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The best known record of the Augustine order is Juan de Grijalva's Crónica de la orden de N. P. S. Augustin en las provincias de la Nueva España (Mexico, 1624), which covers a period from 1533 to 1592.
Of the Dominicans, the account by Remesal of the history of the order in Chiapas, and the Historia de la fundacion y discurso de la provincia, de Santiago de México de la órden de Predicadores por las vidas de sus varones insignes y casos notables de Nueua España of Augustin Davila Padilla, are the most important, the latter work giving sketches of leading Dominicans from 1540 to 1590.
There is little in the best known Benedictine work, the Nova typis transacta navigatio of the so-called Philoponus, to concern us in this period. The Bethlehemites were not founded till the middle of the seventeenth century, and we have the only considerable account of their missions in America in the Historia Bethlehemitica (Seville, 1723) of Friar Joseph Garcia de la Concepcion. Concerning the Jesuit missions, the two most important books are Francisco Javier Alegre's 6 Historia de la Compañia de Jesus en Nueva España (Mexico, 1841-42), in three volumes, covering the period from their establishment in Florida in 1566 to about 1765, and based so far as its scope permitted on Francisco de Florencia's Hist. de la Provincia de la Compañia de Jesus de Nueva España (Mexico, 1694). These two works may be supplemented by the Lettres Édifiantes.
Of the general church histories of New Spain, the places of most importance must be given to Alonso Hernandez' Historia eclesiástica de nuestros tiempos (Toledo, 1611);' the Teatro eclesiástico de la primitiva iglesia de las Indias occidentales (Madrid, 1640–55) of Gil Gonzales Davila.10 There are helps to perfect the survey in the local treatment of Juan de Villagutierre Soto-Mayor in his Conquista de la Provincia de el Itza (Madrid, 1701); of Francisco Burgoa's Geográfica Descripcion ... de la America (Mexico, 1674) as touching Oajaca ; of Cayetano de Cabrera y Quintero's Escudo de armas de México (Mexico, 1746); of Matias de la Mota Padilla's Conquista de la Nueva Galicia (Mexico, 1870) ; 11 and of Beaumont's Crónica de Michoacan. On the course of the Inquisition there are references in Bancroft.12 to have had a duplicate of, — Bezerro general, Cf. Apostolicos afanes de la Compañia de menológico y chronológico de todos los Religiosos Jesus escritos por un Padre de la misma sagrada (Mexico, 1755-64), which enumerates the mem- religion de su provincia de Mexico (Barcelona, bers of the order in New Spain down to 1764. 1754). Beaumont's Friar Pablo de la purisima Concep- 9 Ante, II. 399; Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 190. cion (Mexico, 1873–74) gives the Franciscan 10 Ante, II. 399, 400; Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 189. story of the missions in Michoacan down to Bancroft also makes considerable use of Fran1565–66. The Glorious Franciscus of Marianus cisco Sosa's Episcopado Méxicano, a series of (Ingolstadt, 1625) also follows the Franciscan biographies, and of Andrés Perez de Ribas' Hist. missions in America, with portraits and lives of de los triumphos de nuestra Santa Fe (Madrid, the leading missionaries. Cf. Isidro Felis de 1645). Icazbalceta has edited Cartas de religioEspinosa's Chronica Apostolica (Mexico, 1746). sos de Nueva España, 1539-1594, in his Nueva 1 Cf. ante, II. 399; Bancroft, ii. 189.
Colección de documentos para la historia de Méx2 Ante, II. 399.
ico (Mexico, 1886). (Cf. on Icazbalceta's writ3 The author lived 1562-1604, and his work, ings, Boletin de la sociedad de geografia de la reoriginally appearing at Madrid in 1596, was re- pub. Méxicana, 1870, p 642.) The new world has printed at Brussels in 1625, and at Valladolid in also treatment in Cornelius Hazart's Dutch his1634. Cf. ante, II. 400, and Bancroft, Mexico, tory of the Church (Antwerp, 1667), better known iii. 512, 723
in Souterman's German adaptation, Kirchen-Ge4 Ante, II. 58 ; Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 189. schichte (Vienna, 1678-1701), and the clerically
5 Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 189. Cf. Betancur's flavored Histoire générale de l'Amérique (Paris, Regla y Constituciones of the order (Mexico, 1768) of Touron, both of whom are character. 1751). Betancur, the founder, died in 1667. ized by Bancroft (iii. 190, 191). Morelli's Fasti
6 Ante, II. 399; Bancroft, Mexico, iii. 447. Novi Orbis, etc. (Venice, 1776), gives us the offi7 Ante, II. 399; Bancroft, Mexico, iii. 447. cial decrees from Rome and Madrid respecting
& For bibliographical detail, see ante, IV. p. the American Church (Carter-Brown, iii. no. 316; Bancroft, Mexico, ii. 191; and A. A. De 2282). Backer's Bibliothèque des Ecrivains de la Com- 11 Cf. ante, II. p. 633. pagne de Jésus (Liege, 1853–61), in seven vol- 12 Mexico, iii. 701. Quaritch (Jan., 1888, no.
