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man who had been ambassador at Rome and Venice, entered Lima as viceroy on the 5th of October, 1716. The gleam of toleration which followed the Treaty of Utrecht was transient, and the prince came out with stringent orders to destroy all foreign trade in the Pacific, burning ships and merchandise. Two large frigates arrived soon afterwards, under the stern command of Captain Juan Nicolas de Martinet, and several French ships were seized. This vacillating policy had the effect of inciting the desire of the colonists for freedom, while the selfish policy of Spain aroused their indignation. The Prince of Santo Bono was superseded at his own request in 1720, and was succeeded by the most distinguished military man who ever came to Peru as viceroy. Don José de Armendariz, Marquis of Castelfuerte, was a Navarrese. He became a lieutenant-general in 1706, and his gallant charge broke the enemy's left wing at the battle of Villaviciosa. He also took part in the siege of Barcelona, and was captain-general of Guipuzcoa when Philip V appointed him to the viceroyalty of Peru. The Marquis of Castelfuerte entered Lima on the 14th of May, 1724. He was a stern disciplinarian. Accusations had been brought against Diego de los Reyes, governor of Paraguay; and Dr. Don José Antequera was sent to Asuncion with a commission to try the accused official. Antequera assumed the government, and put Reyes in prison, finding that he was a tool of the Jesuits. The government at Lima disapproved of these proceedings, and suppressed the commission of Antequera, ordering Reyes to be reinstated. The viceroy then gave orders for Antequera to come to Lima; but he refused, and called the people to arms. Finally Antequera was arrested and sent to Lima in April, 1726. Society at Lima was in his favor. Great efforts were made to delay his trial. But the viceroy was resolved to punish him, and sentence of death was passed. The judges, the university, the municipality, petitioned for pardon, as well as the people of all classes. The stern old marquis refused to listen, and Antequera was brought out for execution in the great square of Lima on July 5, 1731. There were cries for pardon, and the mob began to throw stones. Hearing the tumult, the viceroy came out on horseback and ordered his guards to fire. Antequera fell dead, as well as the two priests by his side, and several others. The viceroy then ordered the body to be taken to the scaffold and beheaded. His conduct received the approval of the king by a decree of September, 1733.

The Marquis of Castelfuerte was inflexibly just, and, when complaints were brought before him, he protected the people from oppression. In the provinces of Guamanga and Andahuaylas the exactions of the priests became so intolerable that even the civil authorities interfered.

The bishop supported his clergy, and went so far as to excommunicate the officials who had submitted the petitions of the Indians. The viceroy firmly supported the civil power, and the bishop was forced to yield to the severe but upright representative of the king. Castelfuerte also resisted the excesses of the Inquisition. Once the Holy Office had the audacity to summon the viceroy to appear before their tribunal. He came with a regiment of infantry and two fieldpieces. Placing his watch on the table, he informed the inquisitors that if their sitting was not over in fifteen minutes and he was outside, the room would be bombarded. This resolute and able viceroy gave up charge to his successor, the Marquis of Villagarcia, in January, 1736, and returning to Spain by way of Mexico, he was decorated with the order of the Golden Fleece.

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The new viceroy belonged to that great house of Mendoza which had already given five rulers to Peru. He had been ambassador to Venice, and viceroy of Catalonia, and was already a veteran statesman when he entered Lima, and received charge from the Marquis of Castelfuerte. The first years of the viceroyalty of the Marquis of Villagarcia were rendered famous by the measurement of an arc of the meridian near Quito by the French academicians La Condamine, Bouguer, and Godin, assisted by the accomplished Spanish naval officers Jorge Juan and Antonio Ulloa. This great work

1 [Charles Marie de la Condamine's Relation 1745) was also appended to Bouguer's Figure de abrégée d'un voyage fait dans l'intérieur de l’Amé- la Terre (Paris, 1745), and his Journal du Vorrique méridionale. Depuis la côte de la Mer du age appeared at Paris in 1751. A new edition of sud jusqu'aux côtes du Brésil & de la Guiane, the Relation was issued at Maestricht, 1778. An en descendant la rivière des Amazones (Paris, English Succinct Abridgment was printed at Lon

* After a plate in Durret's Voyage de Marseille à Lima (Paris, 1720), ii. 27.

was completed in 1736, and M. Godin was afterwards professor of mathematics at Lima for ten years. No credit is due to the viceroy in connection with these scientific achievements. Alarmed by the presence of Anson's fleet in the Pacific and by the sack of Payta, he recalled the Ulloas from their valuable labors; while his name is also tarnished by the bigoted zeal with which he encouraged the horrible autos-de-fe of the Inquisition. The aged Marquis of Villagarcia set sail for Spain by way of Cape Horn in July, 1745, but died during the voyage home.

