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touching America in general, or the Spanish parts of it, serve to fill out the range of material.1

The final period of California, so far as the present history covers it, and as indicated by Bancroft, is that from 1824 to the discovery of gold in 1848. He enumerates in this list 700 titles, 180 of which are books and 475 other printed matter. including documents printed in California (55 in number), beside newspapers (70) and periodicals (20).2

The narratives of voyages still serve us, but not so exclusively.8 There are a few land travels, which begin to be of interest, and a few of the books first printed in California, of which the most important is Figueroa's Manifesto a la República Mejicana (Monterey, 1835). To these may be added certain official documents printed in California, some of the Mexican government and others of the United States, all published in these years (1824-1848), and about one hundred and fifty titles concerning the same period, but printed later.?

nies). J. D. F. de la Perouse, Voyage autour du cals. Poole's Index and Supplement guide the Monde, 1785-88 (Paris and London, 1798; Bos- inquirer to the periodical literature, mainly, how. ton, 1801), with some historical material inter- ever, of a later date. spersed. Etienne Marchand, Voyage autour du 3 Kotzebue, New Voyage, 1823-26 (London, Monde, 1790-92 (Paris, in six vols.). Vancouver, 1830-31 ; French in Montemont, xvii.). F. W. Voyage of Discovery to the Pacific Ocean (London, Beechey, Voyage to the Pacific, 1825-28 (London, 1798; in French, Paris, 1800), with other infor- 1831; Philad., 1832). B. W. Morrell, Narrative mation than his own experience. The Relacion of four Voyages (N. Y., 1832). W. S. W. Rudel viage hecho por las galetas Sutil y Mexicana schenberger, Voyage round the World, 1835-37 (1802). G. H. von Langsdorff, Voyages and Trav. (London, 1838). Abel de Petit-Thouars, Voyage els, 1803-7 (London, 1813-14). William Shaler's autour du Monde, 183639 (Paris, 1840-44), which Journal of a Voyage, 1804, appearing in the Amer- Bancroft holds to be the best of the seaman acican Register (iii. 137), was the earliest extended counts. Edw'd Belcher, Voyage round the World, account of California which Bancroft could find 1836-42 (London, 1843). Richard H. Dana, among those published in the United States (Cal Two Years before the Mast (N. Y., 1840, 1857 ; ifornia, ii. 23). Otto von Kotzebue, Entdeckungs- Boston, 1873, 1880). A. Duhaut-Cilly, Viaggio reise in die Süd See, 1815-18 (Weimar, 1821; intorno al Globo (Turin, 1841; French, Paris, English transl., London, 1821), including Cha- 1835). C. P. T. Laplace, Camfagne de Circummisso's Bemerkungen, also in the latter's Werke, navigation (Paris, 1841-54). Eugene Duflot du C. de Rocquefeuil, Voyage autour du Monde, Mofras, Exploration du territoire de l'Oregon, 1816-19 (Paris and London, 1823). Louis Cho des Californies (Paris, 1844). Charles Wilkes, ris, Voyage autour du Monde (Paris, 1822). Some United States Exploring Expedition (Philad., of these and others can be found collectively in 1844, 1845; London, 1845). John Coulter, Adthe collections of voyages made by La Harpe, ventures on the Western Coast (London, 1847). Berenger, Pinkerton, Kerr, etc., – as already Sir Geo. Simpson, Journey round the World enumerated (ante, Vol. I., Introduction). Cf. (Lond., 1847). Richard J. Cleveland, Narrative also the histories of maritime discovery by J. of Voyages (Cambridge, 1842; Boston, 1850). R. Forster (1786) and Burney (1803), elsewhere 4 James O. Pattie, Personal Narrative (Cindescribed (ante, chap. 2).