The history of the commerce of New Spain has been epitomized by Bancroft (Mexico, iii. ch. 30, etc.), and in a note (p. 645) he has indicated the main sources of his treatment, in addition to the correspondence of the viceroys. The laws and customs regulating the trade of Spain and her colonies are explained in Linage's Norte de la Contratacion (Seville, 1672), of which there is an English translation by Capt. John Stevens (1702). Cf. also Viscount Bury's Exoilus of the western nations, ii. ch. 2,
The history of the Philippine trade is to be followed in an Extracto Historial del Expediente que pende en el consejo de las indias, etc., published at Madrid by royal command in 1736.
Bancroft (iii. 646; vi. 662) particularly emphasizes the value, in this commercial study, of Lerdo de Tejada's Apuntes históricos de Vera Cruz (Mexico, 1850) and his Comercio Esterior de México (Mexico, 1853). His survey also includes some of the general treatises on the history of commerce, like the Origin of Commerce (London, 1764, 1787, 1801), by Adam Anderson, a clerk of the South Sea Company, who had chances of close observation of the British operations at Porto Bello; like David Macpherson's revision and continuation of Anderson, known as Annals of Commerce (London, 1805); like John Macgregor's Progress of America (London, 1847), and G. T. Raynal's Histoire philosophique et politique des Etablissements et du Commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes (Genève, 1780; Paris, 1820–21, etc.); and he closes his note with a list of minor references (p. 649).
The exploits of the English freebooters, the French Aibustiers, and the Dutch zee
the pirates and buccaneers of the Spanish Main as they appear in history and
are an essential part of the history of the lands contiguous to the Gulf of Mexico during the seventeenth and a part of the eighteenth century. The earliest separate account which we have of them is usually held to be that in Kleas Compaen's Zee-Rover (Amsterdam, 1663), though there are earlier narratives of distinct episodes, like that in the Discurso Politico of Montemaior de Cuenca (Mexico, 1658) 8 of the expulsion of the buccaneers at the island of Tortuga. The events of the preceding century were also in part covered in Père J. B. du Tertre's Histoire général des Antilles habitées par les François (Paris, 1667–1671).
The most famous early general account of the buccaneers, however, and the source of a great variety of publications in the chief modern languages, is a Dutch publication of one Alexander Olivier Exquemelin, who is known in English as Esquemeling, and in French as Oexmelin, and who deserted the employ of the French West India Company, and joined the marauders in 1672. His book, De Americaensche Zee-Roovers, was published at Amsterdam in 1678. This was followed in 1679 by a German edition at Nuremberg, Americanische Seeräuber; by a Spanish, Piratas de la America (Colonia Agrippina, 1681, 1682; again, Madrid, 1793); by a French, based by Frontignières on the Spanish version, and called Histoire des Avanturiers (Paris, 1686). The earliest English
134) held a collection of documents, many of says Muller knew but one other copy beside his them MS., on the progress of the Inquisition (Bancroft's) own. The Murphy sale shows a from its institution in Mexico in 1571 down. It copy (no. 909*). The best bibliography of this wholly ceased its action in 1820.
book is in Sabin, iv. p 319. Cf. Bancroft, Cent. 1 Derived from the English freebooter, and in America, ii. 567. A new and much-changed turn converted by the English into filibusters. Dutch edition, with a second part added from
2 This term was applied to the northern coast Ringrose and Lussan, Historie der Boecaniers, of South America in contradiction to the islands appeared at Amsterdam, 1700. Raveneau de neighboring to it; though sometimes later writ- Lussan's Journal du Voyage fait à la Mer du ers have used it as if it referred to the interja. Sud en 1681 (Paris, 1689; again 1692) is later, cent sea.
generally found in the Exquemelin collections. 3 With map showing the attack. Sabin, xii. 5 Again, 1688, 1699. “ Corrigée et augmentée 50,106.
de l'histoire des pirates anglois depuis leur étab4 The book is very rare. Muller in 1872 had lissement dans l'isle de Providence,” (Trevoux, two copies, one large paper (no. 578, etc.), and 1744, 1775; Lyon, 1774) Cf. Diego Barras he enters a copy in 1877 (no. 1090). Bancroft Arana’s Notas para una bibliografia, no. 213.
