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general assembly met, and decreed that Upper Peru, which had been a part of the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres since 1777, should be a separate republic, with the name of Bolivia. General Sucre was elected the first president, from 1826 to 1828.

Returning to Lima in 1826, Bolivar had himself proclaimed president for life; but this step made him so unpopular that in September he suddenly set out for Guayaquil, never to return. All the Colombian troops followed him early in the next year. The new Republic of Peru was thus left to

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shape her own destinies. The aristocratic notions of San Martin were not entertained. The “Order of the Sun” and titles of nobility were declared by the Congress to be incompatible with republican institutions, and were abolished, and the law of entail was repealed in 1828. General Lamar was chosen president. He was a native of the province of Quito, and was anxious to annex his native land to Peru. He thus led his adopted country into a disastrous conflict with Colombia, and was rightly banished. On August 31, 1829, General Agustin Gamarra, a Peruvian born at Cuzco, and

* This portrait has been frequently engraved. Cf. Ducoudray Holstein's Simon Bolivar (Boston, 1829); Alex. Walker's Colombia (Londres, 1822), vol. ii.

a hero of Ayacucho, was elected president, and a democratic constitution was adopted

General Bolivar, after a troubled rule of four years as president of Colombia, died in a small house near Santa Martha on December 17, 1830. His remains found a final resting-place in the Cathedral of Caraccas. It was then found that the republic he had formed was of too vast an extent, and contained too many conflicting interests for efficient government. The three republics of Nueva Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador were formed out of the Colombia of Bolivar, in 1830. In 1857 Nueva Granada was changed into the present democratic federation of the United States of Colombia. Venezuela chose Don José Antonio Paez as its first president in 1830. Ecuador, the old Spanish province of Quito, became a separate republic, and framed a constitution in May, 1830; General Flores being

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the first president. In the following month General Sucre, who had been expelled from Bolivia in 1828, was assassinated near Pasto. After his famous victory, Sucre had received the title of Grand Marshal of Ayacucho.

The Republic of Bolivia received an independent existence from Bolivar, owing to the unanimous wish of the people. In Spanish times, as Upper Peru or Charcas, it had always been ruled by its own Audiencia, but without a separate captain-general. Very jealous of foreigners, the people expelled General Sucre after two years, and were afterwards ruled for a long time by General Andres Santa Cruz, descendant of a long line of native chiefs.

In Chile General O'Higgins honorably filled the post of Supreme Di. rector for six years. But the people whose battles he had fought, and

* After a cut in Lady Maria Graham's Journal (London, 1824).

whose freedom he had secured, obliged him to abdicate in 1823. He retired to Peru, where his father had been viceroy, and the Peruvian government presented him with the estate of Montalban, in the valley of Cañete. Here he lived in retirement for twenty years, dying at Lima in 1842. The Chilian Constitution was adopted in 1833, and the natural resources of the country have insured a rapid advance in material prosperity for a republic which was formerly the poorest and least valuable of the Spanish colonies.

It was to Buenos Ayres and the gallant Argentine followers of San Martin that both Chile and Peru owed their independence. The Argentine Republic had been free since 1810, and it had generously made great sacrifices for the general good of South America. After many years of trouble it has at length reaped its just reward, and has entered upon a career of progress and great prosperity. The Banda Oriental del Uruguay, with Montevideo for its capital, after having caused a war between Brazil and Buenos Ayres, became an independent republic on August 27, 1828. Paraguay, the seat of the Jesuit Misiones until 1767, was declared independent in 1811 ; but the little state fell under the despotism of Francia and Lopez for half a century, and suffered from a desultory war with Brazil until 1870; so that its free life has existed for barely twenty years.

Brazil became independent almost contemporaneously with the Spanish colonies. When the Portuguese court returned to Lisbon in 1821, a congress at Rio chose Dom Pedro, the eldest son of King Joam VI, as their “ Perpetual Protector” on May 1, 1822, and the independence of Brazil was proclaimed on the 7th of the following September. Pedro I was chosen Constitutional Emperor in October of the same year, and the Constitution was adopted on the 25th of March, 1824. The first emperor, in April, 1831, abdicated in favor of his son, Pedro II, who still reigns.

