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tracts on the subject are well known : Probabil. plorations of the Arctic seas, including those of ity of reaching the North Pole ; reprinted, with Baffin's Bay.1 Chavanne (pp. 85, 125, 243) gives Col. Mark Beaufoy's comments, as Possibility of the bibliography of the explorations on the east approaching the North Pole asserted (London and side of Greenland. New York, 1818). Cf. also Barrington's Miscel. Capt. Albert H. Markham, in his Northward lanies, 1781.

Ho! (London, 1879), offers a distinct account of The voyage of William Scoresby in 1806, in the attempts to reach the Pole, beginning with which he attained with his ship the great north the sixth century, as introductory to a narrative ing of 81° 30', was also on the side of Spitzber- of experiences by Thomas Floyd, a midshipman gen; and the explorations recorded in Dr. Scores. in Captain Phipps's expedition (1773). Markby's Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale ham then continues the story of these strictly Fishery, including researches on the Eastern polar efforts, in which the most important atCoast of Greenland (Edinburgh, 1823), are also tempts have been made of late years on the side descriptive of exploits east of Greenland. The of Smith Sound, but they fall beyond the chroyounger Scoresby's Account of the Arctic Regions, nological limits of the present chapter, and are with a history and description of the Northern not in the same sense necessary to complete the Whale fishery (London, 1820), is in part a rec- story as was the case with the final results of ord of the whalemen's contributions to the ex- the Franklin search.2

last voyage, and fate of Sir John Franklin (London, 1860), which is also included in the Edinburgh edition (1863) of Osborn's Stray Leaves.

1 Cf. J. A. Allen's Papers rel. to the mammalian orders of Cete, etc. (Washington, 1882).

? A good share of the efforts in this direction on the west of Greenland has fallen to Americans. Dr. Hayes had demonstrated his plan of the practicability of reaching the North Pole in the Amer. Asso. Adv. Science Proc. (1838, vol. xii.) and recorded his results in finding, as he held, an unobstructed Arctic ocean in his Open Polar Sea: a narrative of a voyage of discovery towards the North Pole (X. Y., 1867).

Captain C. F. Hall made three Arctic voyages: the first (1860-62) was commemorated in his Arctic Researches (1864); the second (1864-69), in his Narrative of a second Arctic Expedition : Voyage to Repulse Bay, 1864-69. Edited by Professor J. E. Nourse (Washington, 1879). On a third voyage, in the “Polaris," he died, Nov. 8, 1871. The government bought his papers of his family in 1874, and out of them, with other material, Professor Nourse constructed the account just mentioned, after Admiral Ch. H. Davis, with Nourse's assistance, had earlier got into shape the Narrative of the North Polar Expedition, U. S. Ship Polaris (Washington, 1876). The “Polaris” reached 82° 16' north latitude. E. V. Blake's Arctic Experiences (N. Y. and London, 1874) covers the drift of Captain E. E. Tyson, of the Polaris expedition, on an ice floe. The expeditions of 1860-62 and 1864-69 may be considered in part a portion of the general Franklin search.

Meanwhile the interest in another purely polar effort was increasing in England. Osborn had discussed the proposed routes in the Geographical Mag., Sept., 1874. We have two important records of the results of the expedition which followed: Journals and Proceedings of the Arctic Expedition, 1875-76, under the Command of Capt. Sir George Strong Nares (London, 1877, — Blue Book), with the official charts; and the personal narrative of one of his officers, Capt. A. H. Markham in his Grear Frozen Sea (London, 1878), which title, it will be observed, is a criticism of Dr. Hayes's book. By sledges Markham attained to 83° 20' 26", or to within 400 miles of the Pole. Markham gives a map, illustrating the expedition, reduced by E. G. Ravenstein from the Admiralty chart. (Cf. Bull. de la Soc. de Paris, 1870.) Detailed maps of Markham's greatest northing by sledges will be found in the official Blue-Book of the Nares Expedition, p. 126 ; in M'Cormick's Voyages of Discoveries, vol. ii. Cf. the Lincoln Sea map in Hall's Northern Polar Expedition (1876), ed. by Davis, p. 356; others in Recent Polar Voyages to 1876 ; and in Alexander Leslie's Arctic Voyages of A. E. Nordenskjöld (Lond., 1879).

