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Tupac Amaru was the foremost pioneer of the independence of Peru. After his death, many enlightened Spaniards and men of Spanish descent inculcated the doctrines of freedom, and thus leavened the rising generation. Dr. Pedro José Chavez de la Rosa, Bishop of Arequipa from 1789 to 1805, was such a teacher. His pupils became the most ardent advocates of reform. Another inspirer of revolutionary ideas was Rodriguez de Mendoza, the rector of the College of San Carlos at Lima. The College of Medicine, under the teaching of Dr. Unanue, was another centre of liberal ideas. Many of the clergy joined heartily in the movement. The nobility and even the ladies of Lima caught the infection. In the house of the Countess of Gisla a secret club of advanced reformers held their meetings; while the army was full of ardent patriots. The young advocate José de la Riva Aguero became the ringleader of the secret societies. Allied to the nobility, making common cause with educated men by reason of his learning and his profession, young and with popular manners, he was well fitted for the work of organizing opposition. Clubs were formed, and the duty of their members was to make proselytes and to propagate liberal ideas. The Conde de Vista Florida, an ennobled Peruvian, was the coadjutor of Riva Aguero, and the ostensible head of the constitutional party. There were local rebellions at Tacna and Huanuco in 1811 and 1812, and in 1813 the Inquisition was abolished. The people of Lima rose, forced their way into the palace of the Holy Office, liberated the prisoners, and broke in pieces the instruments of torture.1

The Viceroy Abascal had concentrated the whole military power of the Spanish colonies at Lima. Organized resistance could be attempted only at a distance from this centre; although liberal ideas and aspirations were seething in the capital. The invasion of the Spanish Peninsula by the French Emperor was the immediate cause of the revolt of the colonies. In 1807 the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil, and the Brazilian colony was proclaimed a separate kingdom in 1815. In 1808 Napoleon seized and imprisoned the king of Spain at Bayonne. A regency was organized at Cadiz. All parties were unanimous in refusing to acknowledge Joseph Bonaparte. But while the viceroys and Spanish officials recognized the Cadiz regency, the colonists as a body withheld their allegiance, declaring that they would organize native governments during the king's imprisonment.

These movements began in Venezuela, where the captain-general nominated by the regency was deposed in April, 1810, and a government was formed, while young Simon Bolivar was sent to London to solicit protection from the English ministry. The mediation of England was offered to and refused by Spain, and Bolivar returned in company with General Miranda, who was placed in command of the Venezuelan troops. But Miranda was unable to maintain his position. In July, 1812, he made a treaty with

1 Cf. B. V. Mackenna's Francisco Moyen o lo que fué la inquisicion en América (Valparaiso, 1868), and an English translation (London, 1869).

the Spanish General Monteverde, and the first Republic of Venezuela ceased to exist. Soon afterwards Miranda was arrested, sent to Cadiz in irons, and died in prison. A Spanish army of 10,000 men was sent out, under General Morillo. Venezuela and Nueva Granada were entirely subdued, and great numbers of leading patriots were shot at Bogota in cold blood. Bolivar took refuge in Jamaica, and bided his time.

In Chile the first attempt at revolution was equally unfortunate. The original pretext was the same as in Venezuela : the formation of a govern

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ment during the king's captivity. A Junta de Gobierno was proclaimed at Santiago on the 18th of September, 1810. The Audiencia was dissolved, Dr. Rosas was placed at the head of affairs, and the first Congress met in 1811. But dissensions broke out among the patriots. Don José Miguel Carrera, with his two brothers, Juan José and Luis, headed a military mutiny at Santiago, while Rosas was in power at Concepcion. Valdivia and Chiloe remained faithful to Spain. The Carreras corrupted the troops at

1 (There was published in Paris in 1826, as lo's progress; but he denied all connection with translated from the Spanish, Mémoires relatifs the work. Biblioteca Beéche, p. 199; Arana's aux principaux événements de Campagnes en Notas, no. 321. – ED.) Amérique de 1815 à 1821, as chronicling Moril

This plate, originally engraved in Paris, in 1793, by Gaucher, was reëngraved in London by Bragg, and appeared in J. M. Antepara's South American Emancipation Documents historical and explanatory, shewing the designs which have been in progress, and the exertions made by General Miranda for the South American Emancipation (London, 1810). Cf. portrait in Rafter's Gregor M'Gregor (London, 1820).