From this period there was a change in the class of men who were selected to be viceroys of Peru. Hitherto they had been noblemen of exalted rank and position. In the last eighty years of Spanish power they were generally distinguished naval and military officers of wide experience, who may be assumed to have been more in sympathy with the colonists. Coincident with this change in the class from which the rulers were chosen, there was a relaxation in the strictness of the monopoly, and a disposition to conciliate the Creole population. Formerly no ship bound for the Indies was allowed to sail from any port but Cadiz. Now other ports of Spain were permitted to trade with South America, and some foreign ships were even allowed to make the voyage by Cape Horn. For thirty years after the departure of the Marquis of Villagarcia, Peru was governed by two military officers, who were instructed to inaugurate a policy of conciliation ; namely, Don José Antonio Manso, Count of Superanda, and Don Manuel de Amat.

One form of this conciliatory policy was the conferring of titles of nobility on the colonists. Such titles had occasionally, but very rarely, been granted during the last half of the previous century. The viceroys Manso and Amat had authority to create noblemen on a larger scale, but no other viceroys appear to have been empowered to grant titles. Altogether, one dukedom, fifty-eight marquisates, forty-four counties, and one viscounty were conferred on Peruvian families. Titles were only bestowed on distinguished families; and, though proofs and documents were required, the payment of a round sum of money was the most efficacious title-deed. But it may be doubted whether this measure had any material influence in cementing the loyal feelings of the South Americans for the king of Spain.

General Don José Antonio Manso, a native of Biscay, was a soldier of distinction who had seen active service in the War of Succession. In 1735 he became captain-general of Chile, and, during an energetic administration of ten years, he founded several towns, fortified posts, and constructed

don, 1747; but the Abridged Narrative in Pink- historique, appeared at Amsterdam and Leipzig erton's Voyages (London, 1813), vol. xiv., is usu- in 1752; an English translation, A Voyage to ally the version seen. Cf. Carter-Brown Catal. South America, at London, 1758, and was later iii. nos. 797, 848, 896, 946, 2456, 3448; the rec- issued in 1760, 1772, 1806, somewhat abridged. ord by the Ulloas appended in their Relacion Cf. Carter. Brown, iii., nos. 879, 910, 974, 1183, histórica del Viage (Madrid, 1748), in four folio 1262, 1826, 4172. — Ed.] volumes. Mauvillon's French version, Voyage

roads. In July, 1745, he entered Lima as Viceroy of Peru, and was created Count of Superunda. A year after his arrival a terrible earthquake destroyed the capital. The west coast of South America is subject to such frequent shocks that it has been thought that their incessant recurrence has had some influence in moulding the character of the people. Since the foundation of Lima, that city had been nearly destroyed in 1586, in 1630, and in 1687; but on none of these occasions was the desolation to be compared with that of the 28th of October, 1746. At Lima the whole city became a heap of ruins, and more than a thousand persons perished. At Callao a great wave destroyed the town, the frigate "San Fermin " was carried far inland, nineteen vessels were stranded out of twenty-three that were at anchor, and 4,600 people were killed.

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The Count of Superunda exerted himself to rescue the buried people, showing indifference to his personal safety. He took energetic and judicious steps to relieve the wants of the homeless citizens, and devoted the remaining years of his viceroyalty to the work of rebuilding the capital and the port. In this he received valuable assistance from M. Godin. The French mathematician planned and nearly completed Callao Castle, and restored the Cathedral of Lima and other churches. Manso was the viceroy who held office for the longest period, his term extending to over sixteen years.

His successor, Don Manuel de Amat, who belonged to an ancient CataIonian family, had adopted a military career, and had seen much service. During six years he had been captain-general of Chile, and in October,

* From the Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), ii. 204. Plans and views are also in Frezier's Voyage (1713); in Allg. Hist. der Reisen, ix. 558; and a later one in Miers' Travels (London, 1826). Cf. Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna's Historia de Valparaiso (Valparaiso, 1869, 1872), in two volumes.

1761, he entered Lima as viceroy of Peru. Amat had a passion for everything connected with military affairs. He organized militia regiments and

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The above plan is from the Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), ii. 12. Cf. plans in Francisco Echave y Assu’s La Estrelia de Lima (Amberies, 1688); Durret's Voyage de Marseille à Lima (Paris, 1720); Relation of the dreadful Earthquake (London, 1748); Allg. Hist. der Reisen, ix. 376; Coreal's Voyage, Frezier's Voyage, etc.

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