The “ Pandora ” of Capt. Allen Young's voyage in 1875–76 (see map of her track from Baffin's Bay to Mel. ville Island in J. A. MacGahan's Under the Northern Lights, London, 1876) became, under a new name, the vessel commanded by Captain De Long, whose exploits and fate are commemorated by De Long's widow in the Voyage of the Jeannette (Boston, 1883), and in J. W. Danenhower's Narrative of the Jeannette (Boston,

1882).

The eventful experiences of the Franklin Bay Expedition, under Lieut. A. W. Greely, was told in his Three Years of Arctic Service, 1881-84, and the attainment of the farthest north (N. Y., 1886). Greely's official Refort on the Proceedings of the U. S. Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay was not published till 1888. This highest altitude, 83° 24', was attained by Lieutenant Lockwood with a sledge party; and the story of the rescue is told jointly by Commander W. S. Schley, of the relief expedition, and Professor J. R. Soley, in The Rescue of Greely (N. Y., 1885).

NOTE. – The circumpolar map given in Mrs. De Long's Voyage of the Jeannette (Boston, 1883), showing the highest point reached up to that date, is partly reproduced on the next page.

VOL. VIII. -9

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CHAPTER III.
CANADA FROM 1763 TO 1867.

BY GEORGE BRYCE, LL. D.
Professor in Manitoba College, Winnipeg.

THE experiment of transforming a hostile French population into good

T British subjects had failed in Acadia. The ill-fated Acadians fell on evil days when, in the opinion of British and colonial leaders alike, the only mode of governing them was to scatter them among the colonies of the Atlantic coast. Whatever else it meant, the Acadian deportation of 1755 was a confession that the resources of controlling power and expedient had failed. Another similar and yet greater problem confronted Britain in her assumption of the government of Canada after Wolfe's conquest in 1759. Acadia had contained probably 10,000 French people, all told. What must be done with 65,000 people of the same ardent nature, glorying in being descendants of the rivals of the British from the days of Crécy and Poictiers, and, moreover, differing in language and religion from their conquerors ? No doubt the irritating effect of having French compatriots for neighbors, as in the case of Acadia, was absent; but, on the other hand, discontent was plainly rising against the mother country all along the Atlantic seaboard. No young monarch ever had a harder task thrown upon him than George III, coming to the throne with a newly acquired and hostile Canada, and with colonial America restless and querulous. On the acquisition of Canada, after the capitulation of Montreal, a capable and judicious British officer, General Murray, was put in charge of the conquered country. The promises made to the “new subjects," as the FrenchCanadians were called, had been liberal : “the inhabitants and merchants were to enjoy all the privileges granted to subjects of his Britannic Majesty.” To a sensitive people, such as the French-Canadians, it was not likely that the new yoke would be agreeable. While General Murray was much respected, yet the four years following the capture of Quebec are contemptuously referred to as the “rule of the soldiery,” which one of their historians has declared “constituted a formal violation of two capitulations.” When the Treaty of Paris (1763) had finally destroyed all hope of a French reoccupation of Canada, a number of prominent officers and merchants, to whom the people under the paternal government of New France had looked as indispensable, departed for their mother country or for

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San Domingo. The vacant positions in the towns, and the unoccupied lands and forests of Quebec offered freely to officers and soldiers, were an invitation to adventurers from Great Britain and the Atlantic seaboard

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NOTE TO OPPOSITE MAP. – A reduced section of the map, “ North America from the French of Mr. D'Anville,” in Jefferys' Natural and Civil History of the French Dominions in North and South America (London, 1760).

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