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Upon the history of New Brunswick and the other maritime provinces, Dr. Harper, in 1876, issued a work at St. John, N. B. The writer of special note in connection with literature and history in the lower provinces is Thomas Chandler Haliburton, a judge of Nova Scotia, who was born in Windsor, N. S., 1769, and died in England in 1865, and whose writings under the pseudonym of “Sam Slick” have given amusement and much shrewd wisdom to thousands. Haliburton wrote an Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1829), two vols. The historical portion of the work only reaches to the time of the Treaty of Paris; but a great part of the first volume and all of the second is statistical. In his literary works, The Clockmaker (Sam Slick), three series ; the Attaché (two vols.); Letter-bag of the Great Western, and The old Judge (two vols.), Haliburton has drawn many graphic pictures of colonial life, infinitely more valuable as showing the social condition of the Lower Provinces than his history. A brochure by F. B. Crofton has just been published (Halifax, N. S., 1889), entitled Haliburton, the Man and the Writer.

The literature on the war of 1812 is very considerable, and in Vol. VII. pp. 420-437, the bibliography has been largely given. Of Canadian writers, Gilbert Auchinleck first wrote his History of the War in Maclear's Anglo-American Magazine. Col. Coffin's Chronicle of 1812,” though not arranged with literary grace, is an earnest and honest view of the British side of the war. The Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock (London, 1847), by C. F. Tupper, is of first importance. Major Richardson, who took part in the war of 1812, and afterwards became a bishop of the Methodist Church in Canada, states his views (Brockville, 1842) with a thorough admixture of loyalist feeling.* Historical documents relating to the war of 1812 were published by the Lit. and Hist. Soc. of Quebec in 1877; and the same society issued in 1879 the paper by Mr. J. Stevenson on the Cause and Commencement of the War of 1812.

As in many other instances, the war called attention to Canada, and on peace being established the settlers fowed in from all quarters. Various books of travel now become of use: Lt. Francis Hall's Travels in Canada and the United States, 1816, 1817 (London and Boston, 1818, 1819). James Strachan's Visit to the Province of Upper Canada in 1819 (Aberdeen, 1820). Two volumes called Statistical account of Upper Canada, by R. Gourlay (1822), and a volume of Introduction by the same author, give a good account of the state of the country. Hints to Emigrants, by Rev. William Bell (Edinburgh, 1824), was an exhibition of the crude condition of things in Upper Canada. A book of travels by John Howison, Esq. (Edinburgh and London, 1821, 3d ed. 1825), is called Sketches of Upper Canada, domestic, local, and characteristic. The author spent two and one half years in Canada. John M. Duncan, a Scottish traveller, passed through the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819, and (2 vols., Glasgow, 1823) gives a graphic description of Niagara Falls and other national objects, as well as of the Six Nations of Indians. An officer of the royal navy, F. F. De Roos, in a work published at London (1827), presents an appreciative account of Montreal and Kingston, and of the future of America. Another British officer, Basil Hall, R. N., in his Travels in North America, 1827–28 (Edinburgh, 1829), depicts in a lively manner the life of the settlers in western Canada. The novelist John Galt, in his Autobiography (London, 1833), describes the Canada Company, whose affairs he managed, and pictures the social condition of Upper Canada. Major Dunlop also wrote Statistical sketches of Upper Canada (1832). Three years in Canada, 1826– 1828 (London, 1829), by McTaggart, is a lively and useful sketch by one of the British Toronto, 1852-53, 2 vols.

also published Personal Memoirs (Montreal, (Cf. ante, VII. p. 427. – ED.)

1838). There is something to be gathered from $ (Cf. ante, VII. p. 459. — Ed.]

Brymner's Reports (cf. 1887, p. civ), and J. W. * [Cf. ante, VII. p. 427. Operations of the de Peyster's Miscellanies of an officer (N. Y., right division of the army of Upper Canada. He 1888). — Ed.]