edition, Bucaniers of America, or a true Account of the most remarkable Assaults committed of late years upon the Coasts of the West Indies, by the Bucaniers of Jamaica and Tortuga, both English and French, wherein are contained more especially the unparallel'd Exploits of Sir Henry Morgan, our English Jamaican Hero, who sacked Puerto Velo, burnt Panama, etc. (London, 1684), purported to be translated from the Spanish of Alonso de Bonne-Maison. We find here for the first time added to the Exquemelin text, and with a separate title, The Dangerous Voyage and Bold Attempts of Capt. Bartholomew Sharp and others, written by Mr. Basil Ringrose, who was all along present (London, 1685). Sharp's own journal of his expedition is also in William Hacke's Collection of Original Voyages (London, 1699). There are numerous other editions of the English text of Exquemelin, thus augmented.2
During the first half of the eighteenth century, Charles Johnson's General History of the robberies and murders of the most notorious pyrates 8 (London, 1724, 1726, 1736; Birmingham, 1742; New York, 1724) was the most popular record of the buccaneers. The subject had been surveyed in Russell's Hist. of America (London, 1778), and in Johann Wilhelm von Archenholtz's Geschichte der Flibustier, 4 before Burney made his History of the Buccaneers (London, 1816) a part of his Chronological History, etc. This last is the best of all the accounts up to that time, and still remains the chief of the later treatments on the subject. 5
1 Wm. Hacke, who was with Sharp, also en- 2. The Dangerous Voyage and Bold Attempts of tered marginal notes in a MS. South Sea Waggon- Capt. Sharp and others, in the South Sea. 3. er, a description of the sea-coasts on the South Sea Journal of a Voyage into the South Sea by the of America, from the port of Acapulco to he Freebooters of America, from 1084 to 1689. 4. ReStreights of Lemaire, made about 1690, which lation of a Voyage of the Sicur de Montaubon, CapQuaritch held at £72 in his Catalogue, June, tain of the Freebooters, in Guinea, in 1695, etc. 1885, no. 28,234. This MS. seems to have The whole translated into English (London, been bought for the South Sea Company two 1699), the first English edition, because apparor three years after 1690, as appears by an ac- ently its reissue in 1704 is called a second edicompanying letter, which describes it as “full tion. A "third edition” is also dated 1704. A of curious mapps and platts of ye South Seas, “fourth," 1741, is said to be a different translabeing ye long experience of ye famous buckanere tion, with new plates (abridged by H. W. DilCapt. Barth. Sharpe and of an antient French worth, London, 1759); reprinted as a ' fifth " captain that hee took with his booke, mapps and (Dublin, 1741). Two Glasgow editions are dated papers, who used those seas 70 yeares, being all 1762, 1773. The "fifth ” edition is London, in the said Booke composed and depicted by one 1771, and with a new title, 1774. After this SaCaptain William Hack, deceased, of whom I bin despairs of a full enumeration, but cites Lon[Wm. Hill] about 18 years ago purchased the don, 1800, 1810; Dublin, 1821 ; N. Y., 1826, said booke and paid him £70 for ye same.” 1836, 1840; Boston, 1853, 1856. Cf. Burney,
Cf. on the Waggoner maps in the British Mu- Chronol. Hist. iii., and Retrospective Rev. iii. seum, Calvo, Recueil des Traites, x. 324.
3 There was a French translation (Utrecht, Quaritch (ibid. no. 28,227) held at £10 1os. 1725), and it is included in the Trevoux (1744) an unpublished MS. atlas, South Sea Waggoner, edition of the French Exquemelin. There is showing the making and bearing of all the coasts some material in the New History of Jamaica to from California to the Streights of Le Maire, done the taking of Porto Bello by Admiral Vernon from the Spanish originall by Basil Ringrose (London, 1740 ; Dublin, 1741 ; French transl., (1680-85?). Cf. Bancroft, Central America, ii. Londres, 1751). 758.
