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and under the succeeding military rule (1846-1850, — ch. 17, 18), bringing down the narrative to the close of the period which it is the purpose of this chapter to cover; and of course, also, beyond to the present date.

This Bancroft volume renders the earlier books of Davis and Prince i wellnigh unnecessary to the student.2

The first permanent settlement in New Mexico was made in 1598, but was removed in 1605 to the present Santa Fé, and not another town was founded till after the reconquest, when Santa Cruz de la Cañada was established in 1695; and the third was that of Albuquerque in 1706. It is not probable that any existing architectural structure of the Spaniards in the country dates back of 1636, if even so far back, though there may be ruins of some of the eleven churches known to have been standing in 1617, while the ruins near Zuñi are not earlier than 1629. The oldest lapidary record seems to be an inscription recently found by F. H. Cushing, recording the excursion of Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado in 1581.8

Of the region now called Arizona, the history is covered in the same Bancroft volume (Arizona and New Mexico, 1889, ch. 15, 16, from 1543 to 1845), but it is almost entirely for a long period only a record of incursions, as the Spaniards had early made in only one small section any missionary or other occupation. These sites (1768-1846), as well as the routes of the early explorations, are shown in maps (pp. 347, 384).4

No other portion of the history of Spanish America has been studied with the minuteness that has been given to the chronicles of Upper California in the Bancroft series. The list which is prefixed to the first volume of the California includes sixteen hundred titles 5 pertaining in some way to that region, down to its cession to the United States, and this enumeration is thrown into a classification, with annotations in the second chapter of the 1 Ante, Vol. II 502, 503.

more or less detail, though without much re2 Cf, however, W. H. H. Davis's Spaniards search, the earlier periods: Silvester Mowry, in Mexico (Doylestown, Pa., 1888); Wm. G. Arizona and Sonora (N. Y. 1864, 3d edition). Ritch's Aztlan, the history, resources, and attrac- Hiram C. Hodge, Arizona as it is (N. Y. 1877). tions of New Mexico (Boston, 1885, - 6th ed.); Richard J. Hinton, Handbook to Arizona (San his Legislative Blue Book of the Territory of New Francisco, 1878). History of Arizona Territory Mexico (Santa Fé, 1887), with its Appendix of (San Francisco, 1884). S. W. Cozzens, Marvel. annals; and James H. Defouri's Hist. Sketch of lous Country (Boston, 1874). Edward Roberts, the Catholic Church in New Mexico (San Fran- With the Invader (San Francisco, 1885). Patcisco, 1887).

rick Hamilton, Resources of Arizona (San Fran3 A. F. Bandelier in The Nation, March 28, cisco, 1884, 3d edition). 1889. Bancroft (Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 5 It is called complete to 1848, and practically 158, 790) places the founding of Santa Fé be- so to 1856. Reference is made to A. S. Taylor's tween 1605 and 1616.

list (1863–66) as the only one previously made 4 Bancroft, pp. 373, 593, commemorates the (see ante, I. p. ix), and it is said that of its one few modern books, mainly concerned with the thousand titles, Taylor could hardly have seen later history of the region, but touching with one in five.

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Note. The opposite plate shows the main portion of the map in Venegas' Noticia de la California (Madrid, 1757), vol. iii. Cf. Bancroft's No. Mexican States, i. 463. The history of the exploration of Lower California and the Gulf has been sketched, ante, Vol. II. Cf. explorations 1636–1769, detailed in Bancroft's North Mex. Srates, i. ch. 8. We get types of these eariier views in Pieter Goos's Orbis terrarum nota tabula (Amsterdam, 1666) and Nicolas de Fer's map of 1700. At this time (1698-1701) Father Kino was engaged in his explorations, which enabled him to publish a map in 1705 (Lettres Édifiantes, reproduced in the French Encyclopédie, Supplement, 1777 ; cf. Bancroft's Arizona, p. 360, and references, ante, Vol. II.). Consag's map (1747) was the next definite improvement, of which we see the influence in A Map of Lover California (1746) improved upon Consag and embodying other observations, in Jacob Bägart's Nachrichten von der Amerikanischen Halbinsel California (Mannheim, 1772). Cf. Bancroft's No. Mex. States, i. 479. Still better was that published by Venegas, given herewith. Ten years later came the explorations by the Jesuits, of which we have the results in Isaak Tirion's map in the Staat van America (Amsterdam, 1766), vol. i. 243; the map of the Jesuits (1767), reproduced in the French Encyclopédie, Supplement, 1777, and Vaugondy's of 1772, in Ibid. There is a map in Ignas Pfefferkorn's Beschreibung der Landschaft Sonora (Köln, 1794), and many later ones. Cf. modern sketch map, ante, II. 485.

