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defensive system of tactics. The twelve years' truce between Spain and the Netherlands expired in 1621, and fleets were equipped by the StatesGeneral to attack the colonies in South America. Piete Heyn captured a treasure fleet, and brought home an immense sum of money ; while a powerful fleet under Jacob l'Heremite was sent to the Pacific. In May, 1624, the Dutch ships appeared off Callao, a few days after the treasure ships had sailed for Panama. The invaders occupied the island of San Lorenzo, where their admiral died, and, after making unsuccessful attacks on Callao, Pisco, and Guayaquil, the attempt was given up, and the hostile squadron

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left the coast. This Dutch expedition may be looked upon as the precursor of those predatory voyages which were the natural outcome of the Spanish monopoly, and the forerunners of the occupation of most of the West Indian Islands by powers opposed to the exclusive policy of Spain.

The troubles at the mines of Potosi originated in the rancorous greed of speculators. The miners were divided into hostile factions called Vascongados and Vicuñas; there were incessant bloody encounters and murders, while neither the authority of the officials nor the exhortations of priests could appease their rancor or put down the riots. It was only by a compromise that a truce was established by the viceroy's officials in 1625.

It is much to the credit of the Marquis of Guadalcazar that he was strongly opposed to the odious proceedings of the Inquisition which had been established at Lima. Although his power was not sufficient to prevent the autos entirely, he discountenanced those cruel exhibitions, and only one took place during his government, when three victims to priestly fanaticism suffered in the great square of Cuzco. The marquis delivered up charge to his successor and returned to Spain in January, 1629.

Don Luis Geronimo de Cabrera, Count of Chinchon, the next viceroy, was an enlightened and able statesman of high rank, descended from an

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ancient Catalonian family. Spain was utterly impoverished, and when the count left Cadiz in August, 1628, the government was clamoring for money from the Indies. Officers who received new appointments were to refund half their first year's pay, voluntary contributions were called for, and the excise duties were increased. Thus the new viceroy, who was anxious to govern well and to improve the condition of the people, was placed in a most trying position. His difficulties were increased by the rumors of the approach of hostile Dutch fleets, which obliged him to incur expenditure on the fortifications of Callao and the defences of the Chilian ports. The new






captain-general of Chile, Don Francisco Lasso de la Vega, an officer who had served with distinction in the Low Countries, came out with the Count of Chinchon. He conducted the defensive war with the Araucanians from 1629 to 1639, when he was succeeded by the Marquis de Baydes. In 1647 Baydes made the first peace with the Araucanian Indians, which was solemnly ratified.

Notwithstanding his financial difficulties, the Count of Chinchon was a vigilant protector of the Indians. In 1633 he issued fresh regulations respecting forced service ; he ordered that journeys to and from the mines should be paid for by the employers ; and he reduced the numbers of the mitta for the mines of Potosi. These measures, adopted in the face of

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44 Demonstracion del Puerto

y de las dos Ciudades Del 1. Bajos de Payana. 113. Punta de Chuckes. 25. La otra Punta de Arm 37. Rio deChandui. 49 Ria de la Ciudad. 6o. Parroqyurfuglana | 2. Estero de Ambrli. 14. Estero del Gallo. 26. Rio de Chuchas. 38. Pueblo diChandui. 50. Carnicerias.

6. Comedes Domingo 3. Pueblo de Machala. 15. Punta de Aronas. 27. Bajos de los Frayles. 39. Plaza Mayor 51. Combide S. Fran 62. Murallas emperados 4. Bajos de Machala 16. Boca Chica. 28. Bajos de Mondragor 40. Iglesia Mayor

32. Matadero. 63. Donde Lubovn Furrta 5. Rio de Siete. 17. Isla Verde

29. Isla de Sono. 41. Cassas de Cabildo. 53. Eftero deLazaro. 164. Ridde la Ciudad. 8. Rio de Tengue 18.Bajos de Bocada 30. Punta gorda, 42. Hospital

54. Efter de Morillo 166. Erro dela Atamaana 7. Rio de Balao. 19. Eftero de Cambrai 31. Punta de Mirl. 43.Cassa de Armas. 55. Eftero de Campos. 66. Isla de Villa 8. Rio de Bola. 20 Punta Española. 32. Punta de Piedras. 44.Comb de S. Aguftin. 56. Etero de Junco. 67. Isla de Primoro. 9. Rio del Naranxal. 21. Río Hondo. 33. Punta de Manglan 45.Colegio delacompafiia 57. Eftero de Villa Mar 68. Isla del Zerrito. 1o. Rio de Tura. 22. Eftero dela Punavieja 34 Punta de Alcatraces. 46.Tatier.