The Spanish colonies commenced their independent careers under every possible disadvantage. All important posts, both in church and state, had almost invariably been given to Spaniards. Out of 672 viceroys, captainsgeneral, and governors who had ruled in America since its discovery, only 18 had been Americans; and there had been 105 native bishops out of a total of 706. The same system of exclusion existed in the appointments of the presidents and judges of the Audiencias. This injustice not only gave rise to bitter complaints, but it was permanently injurious to the colonists, because it deprived them of a trained governing class when the need arose. Their exclusion from intercourse with the rest of the world had been still more injurious, and had thrown them back both as regards material prosperity and educational facilities. Without these drawbacks, the natural obstacles caused by vast deserts, stupendous mountain chains, areas of dense forest, and earthquakes were exceptional impediments in the way of good government and of advances in civilization. Thus the South Americans began under extraordinary disadvantages, and had a task before them of unusual difficulty. It is, therefore, fair that these circumstances should receive their due weight in considering the shortcomings of the infant republics. In spite of much that must be deplored, they have all made advances in civilization, and can all, in different degrees, lay claim to having achieved a share of success. Every nation has, in its beginning, a rough ordeal to undergo. The South American republics have now passed through that ordeal. They have much to regret, but they also have not a little of which to be proud. The talent and great natural abilities of the youth of South America cannot be denied. In after life these qualities have borne rich fruit in numerous instances. In politics, in literature, in science, and in arms, the South American republics have given birth to worthies of whom any nation in the world would be justly proud. A critical study of their history cannot fail to produce the conviction that most of what is evil and worthy of condemnation has been the result of causes which are transient and exceptional, while there remains a residuum of solid worth which justifies reasonable hope for the future.


THE 'HE material for the history of South America, during the colonial period, is very

abundant and complete ; although a large proportion is still inedited and in manuscript. It was the custom of the viceroy's of Peru, at the conclusion of their terms of office, to prepare a detailed memoir reviewing their administration in the different departments, for the information of their successors. Nearly all these important state papers have been preserved. Ten of them ? have been edited at Lima by Don Manuel Fuentes, and published in six volumes — llemorias de los Vireyes. Several others are among the Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum; and the whole series furnishes a complete

i [The bibliography of South American his- reproductions in Prevost and in the Allg. Hist. tory has not as a whole been sufficiently well der Reisen; the popular English one in R. Rolt's done. The works of Beristain de Souza and of New and Accurate list. of South America (LonDiego Barras Arana are elsewhere referred to don, 1756); and for Dutch readers that of Isaak (ante, I. pp. ii, vi), and there are some later rec- Tirion in the Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, ords, like Trübner's Bibliotheca Hispano-Ameri- 1767). – Ed.] cana (London, 1870, 1879); B. Vicuña Macken. ? Namely, those of the Marquis of Montes na's Estudios i catálogo de la biblioteca Americana Claros, 1607-1615, the Prince of Squillace (or coleccionada por el Sr. Gregorio Bréche (Valpa: Esquilache), 1615-21, the Conde de Castellar, raiso, 1879), and sections in more general trea- 1674-1678, Archbishop Liñan y Cisneros, 1678, tises on Americana, like those of Leclerc and the Duke of La Palata, 1678-1680, the Marquis the rest. Mr. Paul Leicester Ford has recorded of Castelfuerte, 1724-1736, the Count of Suwhat he could find of such general South Amer- perunda, 1745-1761, Don Manuel Amat, 1761ican bibliographies, with an enumeration of sub- 1776, Don Teodoro de Croix, 1784-1790, and ordinate lists by geographical divisions of the Don Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos, 1790– continent, in The Library Journal, August, 1888. 1796. Of these the memoirs of the Prince of The maps of South America in general for the Esquilache, the Duke of La Palata, Don Manuel seventeenth century are enumerated in Uri- Amat (copy made by Sir Woodbine Parish at coechea, p. 89, etc.; and those in MS. in the Buenos Ayres), and Don Francisco Gil de British Museum are noted in Calvo's Recueil des Taboada y Lemos, are also among the AddiTraités (x. 324, etc.). The typical published tional Manuscripts in the British Museum. maps are those in Dampier's New Voyage 3 [The full title of the work is Memorias de round the World (1703); in Ulloa's Voyage with los Vireyes que han gobernado el Perú, durante official history of the rule of the viceroys of Peru. They are all valuable, although of course some are more useful and complete than others. Details respecting the working of mines, the statistics of agriculture and commerce, financial administration, the condition of the people, the fortifications, and naval and military strength of the colonies, will be found scattered through these memoirs; and in some there are full accounts of exploring expeditions in the eastern forests. Biographical notices of the viceroys, some in considerable detail, are given by General Mendibara, in his Historico-Biographical Dictionary of Peru.?

