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painstaking historian to reproduce the life of the loyalist settlements. A useful book, but not very valuable on account of its being chiefly gathered together from tradition and hearsay, and not from documents, is the Settlement of Upper Canada (1872), by William Canniff. Of United Empire loyalist descent himself, Dr. Canniff deserves credit for his industry, though the work is fragmentary and might have been better arranged." The Loyalists in America, by Dr. Egerton Ryerson (Toronto, 1880), 2 vols., deals with the growth of loyalism in the New England and Cavalier colonies, and adds little of local interest to what Canniff has given. The late J. C. Dent, in his Canadian portrait gallery

(Toronto, 1880), 4 vols., in sketches of Lord Dorchester, Haldimand, Simcoe, and others, has given many details of the loyalist period. The Mohawk chieftain Brant and his Six Nations Indians were to all intents and purposes United Empire loyalists, coming to Canada as they did after the loss of their lands near the Johnson estates in New York, and companions of their neighbors from that locality. Accordingly, in Brant's life by W. L. Stone (New York, 1838), 2 vols., and in the pamphlet by Ke-che-ah-gawme-qua, there is much of interest belonging to this time. Dr. Henry Scadding, the archæologist, of Toronto, has, in his interesting history of Toronto of Old (1873), told the story of many of the early loyalist families and their influence on Upper Canada. In the Ottawa parliamentary library is a manuscript of three or four hundred

quarto pages, giving Colonel Clarke's recollecJONATHAN SEWELL.*

tions and reminiscences, and it is held in high

esteem for its account of the fathers of Upper Canada. The Travels in North America, 1795-96-97, by Isaac Weld (London, 1800, 1807), in 2 vols., contains a picture of the country of the loyalists in their first generation ; and Travels through the Canadas by George Heriot (London, 1807) is worth examination. The Travels to the interior inhabited parts of North America in ten years, by P. Campbell, in 1791-92 (Edinburgh, 1793), has an account of the author's contact with many of the United Empire leaders, and he speaks of their condition. Also, see Travels of Duc de la Rochefoucault-Liancourt, 2 volumes, 1799. The memorials of the United Empire loyalists have been greatly neglected in Nova Scotia * and New Brunswick, much

1 (An early Sketch of his Majesty's Province of 3 [Cf. Hugh Gray's Letters from Canada, 1806
Upper Canada (London, 1805), by D'Arcy Boul- 1808 (London, 1809). — Ed.]
ton, is of little importance, and so is D. M'Leod, 4 [For local traits of the Nova Scotia loyalists,
Brief Review of the Settlement of Upper Canada see G. S. Brown's Hist. of Yarmouth (Boston,
by the U. E. Loyalists and Scotch Highlanders in 1888); T. Watson Smith respecting those at
1783 ; and of the Grievances of 1837-38, together Shelburne, in the Nov. Scot. Hist. Soc. Coll., vi.
with a Sketch of the Campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 53, and references, ante, Vol. VII. p. 214. –
1814 (Cleveland, 1841). — Ed.]

ED.]
2 [There are later editions. See Vol. VI.,
Index. - Ed.]

# [Following a photograph in Fannings Taylor's Portraits of British Americans (Montreal, 1867), vol. ii. His father was Jonathan Sewall, a royalist in Massachusetts, the last attorney-general of that province, who at the outbreak of the Revolution fled to England, where visiting the tombs of his ancestors he found the name spelled with an e and adopted the form Sewell. His son, whose likeness is here given, was born in Cam bridge, Mass., June 6, 1766. Educated in England, he came to New Brunswick in 1785, and was established as a lawyer in Quebec in 1789, and in time reached the elevation (1808) of chief justice of Lower Canada. As early as 1814 he advocated a plan of forming a federal union of the British provinces in North America. He died Nov. 12, 1839. — Ed.]

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to the disgrace of their descendants. In 1883, by a centennial celebration, the children of the loyalists and others of St. John, New Brunswick, sought to atone for this long want of recollection, and the addresses made are published in a Loyalists' Centennial Souvenir (St. John, N. B., 1887). In the same year General J. W. De Peyster prepared an address on the fathers for the Historical Society of New Brunswick, which was published in New York (1883).

The materials for the history of the period in Upper Canada from 1791 to 1804 have hitherto been very scant.