NOTE.— [The opposite map is reduced from one in John Stewart's Account of Prince Edward Island (London, 1806). — Ed.)

engineers employed in building the Rideau canal. Five Years' residence in the Canadas, 1818–23 (London, 1824), by Edw. A. Talbot, presents the mixed society of Canada as viewed by a young Irish subaltern. There are pictures of the Canadian winter in George Head's Forest Scenes (London, 1829), and in Mrs. Anna Jameson's Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (New York, 1839). Some Notes of a Journey through Canada and the United States and West Indies (Edinburgh, 1838) was written by James Logan, advocate. He gives an account of Quebec and Montreal, but especially of the opening district of the western peninsula of Upper Canada. Canniff Haight describes Country life in Canada fifty years ago (Toronto, 1885). Capt. R. G. A. Levinge, in his Echoes

from the backwoods, etc. (London, 1846), describes the huntsman's paradise of New Brunswick, the rebellion in Lower Canada, and the settlers' life in Upper Canada. T. R. Preston gives us an account of Three years' residence in Canada, 1837-39 (London, 1840). An English writer, James S. Buckingham, dedicated to Governor Metcalfe his Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and other British Provinces (London, 1843), containing a plan of national colonization. The rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada, the state of the Indians, and the features of the chief towns are discussed. Canada and the Canadians (London, 1846), by Sir Richard H. Bonnycastle, is the picture of colonial life as seen by an officer of high rank, and seen through the spectacles of imperial interests. E. Ermatinger prepared a useful little book (1859) containing the biography of the quaint Irish officer Col. Talbot, who settled many townships along Lake Erie. The Imperial papers on Emigration (London, 1847-48) tell of the outflow of the British people, mainly at this time to New Brunswick. In the archives at Ottawa there is a considerable correspondence with the British quartermaster's department on the immigration of the period. Roughing it in the bush, by Mrs. S. Moodie (London, 1854; New York, 1877), is one of the most successful and attractive pictures given of Canadian life. It is by an officer's wife, a sister of Miss Agnes Strickland, the well-known British authoress. Major Strickland's Twenty-seven Years in Canada West (London, 1853) is another sketchy account of the emigrant's coming told by a brother of the preceding writer. The author was in the employ of the Canada Company while it was making settlements in Upper Canada. The Emigrant (London, 1847) is a series of sketches by Sir Francis Bond Head, some of them being interesting views of colonial life. There is no occasion to enumerate more of these later travels.

The literature connected with the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada in 1837-38 is somewhat extensive. The rebellions were the outcome of an agitation for twenty years in Upper, and for perhaps more than thirty years in Lower, Canada. The gradual growth of the feeling of inquietude in Lower Canada is thus shown by Mr. John Reade in Canadiana (March, 1889). “The Report of the Gosford commission gives some idea of the state of this (Lower Canada) province in the years preceding the rising. In 1824 was published a number of pamphlets for and against the union of the Canadas as a remedy for the existing dissatisfaction. Later a volume was published showing the alleged defects of the Constitutional Act. In 1828 appeared the Report of the select committee on the civil government, with the evidence of a number of prominent men. In 1832 was published a Review of the proceedings in the Legislature of Lower Canada in the previous year, with an appendix containing important documents. In 1832 a book was published in Montreal comprising the ninety-two resolutions, with debates on them. These successive publications (of which I have mentioned only a few of the many) indicate the increasing tension in the relations between the malcontent portion of the population and the authorities.”

The French Canadian standpoint is taken in Carrier's Les evenéments de 1837–38, and in L. 0. David's Les patriotes de 1837-38. So late as 1883 a controversy arose by an

1 [Later, Canada as it was and may be, with sequel to his Canada in 1841 (London, 1842), the additions by Sir James Edw. Alexander (Lon. latter book being published at London in 1841. don, 1852). Cf. his Newfoundland in 1842, a - ED.)




