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Bay Company officer, and intended to be a vindication of the company in some points, especially valuable for chapters vi., vii., viii., which give the principles of the company's rule; History of Manitoba (Ottawa, 1880), by Hon. Donald Gunn and C. R. Tuttle the portion up to 1835 written by the former of these two, being the story of an eyewitness who came out in Lord Selkirk's ships; Rattray's Scot in British North America, which in its early chapters covers fur-hunting experience and those of the Selkirk colony; and Manitoba, its infancy, growth, and present condition (London, 1882), by the present writer.1
Of the most western province of Canada, British Columbia, much has been written. The best works on its history belonging to our period are, Fitzgerald's Charter and proceedings of the Hudson's Bay Company, with reference to Vancouver's Island (1849); Vancouver Island and British Columbia (London, 1850), by J. D. Pemberton; Vancouver Island and British Columbia, as described by Matthew McFie (London, 1865); and Four years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island (London, 1862), by R. C. Mayne.
A considerable literature has arisen in Canada in connection with the founding and growth of its churches. These involve continual references to the general history of the country. We mention only some of the more important. Rise and progress of the Church of England in the British American Provinces (Halifax, 1849), by Dr. T. B. Akins ; Missions of the Church of England in North American Colonies (London, 1848), by E. Hawkins; History of the Church of England in the Colonies (London, 1845, 1856), by Rev. J. S. M. Anderson; History of the Secession (Presbyterian) Church in Nova Scotia (Edinburgh, 1847), by Rev. J. Robertson ; Story of the Kirk in the Maritime Provinces (1875), by James Croil; Life and times of Dr. Robert Burns, by his son R. F. Burns, in Halifax, N. S. (Toronto, 1872); Life and discourses of Rev. Alex. Mathieson, D. D. (Montreal, 1870), by James Croil; Memoir of Dr. John Bayne, of Galt (Toronto, 1871), by Dr. Smellie ; Wm. Bettridge, Brief History of the Church of Upper Canada (London, 1838); Memorials of John Machar (Toronto, 1873), by his daughter (“ Fidelis "); History of the Presbyterian Church in Canada (Toronto, 1885), by Dr. William Gregg ; History of St. Gabriel Street Church, Montreal (1887), by Robert Campbell, containing many facts about the Northwest Fur Company; History of the Methodist Church of the Maritime Provinces (Halifax, 1877); Memoirs of William Black, Wesleyan (Halifax, 1839), by Dr. William Ritchie; History of Methodism in Canada (Toronto, 1862), by George F. Playter; Case and his contemporaries (Toronto, 1882), by John Carroll, D. D.; Fifty years with Baptist ministers of Maritime Provinces (St. John, N. B., 1880), by Rev. I. E. Bill; Howley's
1 [The Canadiana (March, 1889) recognizes (Toronto, 1885). The first Canadian woman the value of this work. Professor Bryce has con- who went to the Red River region was Marie tributed a paper on the “Five Forts of Winni. Anne Gaboury, who is commemorated by the peg" to the Roy. Soc. Canada, Proc. iii. (2) p. 135. Abbé G. Dugast in La Première Canadienne du Cf. also G. M. Adam's Canadian Northwest nord ouest (Montreal, 1883). — Ed.]
From the Colonial Journal (London, 1816), vol. ii.
Ecclesiastical History of Newfoundland (Boston, 1888); Abbé Chaudonnet's Notre Dame des Canadiens (1872); Gosselin's Histoire populaire de l'Eglise du Canada (1887); History of the Guibord Case (1875); Henri Têtu's Les Évêques de Québec (Quebec, 1889).
The field of political history and biography has been by no means neglected in Canada. The public men of Canada have been treated by several writers in general biographies. Most notable of these is Sketches of Celebrated Canadians (Quebec, 1862), by H. J. Morgan, including nearly one hundred biographies. Another of these is The Canadian portrait gallery (Toronto, 1875, 1882), by J. C. Dent, with letterpress description, and in many cases well-executed portraits, of one hundred and fifty of Canada's prominent men. Still another is Portraits of British Canadians (Montreal, 1865), by Fannings Taylor; and a more extended series of biographies than any is Cyclopædia of Canadian Biography (Toronto, 1886), by G. M. Rose. A work of ethnographic importance, and reflecting credit
on its author for marvellous industry, is the Dictionnaire généalogique des familles Canadiennes (1871-1887, in 4 vols.), giving, it is said, the descent of upwards of a million of the French Canadians. This has been the Magnum opus of the patient Abbé Tanguay. The learned Abbé Casgrain published in French, Biographies Canadiennes (1873), and three years later, L. O. David followed with Biographies et portraits (Ottawa, 1880).
