852, 1853, 1854. To which Grinnell of New York, was officially considered is added an Account of her being fallen in with by its commander, Lieut. E. J. De Haven, in his by an American Whaler after her Abandonment Report on the Sir John Franklin Search, Oct. 4, in Barrow Straits and of her Presentation to 1851 (32d Cong. 1st sess. Ho. Ex. Doc. no. 2); Queen Victoria by the Government of the United but the greater interest attaches to the story of States (London, 1857).

Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, the surgeon of the party, Sir Edward Belcher's Last of the Arctic Voy. in his United States Grinnell Expedition in search ages ; being a Narrative of the Expedition in H. of Sir John Franklin ; a personal narrative (New M. S. Assistance, in Search of Sir John Franklin, York, 1854). Kane himself commanding the during the Years 1852–53-54.

With Notes on next expedition, his narrative appeared in Arctic the Natural History, by Sir John Richardson, Explorations : the Second Grinnell Expedition in Professor Owen, Thomas Bell, J. W. Salter, and search of Sir John Franklin, 1853-55 (Philad., Lovell Reeve. Published under the authority of 1856, 1860).2

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MAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE SEARCH FOR FRANKLIN, AND SOME OF THE DISCOVERIES OF HIS ERA.

FRANKLIN'S TRACK.*

1 A new edition, with a biography of Franklin, by S. A. Allibone, Philadelphia, 1857.

2 Reprinted, London, 1860. Cf. Explorations in Arctic Regions by Dr. Kane (London, 1865); Kane's Arctic Explorations (Hartford, 1868). Cf. Kane's Access to an Open Polar Sea (N. Y., 1853); and Peter Force's Grinnell Land and Supplement to Grinnell Land (Washington, 1852 and 1853).

There is a life of Dr. Kane by Dr. Elder (1858), and a sketch by M. Jones (1866). Allibone and Poole will supply periodical sources. August Sonntag, the astronomer of the expedition, prepared a popular Narrative of the Grinnell Exploring Expeditions 1853-55 (Philad., 1857).

Kane had been the first to explore Baffin's Bay since Baffin himself in 1616.

Cf. Dr. Emil Bessel's on “Smith Sound and its Exploration,” from the time of Bylot and Baffin, 1616, to the present day, in Proceedings of the U. S. Naval Institute, vol. x. p. 333. A curious interest attaches to the Memoirs of Hans Hendrik, the Arctic traveller, serving under Kane,

* Reproduction of a sketch map in A. H. Beesly's Sir John Franklin (N. Y., 1881).

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ACCORDING TO THE

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O'REILLY, 1818.* Part of the map in Bernard O'Reilly's Greenland (N. Y., 1818). This map is selected as the latest of the old views. Nourse gives in his Hall's Second Arctic Expedition a circumpolar map, in which the condition of knowledge in 1818 is given in black, and the after knowledge in red. Belcher's Last of the Arctic Voyages has a large map showing the discoveries between Baffin's Bay and Behring's Straits from 1818 to

1834.

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