cinnati, 1833). John Bidwell, Journey to Cali. 1 Antonio de Alcedo, Diccionario geog. hist. de fornia (1842). Farnham, Travils in the Califor. las Indias occident. (Madrid, 1786). F. X. Cla- nias (N. Y., 1844, etc). Alfred Robinson, life vigero, Storia della California (Venice, 1789), of in California (N. Y., 1846). B. Bilson. Hunters which Bancroft notes an English translation of Kentucky, etc. (N. Y., 1847). Edwin Bryant, printed in San Francisco. J. D. Arricivita, Voyage en Californie (Paris), or in English, What Crónica Seráfica y Apostólica (Mexico, 1792). I saw in California (N. Y., 1848, 1849). WilAnquetil, Universal History (London, 1800). liam Kelly, Excursion to California (London, Humboldt, Essai politique sur la royaume de la 1851). Nouvelle Espagne (1811). R. H. Bonnycastle, 5 Bancroft was the first to bring these few Spanish America (London, 1818). G. T. Ray- early Californian prints to notice, the earliest of nal, Histoire Philosophique (1820-21). Julio Ro- all being Reglamento provisional para el gobierno signon, Porvenir de Vera Pas (Guatemala, 1861, interior de la Disputacion (Monterey, 1834). - cited by Bancroft).

6 California Pastoral, 759, 760; and Major 2 The Mexican newspapers were forty in num- Ben: Perley Poore's Descriptive Catal. publ. U.S. ber, the Californian ten. Bancroft calls Niles' government. Register the most useful of the Eastern periodi- 7 California Pastoral, 761, 762.

Frémont, who had already made an expedition westward in 1842, began a second in 1843, and was in California for the first time in 1844. Bancroft's foot-notes (California, iv. chap. 19), here as elsewhere, track the sources through all the varying changes, the Bear Flag revolt (Ibid. v. ch. 5) and the subsequent events, down to the final possession by the United States. 1

Bancroft's first volume on California was published in 1884, and what had been done earlier in a general way is easily gone over. For thirty years before 1850 Bustamante had been printing his monographs, and Bancroft, who has that writer's MSS., says that these last are more complete than the printed pages. Ayala published his Estadistica of the Mexican empire in 1822. J. M. Burmudez's Verdadera Causa de la Revolucion (Toluca, 1831) threw some light on the progress of opinions in California. Alexander Forbes' History of California (London, 1839) was the earliest English account and one of the best.? The survey in Greenhow's Oregon (1844, etc.) extended down the coast, and something will be found in Muhlenpfordt's Republik Mexico (Hanover, 1844), and in F. Fonseca's Historia general de real hacienda (Mexico, 1845-53). In 1847 we have an early American history of the Conquest of California and New Mexico (Philad.) by James Madison Cutts; and in 1848 John T. Hughes first published his California at Cincinnati. The best Mexican account is found in Alaman's Historia de Méjico (Mexico, 1849–52). Shortly after the great American immigration took place, Alexander S. Taylor began his fragmentary contributions.3 Edward Wilson endeavored to meet the growing interest in The Golden Land at Boston in 1852, while L. W. Hastings in a New History of Oregon and Californiu (Cincinnati, 1849), John Frost in his History of California (Auburn, 1853, etc.), and Elisha S. Capron in his Hist. of California (Boston, 1854) did little more than essay to catch the curious reader. John W. Dwinelle, and a little later John T. Doyle, as is shown in Bancroft's list, did something to keep alive the local antiquarian interest. The first native chronicles of any considerable merit were Dr. Franklin Tuthill's History of Califor. nia (San Francisco, 1866), and W. Gleeson's History of the Catholic Church in California (San Francisco, 1872), — the last the work of a priest who had certain advantages in tracing the story of the missions. A book by Albert S. Evans, A la California, was published at San Francisco in 1873. Professor Josiah D. Whitney, who had been at the head of the Geological Survey of California, furnished the article in the Encyclopædia Britannica (1875). J. D. B. Stillman's Seeking the golden fleece. A record of pioneer life in California : annexed Footprints of early nuvigators, other than Spanish ; with an account of the voyage of the Dolphin (San Francisco, 1877), had in part originally appeared in the Overland Monthly.