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* Reduced from the map in Venegas’ Noticia (Madrid, 1757). Other engravings of the same map will be found in the English (1759), French (1767), and German (1769-70) translations of Venegas. Cf. Bancroft's No. Mexican States, i. 471; his Arizona, 370.

same volume, and again with more detail in some respects in the California Pastoral, ch. 22.

Of the narratives or description pertaining to California previous to the Spanish occupation in 1769, Bancroft can only count eight books which supply independent information, though he gives fifty-six that, with more or less of borrowing, in some way concern the country, though of not one is that region the sole subject.

From the time when Cortés began the cartography of the Pacific Coast in his map of the southern end of the peninsula of California, there is a succession of views as to its contour, based on knowledge or theory, running down the history of the region till its thorough occupation by the Spaniards. This has been traced in another volume, and it involves a series of maps from that of Castillo in 1541 down.2

At the time that the Noticia de la California, y de su conquista temporal, y espiritual hasta el tiempo presente. Sacada de la historia manvscrita, formada en México año de 1739, por el padre Miguèl Venegas; y de otras noticias y relaciones antiguas y modernas. Añadida de algunos mapas was published in Madrid in 1757,8 the name of California was applied generally to the peninsula now known as Lower California, and it was under other names New Albion, for instance, to the English — that the upper regions were known previous to the Spanish occupation, and almost wholly through the maritime explorers of the coast,* whose reports were embodied, more or less at length, in the great collections of

1 Cf. ante, II. p. 442. This map has been also Prof. George Davidson, of San Francisco, in the reproduced on a larger scale and in colors in the pursuit of his studies to identify the landfalls of Congrès des Américanistes, Madrid meeting, ii. the earliest maritime observers. He first pub330, with a notice by Fernández Duro.

lished a summary of his conclusions in the Bul2 Cf. ante, II. pp. 444, etc. The wild discus- letin of the California Academy of Sciences (ii. sion over the supposed Straits of Anian is in- 325), and then at length in his Voyages of Discovcluded (p. 455), but reference also may be made ery and Exploration on the Northwest Coast of to a paper by Novo y Colson in the Congrès des America, 1539-1603, which makes Appendix vii. Américanistes, Madrid, p. 122, Nordenskjöld's of the Report for 1886 of the U.S. Coast and GeVega, ii. 214, and a recent paper by W. Barrows odetic Survey, with a chart illustrating the landin the Mag. Amer. History, March, 1889, on falls of Cabrillo and Ferrelo. He places Drake's “ America the world's puzzle.” The discussion Bay under Point Reyes. (Cf. ante, II. 444.) also involves the question of the insularity of The first Mappemonde engraved in Russia was California, which by no means confined the insu- the work of Basile Kiprianoff in 1707. (Cf. Lalarizing to what we know now as Lower Califor- banoff's Cartes géographiques, no. 51.) The nia, but the island was made to extend its north- tracks of Russian explorations before 1763 are ern verge some distance above San Francisco also shown in a map published at St. Petersburg Bay. One of the earliest discussions of this in 1775. question was in the Hist. of the works of the 3 Ante, II. 461. For editions see Carter. learned (London, 1699). Cf. Sabin, viii. no. Brown Catalogue, iii. nos. 1179, 1239, 1309, 1631, 32,728. Since the statement was made in Vol. 1710, 3637. The Venegas manuscripts which II. p. 464, the editor has been favored by Pro- Father André Buriel (ed. 1762) used in preparing fessor C. A. Joy, now resident in Munich, with this work are preserved in the University library description of the original MS. of the Arcano and in the college of Saint Gregory at Mexico. del Mare of Dudley, which is preserved in the Leclerc, no. 1035. The Jesuit William Gordon royal library in that city. The drawn maps are began at La Paz in 1734, and ended at Santiago in three large parchment-bound volumes, and a in 1737, a MS. Historia de las Misionas Jesuitas few of the drawings are on vellum. The collec- en la California baja, des de su establecimiente tion is called Dudleo dele 4 parti del Mondo, tom. (1697] hasta 1737, which is priced in Quaritch's i., ii., iii., and the third volume contains maps of Catalogue, Jan., 1888, at £63. “Henrico Hudson, 2do viago, 1613," “ America 4 Like Francis Drake, Linschoten (ante, II. Australe," “ Honduras,” Nicaragua,” and 457), Dampier, Woodes Rogers, Shelvocke, etc. “ Mexico." Mr. Charles A. Schott has used Of Drake and the early books on him, and of these maps in Bulletin, no. 5, of the U.S. Coast Linschoten, there is sufficient said in another Survey, to establish the variation of the needle volume (ante, Vol. III.). Dampier's New Voyin 1646. From a copy of the edition of 1661 in age was published in London in 1699-1709; the royal library at Munich (Quaritch, in 1885, Woodes Rogers' Cruising Voyage round the no. 28,212, held a copy in three vols., 291 maps, World at London, 1718; George Shelvocke's at £25) photographs were taken for the use of Voyage round the World, 1719-1722, at London, VOL. VIII. — 17