Concepcion. Rosas was banished to Mendoza, and died in obscurity. Carrera promulgated a fundamental law or constitution in 1812, and welcomed a friar named Camilo Henriquez, who had fled from Lima, owing to the persecution of the Inquisition. He embraced the cause of the revolution with enthusiasm, and edited the first Chilian periodical, called La Aurora. The Viceroy Abascal dispatched a force under Brigadier Pareja to restore order in Chile, and he landed at Talcahuano in 1813. His presence gave

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rise to despondency and discontent. Carrera was deposed, and Don Demetrio O'Higgins, a son of the viceroy, Marquis of Osorno, was placed at the head of the revolutionary forces. In the following year the viceroy of Peru sent fresh reinforcements to Chile, under General Osorio, who marched on Santiago. Carrera and O'Higgins combined against the common enemy; and the hostile forces met at Rancagua on October 12, 1814.

* After a likeness in Arana's Hist. de Chile, viii. There is a portrait of Luis Carrera in Mackenna's Ostracismo de los Carreras.

The rebels were totally defeated, O'Higgins fled across the Andes to Mendoza, and Spanish rule was restored in Chile.

At Buenos Ayres the revolution was more successful. In September, 1810, a national government was formed, the first congress met in 1813, and General Belgrano was sent to stir up a revolution in Upper Peru, and oppose the forces of the viceroy.

An insurrection had broken out at La Paz and Chuquisaca in Upper Peru, a year before the establishment of a national government at Buenos Ayres. But General Goyeneche, sent from Lima by the Viceroy Abascal, carried all before him, and inflicted remorseless vengeance on all who had

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favored the attempt. Nevertheless, the government of Buenos Ayres sent an expedition to Upper Peru in 1810, under Dr. Castelli, to establish a national régime. Quce more the terrible Goyeneche marched into Upper Peru, and Castelli was utterly defeated at the battle of Huaqui. But the whole country had risen, and a desultory war continued. On the retirement of Goyeneche, the Spaniards were commanded by General Ramirez; while the Buenos Ayres government sent General Belgrano to assist the insurgents in February, 1813.

Meanwhile, an aged Peruvian cacique named Mateo Garcia Pumacagua, who had sided with the Spaniards against Tupac Amaru, but who embraced

After a likeness in Mitré's Historia de Belgrano (Buenos Ayres, 1887), vol. ii. The third volume shows the equestrian statue at Buenos Ayres.

the cause of the patriots in his old age, had risen at Cuzco. He was joined by several Spaniards of position, all the Indians flew to arms, and he advanced to Arequipa in triumph. Ramirez found himself threatened both in front and rear. He countermarched on Arequipa, and Pumacagua retreated at his approach. General Pezuela was hard pressed by Belgrano in the south, so Ramirez resolved to follow up and dispose of the Indian cacique. Reaching Lampa on March 1, 1815, he received a proposal for a convention. But he refused any terms except unconditional surrender. On the 12th he came up with Pumacagua at Umachiri, and dispersed his large but half-armed force. Pumacagua was taken and hanged. All the

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officers of Spanish descent were shot, including the poet Melgar of Arequipa, and many of the Indians were mutilated. The united forces of Ramirez and Pezuela then recovered Upper Peru, and numerous local insurrections were suppressed with ruthless cruelty.

The Viceroy Abascal saw his policy succeeding in all directions. Chile and Upper Peru were reconquered. Resistance was stamped out in Venezuela and Nueva Granada. Buenos Ayres alone remained free. He thought that Spanish power was restored. It was only a lull before the final storm. Abascal was created Marques de la Concordia.

He was relieved by General Pezuela in July, 1816, and returned to Spain, where he had the rank of captain-general. He died at Madrid in 1821, aged seventyeight.

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