The first years of the life of new states or provinces are apt to be unchronicled. Last year (1888) a discovery was made which will enable historians to reproduce this lost period. Along with Governor Simcoe in 1791 came to organize the new province of Upper Canada the Hon. Col. D. W. Smith of the Fifth Regiment, surveyorgeneral of Canada. Stationed chiefly at Niagara, the capital, Col. Smith was not only the central figure of the settlement, but maintained an extensive correspondence with distinguished persons both in Britain and America. What was perhaps more fortunate still, he treasured up every plan and survey, as well as the letters he received. Col. Smith returned to Britain, and though his children have been communicated with by those who knew the colonel's habit of preserving documents, no information could be obtained. It turned out, however, that Col. Smith's widow had married again, and this second family had inherited under another name the surveyor-general's collections. Last year a London dealer came into possession of the documents, and sent word to Canada. On the same day three cablegrams went to London : one from Mr. Brymner of the Archives Department, Ottawa; another from Premier Mowat of Toronto; and a third from Librarian Bain of the Toronto Public Library. Mr. Bain, who is one of the chief authorities on “Canadiana,” was fortunate in reaching the dealer first, and for £32 obtained this invaluable series of documents. They consist of twenty-four large volumes of many thousand pages. The original documents cover all the details of government and social life in the province for twelve years, and comprise disbursements and receipts of moneys, land claims, memorials, petitions, accounts, land sales and grants, with beautifully executed plans of the towns laid out, and of Col. Smith's estates, which amounted to twenty thousand acres, and were scattered over twenty-one different townships of Upper Canada. The autograph correspondence is extensive, and in volume after volume. Among his correspondents are Earl Percy, the Duke of Northumberland, Duke of Rutland, Duke of Portland, Count de Puisaye, General Simcoe, Governors Russell and Hunter, Chief Justice Osgoode, the Bishop of Quebec, and scores of other distinguished persons, and on all imaginable subjects.

In the maritime provinces the history of the early settlement has been given by a number of writers. The Nova Scotia Archives, edited by Dr. T. B. Akins, commissioner of public records (Halifax, 1869), though excellent, only cover the time 1714-55, not thus reaching our period, a thing to be regretted ; also five volumes of the Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Historical Society are chiefly taken up with the earlier period; while the well-written History of Acadia, by James Hannay, only reaches the Treaty of Paris. Dr. George Patterson, who has written a number of excellent sketches of church and missionary enterprise, including the memoir of Rev. James McGregor, D. D. (Philadelphia, 1859), the Nova Scotian pioneer, published at Montreal (1877) his valuable History of Pictou. Beamish Murdoch's History of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1865–67), three vols., is to be spoken of rather as annals than history, and does not come later down than 1828; while the North British Society of Halifax has also published Annals, 1768-1868. Murdoch's collection has been made with pains, and awaits the polished writer to weave the facts into

1 (For other notes on the New Brunswick of New Brunswick, 1783-1883 (St. John, 1883), loyalists, see ante, Vol. VII. p. 213, as well as and a paper on the Pioneers in the St. James for those in Canada in general. Cf. J. W. Law. Mag. xxix. 575. — Ed.] rence's Foot-prints, or incidents in the early hist.

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new and correct map (Halifax, 1823). The book is thought to have been prepared by Judge T.C. Haliburton.

NOTE. — The above map is reproduced from A General Description of Nova Scotia illustrated by a

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a finished web. A common-sense History of Nova Scotia, in its mercantile and commercial relations, is that of Duncan Campbell (Montreal, 1873)."

The resources of the neighboring province of New Brunswick were described by Thomas Baillie in Account of New Brunswick (London, 1832), and by Abraham Gesner, surgeon (1849), following his immigration work of 1847. New Brunswick history and statistics have been treated by Rev. C. Atkinson in his Historical and Statistical Account of New Brunswick (Edinburgh, 1844), and in a Compendium Hist. of New Brunswick (Halifax, 1832), written by Rev. Robert Cooney. See also Martin's History of New Brunswick (1844).

The history of Prince Edward Island has been written by Duncan Campbell (Charlottetown, 1875), while An account of Prince Edward, &c., by John Stewart (London, 1806), treats the topography, statistics, and history of the island. In 1805 the Earl of Selkirk had published in London his work On Emigration and the State of the Highlands, in which there is a description of his Highland settlement in Queen's County, P. E. I.

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Newfoundland as it was and as it is in 1877 was published by the Rev. Philip Tocque (Toronto, 1878). Reeves' History of the Government of Newfoundland appeared in 1793. Anspach's History of Newfoundland (1819) is mentioned, as also Pedley's (1863). In 1883 the veteran authority on Newfoundland, Rev. Moses Harvey, published in company with another writer, Newfoundland, the oldest British Colony; while two years after Judge Pinsent wrote a paper, “ Newfoundland our oldest colony," which appeared in vol. xvi. of the Royal Colonial Institute Proceedings.

1 [Cf. ante, V. p. 419. The condition of the M. Martin (London, 1837), is of little moment. province immediately after the Peace of Paris is For later aspects, see Capt. W. Moorsom's Letgathered from an account prepared by order of ters from Nova Scotia, sketches of a young counJonathan Belcher, Jr., the lieutenant-governor. try (London, 1830). — ED.) The Shelburne Papers, vol. xlviii., show a copy 2 [Local politics make the staple of G. E. Fenof it as given in the Hist. MSS. Com. Report, v. ety's Political notes and observations; or, A glance 217. S. Hollingsworth's Present State of Nova at the leading measures that have been introduced Scotia (Edinburgh, 1786; 2d ed., 1787) points to and discussed in the house of assembly of New the conditions just after the close of the Amer. Brunswick, extending over a period of twenty-five ican war. An early Hist. of Nova Scotia, by R. years (Fredericton, 1867). — Ed.]

* (From R. M. Martin's History of Nova Scotia (London, 1837). — ED.] VOL. VIII. — 12

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