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1819, Lord Cochrane again sailed to Callao, with the intention of making a more sustained attack with fire-ships ; but they exploded prematurely. In February, 1820, Lord Cochrane, with the efficient aid of Major Miller, captured the important port of Valdivia, in the south of Chile, and also drove the Spaniards out of the island of Chiloe.

General San Martin's army was now ready at Valparaiso, and, having been embarked, the fleet sailed once more on the 21st of August, 1820. The troops were landed at Pisco, where they remained until October, when they were reëmbarked, and eventually put on shore at Ancon, to the north of Lima. Meanwhile Lord Cochrane had formed the design of cutting out the Spanish frigate “Esmeralda” from under the guns of Callao Castle. At midnight on the 5th of November he led the boats of the feet in two divisions, respectively under Captains Crosbie and Guise, with 180 seamen and 100 marines. They ran alongside the

They ran alongside the “ Esmeralda " unperceived, boarding on both sides simultaneously. The Spaniards made a spirited resistance with small arms, but were overpowered. The ship's cables were cut, her sails were set, and she was transferred to another anchorage. She was re-named the “Valdivia,” and Captain Guise received the command.

In 1821 General San Martin opened negotiations with the Spanish authorities, on the basis of the recognition of the independence of Peru, a provisional constitution being framed until the meeting of a congress, and a Bourbon prince being received as king. But the royalist generals insisted upon these proposals being rejected, and the Viceroy La Serna retired into the interior with all his forces, making his headquarters at Cuzco. San Martin then entered Lima, and the independence of Peru was proclaimed on the 28th of July, 1821. The liberating general was declared Protector, and he organized a civil government. In August a decree abolished the mitta, or forced labor; and in October an “Order of the Sun" was created, the titles of nobility being also recognized. Callao Castle surrendered in September, and its commandant, Lamar, came over to the patriot side. The frigates “Venganza” and “ Prueba” surrendered to the Peruvian government. Lord Cochrane resigned in January, 1823, and fifteen of his officers took service under Captain Guise, the founder of the Peruvian navy.

While San Martin was liberating Chile and occupying the ancient capital of the viceroys of Peru, the patriots of Colombia had not been idle. The Spanish General Morillo had carried all before him in Venezuela and at Bogota, and he had celebrated his success with ruthless cruelty. But in 1817 Simon Bolivar made a descent upon Venezuela, and established himself at Angostura. In 1818 he fought several indecisive actions with the troops of Morillo, and in 1819 an English legion arrived, consisting of 2,000 wellequipped men. 2

A congress was assembled at Angostura, and Bolivar was 1 (Cf. Col. 1.Iaceroni's Appeal to the British the So. Amer. patriots (Lond., 1818); C. Brown's Nation on the Affairs of So. America. - En.) Nar. of the Exped. to So. America (I.ond., 1819).

2 (Cf. James Hackett's Narrative of an tixte- - ED.) dition which sailed from England in 1817 to join

elected president of Venezuela. The Spanish forces at Bogota marched to form a junction with those at Caraccas; but Bolivar interposed between them, and won the battle of Boyaca on August 7, 1819. Three days afterwards he entered Bogota in triumph. A congress met in December, and decided that Venezuela and Nueva Granada should form one republic, to be called Colombia. Morillo departed for Europe in 1820, and the victory gained by Bolivar at Carabobo on June 24. 1821, decided the fate of Colombia. In the following January General Bolivar assembled an army at Popayan to drive the Spaniards out of the province of Quito. His second in command, General Sucre, led an advanced guard, which was reinforced by a contingent of volunteers from Peru, under Santa Cruz. The Spanish General Ramirez was entirely defeated in the battle of Pichincha, and

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Quito was incorporated with the new republic of Colombia. Bolivar entered Quito on June 16, 1822, and obtained permission from the Colombian Congress to proceed to Peru.

Bolivar was forty years of age at this period of his career. Born at Caraccas, of good family, in 1783, he was a true child of that sunny land. Of short stature, his body was thin and meagre. His face was long, with hollow cheeks and livid brown complexion. He was passionately fond of dancing and of lolling in a Spanish hammock, but he never smoked. His character was made up of vanity, profound dissimulation, ambition, and a thirst for power. His temper was fiery and capricious, but he was brave and far-sighted, and capable of long-sustained effort.

After a likeness in Miller's Life of Gen. Miller, vol. ii. Cf. Rafter's Gregor M Gregor (London, 1820).