4 In French (Paris, 1804); in English, trans2 The edition of 1684 was abridged the same lated by Geo. Mason (London, 1807). Cf. J. F. year, and a “second ed.," "corrected and en- André's Histoire des flibustiers (Paris, 1812-13), larged,” bears also the same date ; but with a in nine volumes. new title, though still called a "second edition," 5 The most popular of the minor accounts are it was reissued in 1695. Bancroft, by some mis- those in the Family Library, published in New conception, calls an edition entitled History of the York in 1846: Lives and Voyages of Drake, CuvBucaniers of America. From their first original endish, and Dampier, including an introductory down to this time. Written in several languages view of the earlier discoveries in the South Sca and now collected into one volume, containing: and the history of the Bucaniers, and Walter 1. Esquemeling's Exploits and Adventures of Le Thornbury's Buccaneers, or the Monarchy of Grand, Lolonois, Bas, Sir Henry Morgan, etc. the Main (London, 1858). There is a sucThe best resource we have for the beginning of the French occupation of their part of St. Kitts is Pierre Margry's Origines transatlantiques : Belain d'Esnambuc et les Normands aux Antilles d'après des documents nouvellement retrouvés (Paris, 1863). Belain, who was born in 1585, had established himself here, sharing the island with the English, in 1626. He and Captain Baillardel acted for a French Compagnie de Commerce, and they also took possession in 1636 of Martinique and Dominique, and Belain died the same year, leaving his nephews to gather the fruits of his enterprise.
The interest in the seventeenth-century maritime adventurers centres in the exploits of Henry Morgan, and in the expeditions of Dampier and Sharp, while the rovings of Woodes Rogers and of George Anson are of the most interest on the side of the Pacific.3
The bibliography of Durango, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and Sonora is given more extensively than elsewhere in Bancroft's North Mexican States (vol. i.), and a similar recourse for Texas will doubtless be found in a volume in the same series yet to be given to those regions. At the present writing (April, 1889), the last received volume of the Bancroft series is that on the history of Arizona and New Mexico, treated together, and he prefixes his usual list of the sources on which he has depended, the best enumeration for the student of the bibliography of this region, which is helpfully supplemented by the foot-notes throughout the volume. Being by the latest writer, with more ample resources than any other, this single volume is much the best survey of the field. He notes his dependence, among the earlier writers, upon Torquemada, Vetancurt, Mendieta, Oviedo, Gomara, Beaumont, Mota Padilla, Villaseñor, - not to name less important specific authorities, — and also upon the standard collections of documents published in Mexico and
cinct account in Viscount Bury's Exodus of the Magellan's Straits. The Voyages and AdvenWestern Nations, ii. ch. 3. The student can tures of Captain Bartholomew Sharp (London, probably profit most from the foot-notes to Ban- 1684) is the vindication of Sharp by a friend. croft's treatment of the subject in his Cent. There are other editions of the whole in 1776 America, ii. ch. 26, 28, 29, 30, etc. Arber's Eng- and 1790 ; and a German complete version (Leiplish Garner, ix., has a collection of tracts relat- zig, 1703, 1704, 1708). Dampier's career is pleasing to the pirates, 1588-1600.
antly sketched in C. R. Markham's Sea Fathers 1 For his raids on the Isthmus, see Bancroft's (London, 1884). Cent. Amer., ii. ch. 28 ; and J. T. Headley in 3. Rogers, Cruising Voyage round the World, Harper's Mas., xix. Cf. references in Poole's 1708-1711 (London, 1712, 1718, 1726; French Index and Supplement, under Buccaneers and ed., Amsterdam, 1716). An abridged edition is Morgan. There is much on Morgan and his in Arber's English Garner, vol. ix. Cf. Life companions in A New Hist. of Jamaica from the aboard a British Privateer in the time of Queen Earliest Accounts to the taking of Porto Bello by Anne, with notes by R. C. Leslie ; and the Voyage Vice-Admiral Vernon (London, 1740); and the to the South Sea, 1708–11, of Captain Edward popular story of the time is told in Sir Henry Cooke, who was of the Rogers expedition. Morgan's Voyage to Panama, 1670 (London, Anson's Voyage round the World, 1740-44, 168;).
compiled from his papers [by Peter Robbins and 2 The best edition of William Dampier's Voy- Richard Walter] (London, 1748, 1756, 1769 ; ages, etc., is that in four volumes, London, 1729. French transl., 1751 ; German, 1749). Other ilVols. i. and ji. have Dampier's voyages on the lustrations of the voyage are in Pascoe Thomas's coasts of Chili, Peru, and Mexico, and they are True and impartial Journal (1745); Chaplain reprints of his earlier editions, 1697-1709. Vols. Richard Walter's narrative (1748); and two iii. and iv. contain the New Voyage (London, books about the experiences of some of the com1699, 1704) of Lionel Wafer, who was left pany on board the “Wager,”. one by J. Morwounded among the Isthmus Indians, – of which ris, Narrative (1751), and the other an Affecting there are French (1706) and Dutch (1714) ver- Narrative (1751). A midshipman's History of sions ; the Voyage round the World (London, Anson's Voyage was published later (London, 1707) of William Funnell, who was with Dam- 1767). Cf. Carter-Brown Catal., iii. nos. 754, pier (1703-4); Cowley's Voyage round the World 791, 864, 865, 892, 923, 940, 958, 965, 1560, 1648, (1699); Sharp's expedition over the Isthmus to 1099, 1100; and John Barrow's Life of George the South Sea, and Wood's voyage through Anson (Lond., 1839).