Of the lives of the governors there are G. L. Scrope's Memoir of Lord Sydenham (London, 1844); Letters and Journals of Lord Elgin (London, 1872), a very interesting work, by Theodore Walrond; 2 John W. Kaye's Life and Correspondence of Lord Metcalfe (London, 1854, 1858), and Uncle Ben's Life of Governor Metcalfe (1846) (a pamphlet).
The Clergy Reserve struggle has a considerable literature which may be found in the ecclesiastical histories just given, as well as in Charles Lindsey's History of the Clergy Reserves (Toronto, 1851), and in the lives of the great politico-ecclesiastical leaders of the time. The Story of my Life (Toronto, 1883) is by one of these leaders, Egerton Ryerson,
1 (Cf. Condition and Prospects of Canada in tations on all who differed in opinion with his 1854, as portrayed in the Despatches of the Earl hero." - ED.) of Elgin (Quebec, 1855). – ED.)
3 [Some of the documentary illustrations will 2 [Sir Francis Hincks (Polit. Hist., 1877) be found in Papers relative to Clergy Reserves, speaks of this life as “casting the vilest impu- presented to parliament, February 11, 1853, in Sir
* After a cut in The Mirror, February 11, 1837.
and is edited by Dr. Hodgins. It is interesting and important. The Memoir of Bishop Strachan (Toronto, 1870), by his successor, Bishop Bethune, presents a personality of great power, though a more powerful biographer would have drawn the lines more strongly.1 Fannings Taylor, in Last Three Bishops appointed by the Crown (Montreal, 1869), gives a history of Lower Canadian affairs as related to Bishops Fulford and Mountain, and of Upper Canadian, in which Dr. Strachan took so foremost a part. The Reminiscences of his Public Life, by Sir Francis Hincks (Montreal, 1884), is a record since 1830 of one of the most active-minded politicians Canada ever possessed — and a determined opponent to State Churchism, as is shown in his Religious Endowments in Canada (London, 1869).2 One of the chief moulding men of his time was Hon.. George Brown; and his life (Toronto, 1882) has been fairly well written by Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, on whom his mantle fell as exponent of the principles of the liberal party. Mr. Brown's great political opponent was Sir John A. Macdonald, whose life has been written by J. E. Collins, in the Life and Times of the Rt. Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald (Toronto, 1883). The distinguished Lower Canadian colleague of Sir John Macdonald was Sir George Etienne Cartier, who had a marvellous magnetic power over his countrymen as a leader. A short sketch of his life was issued (1873), by L. O. David. An interesting history of legal affairs in Upper Canada has this year (1889) been published under the title, The Lives of the Chief Justices of Upper Canada, by D. B. Read, a lawyer of Toronto. For many years one of the most prominent figures in the history of the Lower Provinces was Joseph Howe, leader of the liberals. His name was long one to conjure by, and his influence in Nova Scotia was at times almost unbounded. His Speeches and Public Letters were published (1858) by William Annand, a political admirer. Howe's only opponent of note in later years was Honorable, now Sir Charles Tupper, whose life has been sketched (1883) by C. Thibault.
Two men who were intimately bound up with the commercial development of Canada have been kept in remembrance by friends or admirers. The first of these is. Hon. Richard Cartwright, a public man of note in Kingston, whose Life and Letters (1876) was published by his son Rev. C. E. Cartwright. A man worthy of being remembered is Hon. William Merritt, of great public spirit, the promoter of the Welland Canal, and a man of just and upright mind. His Biography (1878) contains an “account of some of the most important public works in Canada."
It remains to notice what may be called the general histories of Canada, and these vary very much in excellence. Hugh Murray's Hist. and Descriptive Account of British America (Edinburgh, 1839, in 3 vols.) is a book of a past generation. The Last Forty Years; or, Canada since the Union of 1841 (Toronto, 1881), by J. C. Dent, is the best example of true historic research in our Canadian history, if, perhaps, Garneau be excepted. It deals with the affairs of Canada in a truthful and skilful manner. Canada : Past, Present, and Future (Toronto), by W. H. Smith, is more of a gazetteer than a history. Portions of it are, however, useful. A History of Canada (Montreal, 1862 and 1866), by Andrew Bell, is a distorted translation of Garneau. No translator has a right to take such liberties with his author as is done in this case. While somewhat useful, the work is not one to be approved. Of the History of Canada (Brockville, 1868, and London, 1869), by John McMullen, Canadiana (January, 1889) says: “It was written at a distance from original sources of information, and is therefore defective.” Two large volumes make up the Illustrated History of the Dominion (Boston, 1887), by C. R. Tuttle, which is a compilation from the ordinary sources of information. A Popular History of the Dominion of Francis Hincks' lecture on the Polit. Hist. of a Lecture (Montreal, 1877), in which he quotes Canada, etc. — ED.)
largely from his Religious Endowments, which 1 [Cf. Henry Scadding's. Dr. Strachan the having been privately printed is difficult to find. first Bishop of Toronto, a Review and a Study Compare Sir Alexander T. Galt's Canada, 1849– (Toronto, 1868). — En.) .