1726.

voyages, in the general histories of Spanish America, and in the comprehensive descriptive works, as well as in the maps of the professional geographers and cartographers.*

The period of about fifty or sixty years following the first occupation (1769) of Upper California by the Spaniards, and coming down to 1824, as Bancroft divides it, constituting an era of inland exploration, of the founding of missions, of the establishing of the military presidios and the civil pueblos, is covered in Bancroft's list by about four hundred titles, of which sixty are of printed books, and of these only three relate exclusively to California. The first of these is Miguel Costansó's Diario histórico de los viages de mar y tierra hechos al Norte de California (Mexico, 1776). It is an important document for the first expedition from Mexico to San Diego and Monterey in 1769-70, as is also the Extracto de Noticias of Monterey, published at Mexico in 1770. The third is what Bancroft calls “ the standard history of California down to 1784," the Relacion historica de la vida de Junípero Serra (Mexico, 1787)? of Francisco Palou, the Franciscan next in place to Junípero, and who acted as president at times when that important character was absent from his post. 8

Another work of Palou, his Noticias de la Nueva California (1768-1783), covers the history of the missionary explorations and settlements during that period. The text is left to us in a copy made in 1792 by a royal order to preserve copies of important manuscripts for the archives of Spain, the original having disappeared from the college of San Fernando where it was deposited, and where it probably shared the fate of the convent at the time of its destruction. From a copy preserved in the Mexican archives 10 it was printed in 1857 (Doyle says 1846), somewhat imperfectly, in the Diario Oficial, whose twenty volumes contain many other documents relating to Sonora, Chihuahua, New Mexico, and California ; 11 it was also printed as a part of the Documentos para la historia de México (IV. serie, vols. vi., vii.), and has also been edited by John T. Doyle for the California Historical Society (Publications, 1874, in four volumes). 12

As in the case of the earlier period, the published narratives of navigators who had been on the coast,18 and the comprehensive works of some Mexican and European writers,

1 Like Ramusio, Hakluyt, Purchas, Hacke, English encroachments on the Spanish possesSaeghman, Harris, Van den Aa, Prévost and the sions, Gottfriedt's Newe Welt (1655), Montanus, varieties of his collection, Dalrymple, Churchill, Danper and Ogilby (cf. ante, IV. 390), Luyt's and the later ones. See Introduction, Vol. I., Introductio ad Geographiam (1692), and Hey. ante; and James Burney's Chronological History lyn's Cosmography. of Discovery in the South Sea (London, 1803–16). 4 Like Ortelius, Mercator, Löw, Wytfliet, and

2 Like Acosta, Herrera, etc. Lorenzana in Blacuw. his Hist. de la Nueva España enumerates the 5 Cf. Bancroft's California Pastoral, ch. 5. expeditions to California down to 1769. Other 6 An English version, Historical Journal (Lonmore or less comprehensive accounts of this don, 1790). Cf. California Pastoral, p. 754, and early period are in J. G. Cabrera Bueno's Nave. Carter-Brown Catalogue, iii. 3377. gucion Especulativa (Manilla, 1734); Campbell's 7 Also, Mexico, 1832, in a volume of the BibConcise Hist. of Spanish America i London, 1741), lioteca Nacional y Estrangera. Bancroft, Calicalled later (1747) The Spanish Empire in Amersfornia, i. 670, has a long note on the MSS. ica ; José Antonio Villa Señor’s Theatro Ameri- which he has on José Francisco Ortega, an active cano (Mexico, 1746; Eng. transl. Statistical Ac- companion of Junípero. count of Mexico (1748) (cf Bancroft's Mexico, 8 Bancroft, California, i. 418 ; California Pas. iii. 510); Allgemeine Geschichte der Länder und toral, 754. Völker von Americu (Halle, 1752); the Apostólicos 9 California Pastoral, 756. afanes dela Compañia de Jesus ( Barcelona, 1754); 10 Making vols. 22. 23 of the Archivo general, Spanische Reich in America (1763); Staat von in thirty-two volumes, a collection of similar Amerika (1766-69).

copies, vol. I of which has been lost. Bancroft, 3 Like Davis's Worldes Hydrographical De- California, i. 419. scription (London, 1595, — of which a third li Cf. Bancroft's Mexico, iii. 529. copy, held at $1,000, has become known since 12 Cf. H. C. Ford, Etchings of the Franciscan the statement was made in Vol. III. p. 205), the Missions of California. With the outlines of his West indische Spieghel (Amsterdam, 1624), De tory, description, etc. (New York, 1883). Laet, Davity's Monde (Paris, 1637), N. N's 13 F. A. Maurelle. Journal of a Voyage, 1775 America (1655), apparently written to incite (London, 1780, — cf. D. Barrington's Miscella

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