In July, 1822, the Protector San Martin and the Liberator Bolivar passed three days in secret conference at Guayaquil. On his return to Lima the Protector convoked a national Congress, resigned his office on September 20, 1822, and issued a farewell address to the Peruvian people. “The presence of a fortunate soldier,” he said, “ however disinterested he may be, is! dangerous to a newly founded state. I have proclaimed the independence of Peru. I have ceased to be a public man.” Next day San Martin embarked for Chile, and, crossing the Andes once more, he returned to Europe with his only child, a girl named Mercedes. He lived at Brussels, devoting himself to the education of his daughter, and died at Boulogne, aged seventy-two, in 1850. In 1880 his remains were deposited in the Cathedral at Buenos Ayres, with magnificent funeral rites.

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After the departure of San Martin, a Committee of Government was formed, and an expedition was sent, under General Santa Cruz, to attack the Spaniards in Upper Peru ; but in August, 1823, the patriots were defeated by the Spanish General Valdez, at the battle of Zepita, and the attempt ended in failure. Another disaster quickly followed. The garrison in Callao Castle mutinied, and delivered it up to the Spaniards on March 2, 1824

General Rodil took command there as governor. On September 1, 1823, General Bolivar landed at Callao, and made his public entry into Lima. The Congress named him Dictator, and dissolved itself. In July he commenced his march towards Cerro Pasco with an army

* After a mezzotint (full length) in Miller's Life of Miller (London, 1829), vol. i.

9,000 strong. The Colombian infantry was led by Lara and Cordova, the Argentine by Necochea, and the Peruvians were under Lamar. The Peruvian cavalry was commanded by General Miller, an English officer who had served in the Peninsular War and in the fleet with Lord Cochrane. General Sucre, the hero of Pichincha, was chief of the staff. Great attention had been paid to the transport and commissariat departments, and care was taken that the men received their pay. The royalists in the neighborhood of Cerro Pasco were commanded by General Canterac.

In the afternoon of the 6th of August, 1824, the hostile forces came in sight of each other on the plain of Junin, 12,000 feet above the level of the sea. Ordering his infantry and artillery to retreat, Canterac placed himself at the head of his cavalry and charged. The patriot cavalry was about 900 strong, but Miller had been ordered to flank the enemy's right with two of his Peruvian squadrons. Wheeling to the left, he separated from the rest of his cavalry. But the enemy's right performed a similar evolution; and Miller, being overpowered, .fled for a short distance along the margin of a morass. At this critical moment the first Peruvian squadron, under Colonel Suarez, charged the enemy in his rear, checked the pursuit, and gave Miller time to face about and form again. The Spaniards were then attacked with fresh ardor, and ultimately completely routed, retreating in the utmost confusion. Such was the brilliant cavalry action of Junin; and next day the whole command of the cavalry was entrusted to General Miller.

The army advanced to Guamanga, and General Bolivar returned to the coast, leaving Sucre in command. General La Serna, the last viceroy of Peru, was at the head of 12,000 men, with 24 field-guns, and a wellappointed arsenal at Cuzco. Canterac and Valdez, who commanded divisions, were among the best officers in the Spanish army. La Serna advanced from Cuzco, and spent some months in efforts to out-manæuvre General Sucre. This entailed harassing marches and counter-marches among the mountains, and his troops were nearly worn out when the viceroy occupied the steep heights of Condor-Runka, in sight of the village of Quinua, where the patriots were encamped, at a distance of about ten miles from the city of Guamanga.

The little plain of Ayacucho, u,600 feet above the sea, stretches out at the foot of the Condor-Runka heights, and is flanked by ravines. On December 7, 1824, Sucre established his headquarters at a ruined chapel on the Ayacucho plain. Both armies were in want of provisions, and it was a necessity that they should fight on the following day. The patriots numbered 5,780 men ; the Spaniards, 9,310. The morning of December 9th dawned particularly fine. At 9 A. M. the Spanish divisions began to descend from the heights, forming into column as they reached the plain. At this moment Cordova charged with his Colombian infantry, in four parallel columns. After a sharp struggle the Spaniards lost ground, re. treating back up the steep ascent, and the viceroy was taken prisoner.



Meanwhile Valdez had made a long detour, and threatened the left rear of the patriots. He opened a heavy fire on the Peruvian division of Lamar, which began to give ground. At this decisive moment General Miller led his cavalry against the advancing enemy; by a timely charge he enabled the Peruvians to rally, and the division of Valdez was routed. The victory was complete. The battle of Ayacucho lasted about an hour. Before sun

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After a plan in Torrente's Revolucion Hispano-Americana, vol. iii. Cf. plan in Miller's General Miller, ii

set General Canterac sued for terms, and a capitulation was signed. The viceroy, 12 Spanish generals, 76 colonels, 68 lieutenant-colonels, 484 other officers, and 3,200 privates became prisoners of war. The rest had dispersed. The viceroy and most of the officers received their passports, and returned to Spain. But General Rodil did not surrender Callao Castle until January 19, 1826.

In April, 1825, the Dictator Bolivar made a triumphal progress through the principal cities of Peru, as far as Potosi and Chuquisaca. In August a

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