Original documents have also been preserved relating to the treatment of the Indians, the ordinances regulating their obligations to labor, and the rules for their protection ; and others denouncing the habitual evasion of these laws. The most important of these documents is the report on the injustice suffered by the Indians, dated July 20, 1657, by Don Juan de Padilla, which was ordered to be published by the viceroy in 1660. There is also a report by Diego de Luna, protector-general of the Indians, dated February, 1630, which proposes the abolition of the Mitta. The former is among the Papeles Varios at Lima, the latter among the series of acquisitions, called Additional Manuscripts, in the British Museum.

Among the Spanish manuscripts in the British Museum, of which there is an excellent catalogue,s will be found numerous documents respecting the Indians, the disputes at the silver mines, the commerce, and the topography of the country.

The detailed topographical descriptions of the provinces of Peru, by Dr. Cosme Bueno, appeared in the Calendario de Lima (1763, etc.), an annual publication extending over seventeen years. Full reports of the expeditions to explore the courses of rivers in the valley of the Amazon, by Franciscan missionaries from the convent of Ocopa, beginning in 1787, were written by Fathers Sobreviela and Girbal, and others. Some were printed in the Mercurio Peruano, others as appendices to the Memoirs of Viceroys.

Dr. Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo, of Lima, was the most prolific Peruvian writer during the last century. His Lima Fundada is an epic poem, giving a narrative of the conquest, with notices of successive viceroys and their acts, down to the author's time.

el tiempo del Coloniaje Español (Lima, 1859), in Proclamation de la independencia, 1821-27 (Lima, six folio volumes. There is a supplemental 1876), vol. i. The bibliography of Peru is best work, Relaciones de los Vireyes y Audiencias que covered in M. P. and M. F. Soldari's Geografia han gobernado el Perú (Lima, 1867). – Ed.] del Peru (Paris, 1862), vol. i. p. 715, and the

1 Besides the ten published memoirs, the fol- Bibliotheca Peruviana (London, 1873). The lowing are among the Additional Manuscripts earlier history of the northwestern parts of in the British Museum : viz., the Memoirs of South America is covered in Alcedo y Herrera's the Marquis of Guadalcazar, 1622–1629, of the Aviso histórico, politico, geographico, con las Count of Alba de Liste, 1655-1661, of the noticias del Perú, Tierra-Firme, Chile y Nuevo "Audiencia " after the death of the Count of Regno de Grenada, desde el año 1535 hasta el de Monclova, 1705, correspondence of the Count of 1740 (Madrid, 1740 ?). Superunda, 1745-61, Memoir of Don Manuel The distinct cartography of Peru and Chile Guirior, correspondence of Don Agustin Jau- from De Bry and Wytfliet is recorded in Uricoerequi, correspondence of the Marquis of Osor- chea's Mapoteca Colombiana, with such records no with Don Manuel Godoy, Prince of Peace, of the voyagers as Olivier du Nort (Amsterdam, 1796–1801, Reports of the Marquis of Aviles, 1602), and for the last century we find the gen1801-1806, and of Don José F. Abascal, 1806- eral collections, like Prévost (vol. xiii., or Allg. 1816.

Hist. der Reisen, xv.), giving the ordinary 2 Lima, Primera Parte (6 vols.), 1874-1885. views. — Ed.]

[The most comprehensive of the considerable 3 By Guyangos, Spanish MS.S. in the British native histories of Peru, covering the period now Museum. Calvo (Recueil des Traités, x. 317) under notice, is the consecutive work of Sebas- gives a list of those relating to South America, tian Lorente, whose successive volumes are as and also (x. 296, etc.) a similar list of those in follows: Historia del Perú, bajo la dinastia the Royal Academy of History at Madrid. Austriaca, 1598-1700 (Poissy, 1863; Paris, 1870); 4 [Lima fundada, o conquista del Perú. Poema Historia del Perú bajo los Borbones, 1700-1821 heroico en que se decanta toda la historia del (Lima, 1871); and Historia del Perú desde la descubrimiento y sugecion de sus provincias por

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