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Note. The above map is taken from one given in connection with the capture of the place by Van Horn, from Oexmelin’s Hist. des Avanturiers, etc. (Trevoux, 1744), vol. i. Cf. Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 193, 213.

herewith reproduced. D'Anville also included Voyages (Paris, 1754), xii.; the Allg. Hist. der one in his series of maps ; and others are in the Reisen (Leipzig, 1755), xiii. pl. 9; and the Staat Gentleman's Mag., 1740, p. 242 ; in A Geog. De- van America (Amsterdam, 1760), i. 150, 156. scription of the Coasts, etc., of the Spanish West In 1786 we find one of a larger scale in Tomas Indies (London, 1740); and in Jefferys' Descrip. Lopez's Plano del Puerto de Vera Cruz, and a tion of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762). The few years later (l’an ix) another, published by popular geographical collections also furnish the Marine in Paris. l'ricoechea notes that of maps, generally much the same, as in Prévost’s Ponzoni (Madrid, 1816), an English edition of

The French pirates had their rendezvous at San Domingo, and the viceroy sent a force (1689) to devastate the least inhabited parts of the island ; and with a turn of fortune, which easily came in those days of many hazards, the English were found ready to join the Spaniards, in 1695, in an attack on the stronger posts of that island. It proved successful, and the best French forts were demolished.

Towards the end of the century, events in the north began to have new significance by the attempts of the Jesuits in Lower California to effect

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what force had already failed in, the pacification of the native tribes. This

brought about under the adroit management of Fathers Salvaterra and Kino. Meanwhile, the neighboring ocean was as much infested as ever with the audacious sea-rovers. Dampier was cruising there in 1686, and again in 1704. During his latter cruise, he tried, without much success, to capture the Acapulco galleons. Rogers, sent on a cruise against the French and Spaniards in the Pacific, picked up Alexander Selkirk on Juan Fernandez ; and, while he gave a the official “ Marine" map (London, 1838); one and a map of the London hydrographical office, showing the attack of the French, Nov. 27, 1838, based on this French survey, and printed Spangiven in the Annales Maritimes de 1839, as well as ish maps (London, 1847). Cf. Bancroft's Mex

made by Vice-Admiral Baudin's orders, ico, iii. 193; v. 198.

were published by the Marine in 1841; • From the map in Black's English version of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, by Humboldt (London, 3d ed., 1822), vol. i. Cf. maps in the British Museum noted in Calvo, Recueil des

X. 366.

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character to De Foe and to posterity, he afforded the Bristol merchants, who fitted him out, what was far more to their purpose, good round dividends on their investment and encouragements to further ventures.

When England and the Dutch had made it difficult for Spain to keep up intercourse with her American colonies, the Spanish government conferred upon France the privilege of supplying goods to her possessions in the Indies, with a result, from the great liberality of this foreign service, that

Corvette

Brigantin.

Barque.

WEST INDIA VESSELS OF THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.*

would have weaned the Spanish colonies from any dependence on the mother country, if the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) had not brought relief to Spanish commerce. But out of a desire to propitiate England, Spain only substituted one danger for another when she yielded to the English merchants the right to trade at Porto Bello and to supply the colonies with negroes. With true British vigor and with organized methods, the open

1 Dampier, who had had bad luck, was con- 2 The commercial literature of the time is retent to take the subordinate post of pilot under plete with controversial pamphlets, growing out Rogers in this cruise.

of this concession of Spain, which was held by * From Labat's Nouveau Voyage (Paris, 1722), vol. ii.

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JUAN FERNANDEZ. From Johann Ludwig Gottfriedt's Newe Welt und Americanische Historien (Franckfurt, 1655).

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ing once made, little limit was put to the trade, which by clandestine plots and official connivance soon reached an extent far beyond the treaty provisions, so that the annual return to Spain by her own vessels was reduced to little more than the royal tax on silver. The armed attempts which the Spanish guarda costas made to prevent this usurpation of trade brought on collisions with the British mercantile marine, that very naturally took on national importance and ended in a war(1739), which resulted in Spain's

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the merchants interested in the trade of Jamaica in A Collection of Treaties, 1648–1732 (London, to be unjust to them. The Carter-Brown Cata- 1710–32), in 4 vols. Cf. also Calvo, Rec. des logue indicates many of these, - iii. 175, 183, 189, Traités, ii. 5; and Occasional papers on the As190, 191, 213, 406, 407, 408, etc. Particularly siento and the affairs of Jamaica, by William see, The State of the Island of Jamaica, chiefly in Wood (London, 1716). Dr. Charles Deane has relation to its Commerce and the Conduct of the succinctly traced the rise of the English connecSpaniards in the West Indies (London, 1726); tion with slavery in the West Indies in the Amer. Some Observations on the Assiento Trade as it Antiq. Soc. Proc., Oct., 1886, pp. 191-205. has been exercised by the South Sea Company (2d 1 Cf. Som? Observations on Damages done by ed., London, 1728); An Answer [to the Jast] the Spaniards (London, 1728); A View of the by the Factors of the South Sea Company (Lon. Depredations and Ravages committed by the Span. don, 1728); A Defence of [somel Observations iards (London, 1731). (London, 1728). This Assiento treaty is given 2 It is curious to observe how, in refuting the

NOTE TO THE ABOVE MAP. — From the French edition, Genève, 1750, of Anson's Voyage, and appearing in all the editions. It is also given in Prévost's Voyages (1754), xii. 450.

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