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during which two of the reforms demanded by Tupac Amaru were adopted, namely, the abolition of the corregidors and the creation of a court of justice for hearing native causes at Cuzco. In 1784 it was resolved, in accordance with the plan of Tupac Amaru, to abolish the office of corregidors, and to divide Peru into seven large provinces called intendencias, composed of partidos. The intendencias were governed by intendentes, directly responsible to the viceroys, and the fifty-four partidos were under sub-delegados, subordinate to the intendentes. These divisions correspond to the depart- .. ments and provinces of the modern republic. The Audiencia of Cuzco was installed in November, 1788. · A financial committee was also established at Lima, chiefly with the object of enforcing a uniform system of accounts throughout the colonies. Don Teodoro de Croix retired in 1790, returning to Spain by way of Cape Horn, and leaving behind him a good reputation as an upright, kind-hearted, and religious man.

The new viceroy, Don Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos, a native of Galicia, was a sailor, and had been admiral of the royal fleet. He was a great reformer and an able administrator, a lover of letters and an active promoter of literature. He encouraged the assemblage of literary men, and under his friendly auspices thought was set free and liberal ideas began to prevail. The admiral gave access to all official records for those who planned the Mercurio Peruano. The projectors of this periodical were the admiral himself, Drs. Gabriel Moreno and Hipólito Unanue, — two men of high scientific attainments, — the rector of the College of San Carlos, the famous explorer Sobreviela, and several ecclesiastics and military officers. The first number appeared on January 1, 1791, and the contributors formed a society or club entitled “Amantes del Pais.” A room at the university was set apart for their meetings by order of the viceroy. The Mercurio Peruano completed twelve volumes, from 1791 to 1794, and from 1793 to 1798 an annual Official Guide was published, under the editorship of Dr. Unanue. The viceroy also began to publish a Gazette at Lima. His interest in the navy led him to found a nautical school, and open a hydrographic office for the sale of charts. Great encouragement was also given to the exploration of the courses of great tributaries of the Amazon by missionaries under the lead of Fray Narciso Gerbal, while Don Alejondro Malespina surveyed the coasts. The admiral also superintended the preparation of a map of Peru by the hydrographer Andres Baleato, which was used to illustrate the memoir on his administration. Admiral Taboada, the best and most enlightened of the viceroy's of Peru, returned to Spain in 1796, when he was made director-general of marine. He died in 1810.

It appears from the statistics published by the retiring viceroy in 1794, that the population of Peru was then 1,076,997, -- that is, the seven intendencias of Lima, Cuzco, Guamanga, Arequipa, Huancavelica, Tarma, and

1 [Cf. ante, Vol. I. p. 276. Extracts from this of Peru aus dem Mercurio Peruano (Weimar, periodical are the essential parts of Joseph Skin- 1808). – ED.) ner's Present State of Peru (London, 1805), and

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Truxillo. Of these, 608,912 were Indians, 244,437 half-castes, 136,311 of Spanish descent, and 80,000 negroes.

When Toledo numbered the Peruvian Indians in 1575, there were 8,000,000! The salary of the viceroy was

Tavola 10. S. GIACOPO CAPITALE DEL REGNO DEL CHILE

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14. Casino del M. de la Pica 27. S. Isidoro Parrocchia Palazzo del Presidente 15. Agostiniuni

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30. Mercedari 5. il Duomo 18. Orfanelli

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19. Noviziato che füde Gesuite 32la Carita Domenicani 20.S. Michele

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38 Passeggio pubblico 13. S. Anna Parrocchia. 26. Suor Carmelitane 39 Piazza de Tori

NOTE. — The above plan of Santiago is reduced from one in the Compendio della Storia del Regno del Chile (Bologna, 1776). There is a “Prospectus y planta de la Ciudad de Santiago" Ovale's Regno de Chile (Rome, 1648), p. 170. There are later ones in Frezier's Voyage (1713), and in the Allg. Historie der Reisen (:01. xv.); and a later one in Miers' Travels (London, 1826). Cf. B. V. Mackenna's Historia de la Ciudad de Santiago, 1541 a 1868 (Valparaiso, 1869). Note. — The opposite map is from the Guia del Perú para el año de 1796 (Lima). VOL. VIII. -- 21

$60,500. The receipts were $6,393,205, and the expenditures $4,082,313, leaving a surplus of $2,935,105 for transmission to Spain. There were 5,596 clergy, and the tiches averaged $291,837 a year, besides fees. The trade between Peru and Cadiz in 1791 was represented by $4,183,856 worth of imports, and $5,699,590 of exports, leaving a balance for Peru of $1,515,734. The tribute exacted from the Indians amounted to $385,586.

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The next viceroy of Peru was a very remarkable man. In the middle of the last century a little Irish boy, named Ambrose Higgins, was em ployed to carry the letters to the post for Lady Bective. He had who was a priest at Cadiz, and eventually he was sent to this uncle to be

* After an engraving in Arano's Historia de Chile, vol. vii.

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educated. Thence he found his way to Peru, and was employed in a little shop under the terrace of the cathedral at Lima. Proceeding to Chile as a young man, he showed so much engineering talent that he obtained a commission in the army. His conduct on the Araucanian frontier displayed such tact and judgment in dealing with the Indians that he was promoted to the command at Concepcion. There he received the expedition of La Perouse, and rendered the French explorer so much assistance that his services were strongly recommended to the notice of the Spanish government. From 1788 to 1796 he was captain-general of Chile, and adopted the prefix O' as being more aristocratic. He visited every part of his government, corrected abuses, made peace with the Araucanians, and construcied the carriage road from Santiago to Valparaiso. From 1796 to 1800 he was viceroy of Peru, and was created Marquis of Osorno. He died rather suddenly at Lima in March, 1801, and was succeeded by a man of very different character. Gabriel Aviles, Marquis of Aviles, had been upwards of twenty years in South America as a military officer, and had been guilty of atrocious cruelties during the insurrection of Tupac Amaru. He was in command of the troops during the execution of the Inca at Cuzco. He succeeded O'Higgins as captain-general of Chile, and was viceroy of Buenos Ayres when he was summoned to Lima in 1801. A penurious financier, Aviles undertook no public work and promoted no useful measure. He died at Valparaiso in 1806, when about to embark for Spain.

Don José Fernando Abascal, a native of Oviedo, had entered the army as a cadet in 1762, and had seen much service in various parts of the world, including Buenos Ayres, where he was employed under Cevallos, the first viceroy. Taken prisoner by the English on his way out to Peru, he was landed at Lisbon, and went thence to Rio Janeiro. He then made a very remarkable journey by land from Brazil to Peru, and entered Lima in July, 1806. The Viceroy Abascal felt that the revolutionary ideas of France, which were rapidly spreading, would surround him with perils, and he determined to strive to avert them by a policy of active usefulness. He introduced vaccination, founded a medical hospital, prohibited burials in churches, and established a Pantheon outside the city. He also organized a formidable army, built the artillery barrack of Santa Catalina at Lima, made a large cistern in Callao Castle, and cast upwards of fifty 4-pounder fieldpieces. General Pezuela, who had arrived from Europe in 1805, was inspector of artillery. But Abascal was a protectionist of the old school. He supported the exclusive monopoly of the Cadiz merchants, raised the alcabala or excise dues, and increased the customs tariff. In 1811 a Spanish man-of-war left Callao with $2,000,000 for the mother country.

All revolutions, like armies on the march, advance with pioneers in front. Such men are sometimes a century, sometimes a few years in advance of the general movement. They often point out or shed light on the paths of progress by their sufferings, sometimes by their life's blood. The Inca

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