The History of California (1884, etc.), by Hubert H. Bancroft, is based largely upon manuscript material not before used. He says that his collections of MSS. covering the period 1769-1848 are about eleven hundred in number, not counting minor and miscellaneous papers, and are about twice in number as compared with his printed books for the same period. Down to 1846, he considers his MS. sources superior in value to those in print. The main divisions of these manuscripts, as he says, are copies of the California Archives, 1768-1850, making 250 000 documents in all : full or condensed copies of many mission-records ; public documents picked up in unofficial places, which include such papers as those of General Vallejo and Thomas 0. Larkin, some of these collections being formed by others and acquired in their entirety; a large mass of single papers, consisting of diaries, journals, log-books, stray mission and governmental papers, the correspondence of prominent persons, Spanish and Mexican officials, Franciscan friars and pioneers. In addition to this, there is a large collection of narratives taken down from the dictation

1 Cf. particularly for sources, Bancroft's Cali- nia, v. 100) There are references also ante, Vol. fornia, v, 187, 233, 241. Josiah Royce's Califor. VII. (index). Another recent History of Calinia, from the conquest in 1846 to the second vigi- fornia is that by T. H. Hittell (San Francisco, lance committee in San Francisco. A study of 1885). American character (Boston, 1886), is a care- 2 Bancroft's Mexico, iv, 151. ful study of this period. (Cf. Bancroft, Califor. 3 Cf. Bancroft's California, i. p. Ixxxii.

of old residents and pioneers, of which he considers the recitals by Vallejo the most important out of the one hundred and sixty of those whose activity was noticeable before 1848. He acknowledges that he has found much of this latter material a strange and inexplicable mixture of truth and fiction, but he claims to have guarded his narrative wherein it has been used by the corroboration and corrections of official documents.1

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YUCATAN, 1506-1700.* There are two amorg the local histories which have something more than a local scope : the Annals of San Francisco (N. Y., 1855), by Frank Soulé and others, and John S. Hittell's Hist. of San Francisco (1878, etc.).

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The bibliography of Yucatan has been elsewhere given, to be supplemented by titles in the list prefixed to Bancroft's Central America. The Papers relative to the rupture with

i California, i. p. viii; ix. 54, 56, 57 ; Califor. San José (1871); Warner and Hayes, Los Annia Pastoral, 769.

? The various commercially prompted county 3 Ante, II. 429. histories hardly need enumeration. There are a 4 The old Historia de Yucathan (1688) of Cofew good local monographs: Frederick Hall's gulludo was continued to 1650 only, and was

* From a map compiled by Dudley Costello, 1854, given in C. St. J. Fancourt's Hist, of Yucatan (London, 1834). Cf. ante, II. 384.

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Note. — Reduced from a map in Prévost's Voyages (Paris, 1754), vol. xii.

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Spain (London, 1672) gives the diplomatic fence between the two countries relative to the English occupancy of Campeche and Yucatan by their cutters of logwood. For a later period see Serapio Banquiero's Ensayo histórico sobre las Revolucionas de Yucatan (Merida, 1871-72). .

The bibliography of Guatemala has been already sketched (ante, II. p. 419), some of the works coming down to the later period; but the main recourse for titles is, as before,

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Bancroft's list to his Central America (vol. i.) and his general review of sources (vol. ii. pp. 735–762), covering the colonial period of the Central American provinces, which is mainly, however, a grouping of various published collections of voyages, which include such as touched at some point the Spanish-American coasts. The Spanish contributions

never completed as the title promised. Los tres Siglos de la dominacion Española en Yucatan, ó sea Historia de esta provincia desde la conquista hasta la independencia (vol. i., Campeche, 1842; ii., Merida, 1845).

1 The book also sets forth the French claim to catching cod on the Newfoundland banks because of early visits of the Biscayans to those

parts, while the English urged the priority of Cabot (Stevens, Bibl. Geog., no. 2588). The ques. tion was still pending when it was settled by a convention between Spain and England, July 14, 1786, in accordance with which Faden, the Eng. lish cartographer, issued a Map of the part of Yucatan allotted to Great Britain for the cutting of logwood (London, 1787).

* From Prévost's Voyages (Paris, 1754), vol. xii.

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