1859, Quebec, 1860. — Ed.] 2 [Cf. also his Polit. Hist. of Canada, 1840–1855,
Canada (Boston, 1878), by Rev. Dr. Withrow of Toronto, and also found in a later edition, is a considerable volume, of which there is a résumé prepared as a school history.' Of A Short History of the Canadian People (London, 1887), by the present writer, the Canadiana (January, 1889) says : “ Dr. Bryce's book deserves the praise that is due to faithful work. . . . He has shed new and welcome light on several phases of our growth as a nation."
In closing it may be well to state the chief centres in Canada where important documents useful to the historian may be found. Ottawa is certainly the Mecca of Canadian his. torians. The ever increasing value of the archives will give it first rank. The military correspondence; Haldimand and Bouquet collections ; papers on Red River; Rolph papers; Bulger papers, and other collections will no doubt be largely added to as the years roll on. The parliamentary library, too, has a splendid collection of Canadian works, though they sadly need to be arranged and catalogued. The new Public Library of Toronto is making great strides. Its nucleus of “ Canadiana" was made by the presentation of works on Canada by a public-spirited citizen of Toronto, Mr. Hallam, to the public library; and the considerable means at the disposal of the library are being judiciously used. A reference catalogue issued (1889) to increase this, by its capable librarian, Mr. James Bain, shows the collections made to date. The Fraser Institute, Montreal, represents a new and vigorous life which will no doubt gather strength and preserve to some extent the material of the old Institut Canadien, which had fallen into misfortune and decay. A young and hopeful - Society for Historical Studies” is doing good work in Montreal, and meets at the Fraser Institute. The society has begun with this year (1889) a monthly journal, called Canadiana, which promises to be of service to the society and to historical research generally. The most famous society in Canada was for many years the “ Quebec Literary and Historical Society.” Its transactions, extending from 1829-86, contain many excellent papers. The society has unfortunately in late years failed to show the same energy and devotion to research as in days gone by: The Nova Scotia Historical Society, meeting at Halifax, has since 1878 issued its transactions and has, in connection with the Provincial Parliamentary Library, a valuable set of documents. The Manitoba Historical, Scientific Society at Winnipeg has during the ten years of its existence done a considerable amount of work on archæology and northwestern history, confining its researches to the “region north and west of Lake Superior.” It has issued transactions in brochures up to 35 in number, which now make a volume. It has lately come into possession of a valuable series of documents, ranging from 1817-25, of Lord Selkirk, and colony papers found in the recently dismantled Fort Garry. The Marquis of Lorne, when governor-general of Canada, organized the “ Royal Society of Canada," with four sections. Two of these cultivate literature and history. Five large quarto volumes, published in Montreal (1882-87), contain the best of the papers read, among which are many valuable contributions to Canadian history, both by French and English writers.
1 An Abridged History of Canada, by W. H. some papers relating to the American invasion Withrow, also an Outline History of Canadian in 1775–76 in the 2d, 3d, and 4th series, and the Literature by G. Mercer Adam (Toronto, 1887). 5th is wholly devoted to the war of 1812. It
2 [Cf. ante, V. p. 616. This society has since has also printed five volumes of Transactions 1838 published five series of Historical Docu- (1829, 1831, 1837, 1843–56, 1862), and a new ments (1838, reprinted 1873 ; 1840, 1843, 1861, series, consisting of eighteen numbers up to 1866-67, 1871, 1875, 1877,- each in a single vol. 1886, wih details of successive sessions. - ED.] ume). They mainly relate to earlier periods than 3 [Cf. ante, V. p. 419. — Ed.] the one now under consideration, though there are
EDITORIAL NOTE ON NEWFOUNDLAND.