CANADA FROM 1763 TO 1867.



attack on M. Globensky, who had taken part on the loyal side, which drew forth a history of the rebellion by his son C. A. M. Globensky: La rebellion de 1837 à Saint-Eustache (Montreal, 1884). M. Globensky's story was severely criticised by L. 0. David, M. P. P. The Upper Canadian rebellion was no doubt hastened by Gourlay's writings, and especially by the Seventh Report of the Grievance Committee of the Legislature of Upper Canada (Toronto, 1835). This publication embodied the results of indefatigable efforts to collect the records of wrongs, some real enough and others imaginary, which were made by the excitable William Lyon Mackenzie. A work published in London (1837), known as Canadiana, described the danger of the state of matters in Upper Canada, and no doubt influenced the authorities at the colonial office towards considering Canadian affairs. The most important work on the rebellion was, for years, The life and times of William Lyon Mackenzie, with an account of the Canadian rebellion (Philadelphia, 1862; Toronto, 1863). This was written by Mr. Charles Lindsey, a government officer in Toronto, and a son-in-law of Mr. Mackenzie. While a capable writer, Mr. Lindsey could hardly be expected to take a dispassionate view. The strong personality of William Lyon Mackenzie led to serious differences with his colleagues. The case ex alterâ parte” was taken up by a young Canadian litterateur, since dead, Mr. J. C. Dent, who in 1885 published at Toronto The story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion. Mr. Dent had obtained from Dr. Rolph's family the documents of Dr. Rolph, who was Mackenzie's chief opponent after their quarrel. These papers, which were afterwards obtained by Mr. Brymner, and are now in the archives at Ottawa, were skilfully used by Mr. Dent, who made out a case to Mackenzie's disadvantage. Mr. Dent's work as a literary performance deserves praise, and throws much light on the complications of the rebellion. Fairness, however, demands an opinion which, while by no means exonerating Mackenzie, yet by no means supports Mr. Dent's positions. The work brought out a keen rejoinder entitled, The other side of the story (1886), by Mr. John King, a lawyer, and another son-in-law of Mackenzie.

The despatches received by Sir Francis Bond Head (1839), Sir Franciz' despatches (1837), and Sir Francis' Narrative of his government in Upper Canada (Toronto and London, 1838, 1839) give the loyalist side, with an attempted defence of the governor's conduct.2 Judge Haliburton also wrote The Bubbles of Canada (London, 1839), in which

1 It contains a reprint of a Journal de Mes. Nova Scotia ; letter from A. Macdonell, catholic bishop of sire Paquin, Curé de St. Eustache pendant les

Kingston ; memorial of A. Manahan complaining of the troubles de 1837–38.

exclusion of Roman Catholics (Irish) from places of emolu

ment and honor in the government of Upper Canada; 2 (Head's Narrative, together with the Report memorial of representatives of Scotch Church in Montreal ; of the Earl of Durham, constitute the App. 10 address from the Constitutional Association of Montreal the Journal of the House of Assembly of Upper to the inhabitants of British America. Canada (Toronto, 1839). Durham was the high

B. Commission appointing C. Buller to inquire into commissioner “to inquire into, and, as far as

the past and present methods of disposing of waste

lands, woods, forests, and other domains and heredita. may be possible, to adjust all questions depend- ments, the property of the Crown in Lower Canada, etc. ; ing in the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, circular despatches from the governor-general to the reor either of them, respecting the form and ad- spective lieutenant-governors of her Majesty's colonies in ministration of the civil government thereof."

North America ; report to the governor-general (on public

lands and emigration). Minutes of evidence taken before His Report on the affairs of British North

assistant commissioners of crown lands and emigration. America was ordered to be printed by the House C. Reports of commissioners of inquiry into the muni. of Commons, Feb. 11, 1839, and is included in cipal institutions of Lower Canada ; report of the bishop of the Sessional Papers, Reports from Commissioners,

Montreal on the state of the church within his diocese. vol. xvii. (London, 1839). An appendix contains investigate the past and present modes of disposing of the

D. Commission appointing A Buller to inquire into and a variety of papers illustrative of the condition produce of any estate or funds applicable to purposes of of the provinces.

education in Lower Canada, etc. ; report of the commis

sioner of inquiry into the state of education in Lower CONTENTS OF THE APPENDICES. — A. Special report on Canada; Jesuits'estates. Returns made to education comthe excessive appropriation of public land, under the name mission, 1838. Jesuits' estates ; repart of Mr. Dunkin. of c'ergy reserves; militia claims to grants of land ; state E. Report on the commutation of the feudal tenures in of the hospitals, prisons, charitable institutions, etc., in the island of Montreal, and other seigniories in the possesLower Canada; addresses presented to the Earl of Dur. sion of the Seigniory of St. Sulpice of Montreal; ordiham in 1838; letter from William Young on the state of nance of the governor-general and special council of Lower

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travelling over the antecedent ground he endeavors to show the unreasonableness of the Canadian people, and to cast contempt on the remedies employed to pacify them. Sutherland's letters to Her Majesty (1841) and E. A. Theller's Canada in 1837–38 (Philadelphia, 1841), bear on the events of the same stirring time. Theller was an American sympathizer who for a while was a prisoner in Quebec.

