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witnessed also the more grateful manifestation of the founding of its University. He instituted attempts (1559), which only proved futile, to subjugate the natives of Florida ;1 but he was more successful in the Northwest, where new mining regions were acquired.

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PUNISHMENT OF THE INDIANS FOR NOT ATTENDING CHURCH.*

Yucatan, which had been governed by the Audiencia up to 1562, was now disjoined from the central power, and Quijada, in 1562, began there his independent rule, and his successors continued it through periods of somewhat monotonous dissensions. 2

The next year (1563) Martin Cortés, now thirty years old, the son of the 1 Ante, Vol. II. p. 258.

ii. 650, and citations; iï. (1601-1708), ch. 8; v. 2 For Yucatan events

Bancroft's Mexico, 83-85. * Champlain's drawing as reproduced in his Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico (London, 1859).

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conqueror, came from Spain, and with the renown of his name and the lavishness of his mode of living he soon caused Velasquez, then in power, to feel that there was a dangerous rival near the vice-regal throne. Some daring and ambitious spirits tried to use this natural prestige of Cortés to make head for a conspiracy which aimed to make Cortés king. There is no evidence that the visitor favored it, and when the betrayed leaders were executed he was only spared to be given to torture and to years of suspicions and fines.1

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By 1568 the viceroys of New Spain began to find that how to meet the maritime rapine from the European enemies of Spain was a problem not the least difficult of those which confronted them. In September of that year, John Hawkins with nine ships captured the castle of San Juan de Uluí, and then had wit enough to escape fairly well from the toils of treachery in which he was soon involved. A few years later (1572), Drake

1 Orozco y Berra's Noticia histórica de la con- 1853) is the main dependence for this conspirjuracion del Marquès del Valle 1565-68 (Mexico, acy. Cf. Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 635.

Champlain's drawing as reproduced in his Voyage to the West Indies and Mexico (London, 1859).

plundered here and there along the Gulf coast; in 1578 he appeared on the Pacific coast, and in 1586 he burned Saint Augustine in Florida ; while both the French and English marauders of the sea gave the shore people little quiet for the rest of the century. Floods, the fearful scourge of dis

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ease, and the introduction of the Inquisition, added other horrors to the time. Archbishop Montúfar had regularly established in Mexico the scru

1 Cf. ante, Vol. II. 453; III. 64. De Bry's in the Coquina edition of C. B. Reynolds' Old Drake's Attack on St. Augustine is reproduced St. Augustine.

* After a plate in Holland's Herologia Anglica, 1620.

tiny of the Inquisition in 1571, the year before he died, when he was succeeded by Bishop Landa of Yucatan, who had used its terrors against the heathen of Yucatan as early as 1562, and was now, in 1574, to institute the earliest auto da in Mexico.

It was not long before the devastations of the marauding fleets of rival nations endangered the free passage of the rich trading ships that plied

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between Acapulco and Manilla, and the treasure vessels that bore revenue from the Gulf ports to Spain. In 1581 it had become necessary to give these carriers of bullion a convoy of war-ships. In 1584, Francisco de Gali, seeking to avail of the Japanese current and of the trade-winds 2 in coming from the Asiatic ports, had turned to the north, and first sighted the Cali

1 On church government in Mexico, 1550-1600 aning of trade-wind from their availability for see Bancroft's Mexico, ii. ch. 31 ; on the religious commerce. The early navigators (Hakluyt, ed. orders, ch. 32. The Franciscans had come in 1600, iji. 849; Dampier's Voyages, Lond., 1705. ii. 1524, the Dominicans in 1526; but not till 1572 pt. 3, pp. 1, 2) used the phrase "to blow trade,” the Jesuits, in 1585 the Carmelites, and in 1589 which meant to blow in a fixed path (Professor the Benedictines.

William M. Davis). 2 The dictionaries seem to err in deriving the

From Hulsius, Sammlung, xvii, being the Reiss und Schiffart of Spilbergen (Franckfurt am Mayn, 1620). Cf. also Spilbergen's Speculum (Lugduni Batavorum, 1619), and the Journal van de Nassausche Vloot (Amsterdam, 1626). In the next century we find plans in Ottens' Grand théâtre de la guerre en Amérique (Amsterdam, 1717); in Anson's Voyages (reproduced herewith); a later Spanish survey in 1791, published by the British Admiralty in 1818; and later ones, enumerated by Uricoechea.

A view of the port from Montanus is given ante, II. 394, and modern travels will furnish later aspects, like J. R. Bartlett's Personal Narrative, vol. i.

fornia coast under 37° 30'; then he coasted south to Acapulco.1 This
brought to mind the prevailing unacquaintance with a coast so neighboring,
and the desirability of availing of any harbors it might have, into which
the hunted merchantman could slip to avoid hostile ships, and from which
the enemy could be watched. The career of Cavendish on the coast soon
made such harbors a necessity," and the forced loans imposed upon New
Spain for the benefit of the mother country rendered the protection of its
trade essential to the meeting of such exactions. Whatever the more
northerly parts of the interior country could yield was thus made worth
the seeking, and the regions which Coronado had traversed, and which had
been forgotten for nearly forty years, were threaded by the expeditions of
Ibarra, Oñate, and others, from the south, and by that of Governor Diego
de Peñalosa, marching east from Santa Fé, as is claimed by some.4

The voyage of Viscaino in 1602 had given new knowledge of the north-
ern coast region ; 5 and the intermittent presence of hostile fleets served
to keep the attention of the authorities of New Spain intent on their mari-
time interests. The Dutchman Spilbergen was raiding here in 1614, and
ten years later, and in the years following, the Dutch admirals, to distract
the attention of Spain while the patriots of Holland were struggling for
their independence, hovered here and on the Gulf coast with their fleets;
damaging towns, intercepting Spanish ships, and sometimes making a great
capture, as when Admiral Heyn captured the silver fleet near Matanzas,
Cuba, in 1628.6 When war was declared between Spain and France in
1633, it was no small misfortune for the province that its taxes were in-
creased to help Philip IV carry on his campaigns, at the time when the
French cruisers were rendering it more difficult to convey treasure and
products across the sea.

Internally, at this time, the condition of New Spain was not encouraging, though time and circumstance had forced upon its rulers a more humane policy toward the natives. There was enough oppression still to make the Indians join the negroes in occasional revolts. The capital city, if not occupied with the commotions of the remoter districts, found that successive inundations rendered the question of some relief by engineering works imperative, to quiet the growing feeling that it might be necessary to abandon the lake region and build a new capital on higher ground. Works were

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1 Cf. II. pp. 455, 462.

IV. Cf. North Mexican States, i. 386, 393, 396,
2 Cf. Vol. III. p. 84 ; also Bancroft's Mexico, 399.
ii. ch. 33, and references, P 745. On the voya 5 See, on the cartography of this coast during
ages up the coast, 1540-1600, see North Mex- this period, ante, Vol. II. p. 457, etc.; and on
ican States, ch. 6; and Vol. II. of the present Viscaino, p. 460. Cf. North Mex. States, i. ch.7,
work.

on maritime explorations, 1601-1636.
3 Cf. Bancroft, North Mex. States, i. ch. 14, 6 This capture occasioned a large number of
and Nrw Mexico and Arizona, — the latter not congratulatory pamphlets. Cf. Muller's Catal.
yet to be availed of, because at present unpub. (1872), nos. 938, etc., and Asher's Bibliog. and
lished.

Hist. Essay on the Dutch books (Amsterdam,
4 On the connection of this expedition with 1854-67). A medal in commemoration is de-
La Salle's expedition to Texas, see ante, Vol. scribed in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., xi. 296.

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