There had been some agitation respecting the ing a number of emigrants to accept his offers. settlement of Newfoundland, in 1609, among the He wished for more, and had in mind to set forth Bristol people, and a transient colony, under the the advantages of his colony in print; but the auspices of Bristol merchants, seems soon after- booksellers convinced him that plain statements wards to have made a temporary lodgment on never sold, and so in a fantastic way he got up a the island.
little book, mixing truth and fiction with more The leader in Newfoundland discovery, how- quaintness than assimilation, which gives the ever, as inducing settlement, was Capt. Richard present reader scarcely more satisfaction than it Whitbourne, who says that more than forty years' afforded the wandering minds of his own day, experience in making voyages to and from the who could feed on whimsicalities enough nearer island had given him great familiarity with it. home. It was printed in London in 1626, as He printed at London, in 1620, A Discourse and The Golden Fleece Diuided into three Parts, Discovery of Newfoundland, with many reasons Vnder which are discouered the Errours of Relito proove how worthy and beneficiall a plantation gion, the Vices and Decayes of the Kingdome, and may there be made. This first edition of a tract, lastly the wayes to get wealth, and to restore which, as the Rev. Charles Pedley in his History Trading so much complayned of. Transported of Newfoundland (London, 1863) says, loses from Cambrioll Colchos, out of the Southermost much of its value from the author's over credu. Part of the Iland, commoniy called the Newlousness, is very rare, as are also second and foundland, by Orpheus junior.4 Vaughan also third editions, issued in 1622 and 1623. The published in 1630 The Newlander's Cure ... second and third editions contained in addition generall and speciall remedies ... against grievous to the book of 1620 a Discourse containing a infirmities, published for the weale of Great Britlowing invitation to all such as shall be adventur- taine. This was dedicated to his brother, the ers, either in person or purse, for the advancement Earl of Carbery, and in the introductory letter of his Majesties most hopefull plantation in the to that nobleman he says that thirteen years Newfoundland lately undertaken, which was first before he had transported to his patent certain published separately in London in 1622.2 In colonies of men and women at his own charge; reprinting this in the edition of 1623, some al- but that because of the burden on his weak terations were made, and there were also added shoulders he had assigned the northerly portion to this new conglomerate issue (1623) "copies of the grant to l'iscount Faulkland, and (upon of certaine letters sent from that country," which Carbery's motion) to Lord Baltimore, “who has are sometimes found in separate issues.3
lived there these two yeeres with his lady and Sir William Vaughan, a Welshman, had en- children." 5 In 1623 Calvert was made proprietor deavored in 1617 to plant a colony in Newfound of the whole southeastern peninsula under the land, and spent several years there, after induc- charter of Avalon.
1 Brinley, i. nos. 120, 121 ; Rich, 1832, no. 155 (£1.10); O‘Callaghan, no. 2402 ; H. C. Murphy, nos. 2715-17; Carter-Brown, ii. no. 247 ; Griswold, no. 939; Crowninshield, no. 1109; Barlow, 304–307; Harv. Coll. lib., 4344, 23 and 24; J. A. Allen, Bibliog. of Cetacea, no. 47; Menzies, no. 2118. F. S. Ellis priced a 1623 edition, in 1884, at £10.10.0 (Catalogue, no. 315), and Quaritch, in 1883, a 1622 ed. at £6, and in 1889 at £10.
2 Rich, 1832, no. 161; Carter-Brown, ii. no. 279.
3 Letters from Captain Wynne, governor of Ferryland, July and Aug., 1622, to Sir George Calvert ; from Capt. Daniel Powell, 28 July, 1622 ; and from N. H., a gentleman living there, Aug. 18, 1622, to his worthy friend, W. P. Cf. Carter-Brown, ii. nos. 278, 286; Sparks Catalogue, No. 1856; and Brymner's Report, 1881, pp. 27–29. Whitbourne's original tract was translated into Latin and German in Hulsius' Voyages, Part XX. (Carter-Brown, i. p. 497). The English original was republished as Westward hoe for Avalon in the New-found-land; as described by Captain Richard Whitbourne, 1622. Edited and illustrated by T. Whitburn (London, 1870).
4 Copies of the book, if perfect, bring from £3 to £6. Rich (no. 177) noted such a copy in 1832 at £2.10.0. Cf. Crowninshield Catal., no. 1069; Brinley, i, no. 118, with map in fac-simile; Carter-Brown, ii. no. 323. The map is inscribed, “Newfoundland, described by Captaine John Mason, an industrious Gent., who spent seven years in the countrey ;” and it is often wanting. A fac-simile of the map is given in David Laing's Royal letters, etc., relating to New Scotland (Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh, 1867), and in Tuttle's John Mason.
5 Carter-Brown, ii. no. 370; No. Am. Rev. iv. 288.
6 Cf. Vol. III. p. 361; also pp. 519, 523; Kirke, Conquest of Canada; S. Colliber's Columna rostrata, (London, 1728 ; cf. Sabin, iv. 14,414); Neill's Terra Mariæ, pp. 28, 40, 103. The Avalon charter is printed in Scharf's Hist. of Maryland, i. p. 34. The date of Baltimore's abandonment of the colony is discussed in