The trials and the subsequent action of the executive in sending a number of the prisoners after the rebellion into banishment led to a literature of its own. There were very soon made public two important records of the history of the revolt. The first was the Report of the State Trials before a General Court-martial at Montreal, 1838–39, exhibiting a complete history of the late rebellion (Montreal, 1839, in two vols.). The other was

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Fry's Case of the Canadian prisoners. Other works like Miller's Notes of an Exile of
Van Dieman's Land (1846), D. Heustis' Adventures in Canada and Van Dieman's
Land (1847),1 Wait's Letters from l'an Dieman's Land (1843), and Prieur's Notes d'un
condamné politique de 1838 are memorials of this unfortunate crisis in Canadian affairs.?

A considerable number of works on the history of special localities are worthy of our notice. Some of these are merely gazetteers, but some embody research, and will be of service to the general historian. We can but mention several of the best : Dr. Poole's Early Settlement of Peterboro' (1867); James Young's Galt and its Neighborhood (Toronto, 1880); James Croil's Dundas (1861); Contributions to the history of the Eastern Townships (Montreal, 1866), and Shefford (1877), by C. Thomas; Mrs. C. N. Day's Canada, for incorporating the Seminary of St. Sulpice of en 1838 (Quebec, 1869, 1884). Statements reMontreal; report on the establishment of a registry of real

garding the losses and compensations as resultproperty in Lower Canada. — ED.)

ing from the rebellion make vol. xxxv. (1849) of 1 [The Boston ed. (1817) is called: Narrative the parliamentary blue books, Accounts and of the Adventures and Sufferings of Capt. Daniel Papers. There is a recent account of the rebelD. Heustis. – ED.)

lion, by D. W. Cross, in the Mag. Amer. Hist. 2 [Cf. also Felix Poutré's Echappé de la po- February and March, 1888. - ED.] tence. Souvenir d'un prisonnier d'état Canadien

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Pioneers (1863), and History of the Eastern Townships (1869); B. F. Hubbard's History of Stanstead County, revised by John Lawrence (Montreal, 1874); Acton Burrows' Guelph (1877); Halifax and its business, by G. White (1876); Leavitt's Leeds and Grenville (1879); Montreal and its fortifications, by A. Sandham (1874), Its prison, by Rev. J. D. Borthwick (1880); Hochelaga depicta, by Newton Bosworth (Montreal, 1846); Ottawa (past and present), by C. Roger (1871); Hawkins' Picture of Quebec (1834); Chronique Trifluvienne, by B. Sulte (Montreal, 1870); numerous works on Toronto – Dr. Henry Scadding's (1878) Toronto of Old (Toronto, 1873); and other books by C. Mulvaney (1884), G. M. Adam, C. C. Taylor (1886); Robert Sellar's History of the County

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From D. W. Smyth's Gazetteer of the Province of Upper Canada (N. Y., 1813).

of Huntingdon and of the Seigniores of Chateaugay and Beauharnais, to 1838 (Huntingdon, Q., 1888); Esquisse sur la Gaspesie, by J. C. Langlier; and Buie's Saguenay.

Among special histories may be classed, The Irishman in Canada, by Nicholas Flood Davin, and the Scot in British North America (Toronto, 1880–85), by W. J. Rattray, these works being largely biographical.

In the discussion on the Hudson Bay Company,mention is made of the works on the Red River country. The chief books of reference on Canadian Northwestern history are Alexander Ross's Red River Settlement (London, 1856) — rather onesided in some particulars, but useful; Red River, by J. J. Hargrave (Montreal, 1871), written by a Hudson

1 (Ante, ch. i. For the Hudson Bay Com- Canada and the States, 1851-1886 (London, pany's relation to Canada, see E. W. Watkins' 1887). — Ed.]

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