« AnteriorContinuar »
Note.- From Oexmelin's Histoire des Avanturiers Flibustiers, Nouvell ed. corrigée (Trevoux, 1744), vol. ii. Cf. the “Map of the Country and Citty (sic) of Panama” in the English version of Exquemelin's Hist. of the Bucaniers, 3d ed. (London, 1704).
A map of the Isthmus in 1597 is given ante, II. 190. The times of the buccaneers produced other maps than those mentioned above. Dudley included it in his Arcano del Mare (1647). Wafer's map in 1699 is given herewith. The Scots' settlement at that time produced various other maps, like those by Hermann
of Cartagena in 1697,1 the last great exploit of this maritime license, for the Peace of Ryswick, in that same year, practically closed the period of the buccaneers.
A new complication with England arose, when, at the close of the century, William Paterson led a colony of Scots to settle at Darien. The company had left Leith with great jubilation. Money without stint had flowed in to furnish the colony. The headlong zeal of those who strove to go was not abated by any knowledge of the climate they would have to encounter,
and dreams of the great opportunity for amassing fortunes by virtue of securing the transit trade of the Isthmus were too impressive to let the eager youths who had embarked think of obstacles. They had a warrant from William III to plant where they could, if they disturbed no civilized settlers, and they could bargain for land with the savages. But not so
1 See post, ch. 5.
Moll (1699), and in his Atlas (1729), no. 27, and the Covens and Mortier's Isthmus ou Darien. Early in the eighteenth century, Ottens at Amsterdam published several: Nova isthmi Americani tabula (1717). D'Anville dates an Isthmus de Panama April, 1730 (given in Charlevoix's Espagnole, Amsterdam, 1733); and the King's Maps, Brit. Mus. (i. 288) shows a MS. map, 1743. Jefferys' Description of the Spanish Islands (London, 1762) gives another. There is a Kaart van de Landengte van Panama, volgens de Spaansche aftekeninge opgemaakt in Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766). James Burney's Hist. of the Buccaneers of America (London, 1816) gives a map compiled from Dampier, D'Anville, and the Spanish survey of 1791.
favorably inclined were the corporated companies who had rival schemes of aggrandizement, and the poor colonists found themselves jealously watched by the Spaniards on the one hand, and denied succor by the neighboring English of Jamaica on the other. It took but a few months before the remnants of the colony, diminished by disease and misfortunes, sailed away as best they could. A succoring but belated accession of
THE ISTHMUS, 1699.* recruits, with some, though inadequate, supplies, came to make another trial on the deserted ground; but these were in due time starved into surrender by the Spaniards, and allowed to depart, enfeebled and dismayed. So the project that teemed with promise to the unsuspecting came to a miserable end, as did another, some years later, — the notorious South Sea scheme, which used but as a pretext the trade of the South Sea to sustain it.1 The
1 The literature of this subject, by virtue of performed the voyage, is still made a conspicuits business name and of the single ship which ous class in the collector's library of Americana.
• From Lionel Wafer's New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America (London, 1699). vol. VIII. – 16
Note. — Reduced from Prévost's Voyages (Paris, 1754), vol. xii. Cf. Ibid. xii. 243, and Allg. Hist. der
its directors still later. the causes which, by abridging the chances for gain, imperilled the plans of Treaty of Utrecht (1713) and the later war with Spain were but some of