Madrid, and on that of Ternaux-Compans. It is upon these collections, as well as upon the versified chronicle of one of Oñate's companions, Gaspar Villagrá's Historia de la Nueva Mexico (Alcalá, 1610), that he depends for the main thread of his narrative of the Spanish Conquest by Oñate, placed, as he dates it, in 1595-98 (ch. 6), instead of in 1591, as earlier writers, like Prince and Davis, had determined. Bancroft places more reliance upon the metric evolutions of Villagrá than they perhaps deserve; and, with the exception of some use made of them by Luis Cabrera de Córdoba in his Historia de Filipe Segundo (Madrid, 1619), he does not find that any writer had recognized the value of this poem as an historic source till Fernández Duro, in his Peñalosa, gave a résumé of it in 1882.4
It does not comport with the condensation of the present chapter to enlarge upon the details of the many expeditions to this region, the main sources for which have been indicated elsewhere ;5 but the student of details will find them in Bancroft (chapters 4 and 5), where that writer goes over those between 1540 and 1596, and then enlarges (ch. 6) on the Conquest by Oñate, using Villagrá, as well as the documents in Pacheco's collection (vol. xvi.), and giving a map of Oñate's route (p. 123). For the period next following, 1599–1679, Bancroft (ch. 8) complains of the great lack of data, the archives at Santa Fé before that period having been for the most part destroyed in the revolts near the end of the seventeenth century.
What purports to be an account of an expedition made in 1662 by Peñalosa,” though given by Prince in his History of New Mexico (1803) as a genuine recital, was exposed by Shea in his Expedition of Peñalosa, in 1882, as a fraudulent story, and the alleged account has been held to be simply a narrative of the Oñate expedition twisted to serve Peñalosa's purpose with the French king in his designs upon the Spanish holders of the mines. The book by Duro, already cited, also took in the same year a similar view as to the fraudulent character of this narrative, deriving the grounds mainly from the Informe of Posadas, in the Doc. Hist. Mex. (3d ser., iv. 211), — where, however, that document is quoted as by Paredes, a name followed by Bancroft in dealing with the matter in his North Mexican States (i. 386, 393, in 1884; also No. West Coast, 109), but corrected by him in his Arizona (p. 170).
Bancroft then, in subsequent chapters (9, 10), follows the story of the revolts against the Spaniards in 1680–1691, and of the reconquest by Diego de Vargas in 1692–1700, which brought to a close the recalcitrant efforts of the natives, except in some minor instances. The later periods are not possessed of much interest, but the story, as far as it can be told for the eighteenth century, is given by Bancroft. He finds little to show (p. 307) that the commotions of the revolutionary period (1811-1821) farther south had much or even any perceptible effect in New Mexico; but it is to this time, or to the years closely following, that he traces the beginning of the Santa Fé trade, and he points out by a map (p. 331) the direction of the trail used by the merchants. Then, after tracing the current of events during the period when this region was a Mexican province (1825-1845, - ch. 14), he takes up the story of the American occupation during the Mexican war,
1 Ante, Vol. II., Introduction.
6 Bancroft (p. 19), in a note, points out how 2 This book is rare. There is a copy in Har- the remaining records have been badly cared for vard College library. After you have made the even after the United States government obproper allowance for the compulsions of his tained possession ; though amid this loss somemetre, and for the padding of his method, his thing considerable is preserved to us in a “Carverse still remains a not unimportant illustration ta," written in 1778 by Father Escalante, coverof the events which he chronicles.
ing what he could glean from the records for the 3 An edition by order of the Spanish govern- years 1680–1692, and even to 1717, if we credit ment, with an introduction, was printed in four to him what seems to be a continuation of his folio volumes at Madrid in 1876, etc. Cf. its studies, both of which are printed in the Doc. second volume, pp. 679, 680.
Hist. Mex., 3d series, part iv. (1856). 4 Ante, Vol. II. p. 503.
i Ante, Vol. II. 503. Cf. J. W. Savage in Ne5 Ante, Vol. II. p. 503.
braska Hist. Soc. Trans, ii. 4.