58. Puente de madera pa 69. Mocoli. 11. Isia de St.Clara. 23. Bajos dela Punavieja 35. Puerto de Balsas 47. Affillerosy Fabricas. nhir devnaCuda otra 70. Rio grande 12. Bajos de Rio Chuches 24. Bajos de Mala. 36. Eftero Salado 48. Fofos empezados. 59. Plaza delaCiu' vieja. 71. Rio de Daule

Pedas Magufulp From the Compendio historico de la Provincia . .

... y puerto de Guayaquil, por Dionysio de Alcedo y Herrera (Madrid, 1741).

incessant demands from home for more silver, redound to his credit. But he was not so firm in discountenancing the atrocities of the Inquisition. Three autos-da-were celebrated during his viceroyalty, at which upwards of a hundred persons, including several of wealth and position, were sacrificed to the insatiable bigotry of the priests. The Indian population was, however, always protected from this form of persecution, as being in the position of catechumens.

An insurrection among the Indians of Lake Titicaca was suppressed after some hard fighting in 1634, the viceroy declaring that it was caused by the tyranny and injustice of the Spaniards, who illegally forced the people to work without pay, and seized their harvests. But the most important event during the viceroyalty of the Count of Chinchon was the discovery of the febrifuge virtues of Peruvian bark. The first wife of the count was the Lady Ana de Osorio, daughter of the Marquis of Astorga, but she died before he became viceroy. Doña Francisca Henriquez de Ribera, his second wife, accompanied him to Peru, and was attacked at Lima in 1638 by a tertian fever. The news of the illness of the countess reached Don Francisco Lopez de Cañizares, who was then corregidor of Loxa, and who had become acquainted with the febrifuge qualities of the bark. He sent a parcel of it

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to the vice-queen, and the new remedy, administered by her physician Don Juan de Vega, effected a rapid and complete cure. The Countess of Chinchon left Peru in 1639, but she died at Cartagena on the passage home. The remedy was known as countess's bark, and afterwards as Jesuit's bark, and the genus of plants which produces it received the name of Chinchona, in honor of the countess. This discovery has conferred inestimable benefits on the whole human race, and renders memorable the viceroyalty of the Count of Chinchon. That distinguished statesman gave up charge to his successor, the Marquis of Mancera, in December, 1639, and returning to Spain, he died eight years afterwards at his castle of Chinchon, near Madrid.

The Marquis of Mancera was succeeded as viceroy by the Count of Salvatierra, these two rulers holding office from 1639 to 1655. Then followed Don Luis Henriquez de Guzman, the Count of Alba de Liste and Grandee of Spain, who had been viceroy of Mexico and was uncle to his predecessor, the Count of Salvatierra. He entered Lima in February, 1655, bringing with him the eminent mathematician Don Francisco Ruiz Lozano. The attention of the Count of Alba de Liste was devoted almost exclusively to the creation of an adequate navy, to strengthening the defences of the ports, and securing the tranquillity of Chile. Lozano was appointed cosmographer, and was the first mathematical professor in Peru, while a native of Malines named Kønig officiated as his assistant. Kænig took numerous astronomical observations, constructed a map of Peru, and engraved it on silver plates with his own hand. On the death of Lozano in 1677, Kænig succeeded him as mathematical professor. In 1678 he was appointed cosmographer, and from 1680 to 1708 he published the Ephemerides of Peru. Thus the Count of Alba de Liste was the founder of scientific studies in the land of the Incas, and his energies were equally directed to the military defence of the country. He expended large sums and sent a considerable force to Chile; built two powerful frigates at Guayaquil; and his two sons were successively admirals of the South Sea. The viceroy returned to Spain in 1661, and was succeeded by Don Diego Benavides y de la Cueva, Count of Santistevan.

The new viceroy was of the blood royal, being descended from Alfonso VII. He had distinguished himself both as a soldier and a diplomatist, and had been viceroy of Navarre before he embarked for Peru to succeed the Count of Alba de Liste. The ill-treatment of the Indians, the open defiance of all rules for their protection, and the rapid decrease of the population, had now become such crying evils that the torpid government of Charles the Bewitched was forced to take some action. A detailed report had been drawn up in July, 1657, by the licentiate Don Juan de Padilla, on the cruel and illegal treatment of the Indians; and he petitioned for prompt and efficacious remedial measures. In this memorable state paper the clergy are condemned as strongly as the civil authorities. The rules respecting the mitta had become a dead letter. There was a system of kidnapping throughout the country. In many places, where all the male adults had been dragged off to the mines, the women and children alone were left to till the fields. Boys were torn from their homes when only six to eight years old, taken to slavery in the factories, and cruelly beaten. The expenses of journeys to the mines were never paid, and all wages were withheld. At the mines and factories there were shops for the sale of Spanish goods. The Indians were forced to incur debts at these places, and then detained in perpetual slavery. Tribute was exacted from the villages and not from individuals, and when the population decreased

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