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The scientific mission of the brothers Ulloa, in addition to their well-known book of travels, resulted in the preparation of an elaborate report on the government of the Spanish colonies, their naval and military strength, and on the cruel oppression and extortion suffered by the aborigines at the hands of the corregidores and priests. It was published at London in 1826, in a folio volume entitled Noticias Secretas de América 1an important collection.

The great earthquake of 1746, which destroyed Lima and Callao, was described in a brief narrative published at Lima in the same year. The English version of this narrative is badly translated and of no value. 8

The materials for a history of the revolt of Tupac Amaru are very complete. An interesting account of the insurrection of the Inca, and of that of Catari in Upper Peru, will be found in the Ensayo de la historia civil del Paraguay, Buenos Ayres y Tucuman (Buenos Ayres, 1816-17, in three volumes; second ed., 1856, in two volumes), by Dr. Don Gregorio Fuñes, the dean of Cordova. A large collection of original documents, including edicts, proclamations, despatches, narratives, and news-letters, was printed by Don Pedro de Angelis at Buenos Ayres in 1836. These materials enable the student to follow the course of events, and to form a judgment of the principal actors and of their motives.* The result of such an investigation will be a feeling of warm sympathy for the Inca and his people, and of indignation at the injustice and cruelty of the Spanish officials. The work of Angelis is the main source of information respecting this critical period of Peruvian history. But it is by no means exhaustive. There are several other documents, including narratives and the edicts of the Inca, among the Additional Manuscripts in the British Museum. The letter from Tupac Amaru to the Judge Areche, and the sentence of death pronounced by the judge, are printed in an appendix to the Spanish edition of the Memoirs of General Miller. The diary of a Spanish governor of La Paz during the siege of that city by the Indians was published in Temple's Travels in Peru. The late General Miller received a large collection of original manuscripts from a Father of the Franciscan Convent of Santiago de Chile, and he collected numerous personal reminiscences of the insurrection when he was at Cuzco in 1833.7

The history of the later rebellion of Pumacagua at Cuzco is also contained in a series of official documents preserved in a volume in the public library at Lima. These include

Don Francisco Pizarro. Y se contine [sic] la ital of Peru, and the neighboring port of Callao, reine de los Reyes, la historia de los Virreyes y on the 28th of October, 1746 (London, 1748). Arzobispos, que ha tenido ; y la memoria de los [This is accredited to Stephen Hales, but Rich Santos, y varones ilustres, que la ciudad y regno assigns it to Henry Johnson. A French transhan producido (Lima, 1732), in two quarto lation from it, with additions, was published volumes. It was reprinted at Lima in 1863, as at La Haye, 1752.

A Portuguese version of the first volume of a Coleccion de documentos the original Spanish appeared at Lisbon in literarios del Perú, edited by Manuel de Odrio- 1748. A compiled account appeared in True zola, the director of the library at Lima. — Ed.] and particular Hist. of Earthquakes (London,

1 [Noticias secretas de América sobre el estado 1748). – ED.) naval, militar i politico de los Reinos del Perú, i 4 Cf. also the Documentos históricos del Peru, provincias de Quito, costa de Nueva Grenada i mentioned ante, Vol. II. p. 576. The first volChile, sacadas a luz por Don David Barry (Lon. ume of this collection covers the Tupac Amaru don, 1826). An abridged English version " by rebellion (Lima, 1863). an American "

was published at Boston in 1851. 6 Coleccion de obras y documentos relativos a - Ed.]

la historia antiqua ja moderna de las provincias ? Individual y verdadera relacion de la ex- de Rio de la Plata, ilustrados con notas y diser. trema ruina que padecio la ciudad de los Reyes de taciones, por Pedro de Angelis (Buenos Ayres, Lima con el horrible temblor de tierra acaecido 1836–37, tom. v. pp. 109–286). This work emen ella, la noche de 28 de Oct., 1746, y la total braces six volumes. The contents are given in asolacion del presidio y puerto del Callao (Lima, Leclerc, Bibl. Amer., no. 2646. 1746; Mexico, 1747, 4to, pp. 20). Arana (Notas, Temple's Travels in Peru, ii. pp. 103-178. No. 276) says it was written by Pedro Lozano. 7 [Leclerc, Bibl. Amer., no. 1789, notes an in.

3 True and particular relation of the dread- complete MS. history of this insurrection by ful earthquake which happen'd at Lima, the cap- José Martinez de Oz (1783). – ED.)

6

a diary of the movements of the army under the Spanish General Ramirez (which was also printed), the proclamation of Angulo at Cuzco, a letter of Pumacagua to General Ramirez, the reply of Ramirez, and the statement of Pumacagua before his execution. Another report on the history and causes of the insurrection of Pumacagua, by Manuel Pardo, is printed in the appendix to the 6th volume of the Biographical Dictionary of Mendibara, who also gives a life of Pumacagua.

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From the Spanish translation of his Historia del Regno de Chile (Madrid, 1795), vol. ii.

The early movements towards independence in Peru, including the teachings of advanced liberals, the social gatherings of patriots, and other efforts to secure freedom of speech and of the press, especially in Lima, were long without a 'historian. But that accomplished Chilian writer, the late Don Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna, collected a mass of materials, and wrote a very interesting history of events preceding the independence of Peru, including the campaigns of Goyeneche and Pezuela in Upper Peru ; 1 and the abortive attempts at insurrection in Lima itself, and in several provinces. His work is supplemented by Mitre's Life of General Belgrano, which was published at Buenos Ayres.3

But the first cries for independence were raised at a distance from Lima, where the power of Spain was not so great. The author of the Lettre aux Espagnols Americains, which embodied the feelings of his compatriots, had to become a fugitive from South America, and died in London in 1798.5 He wrote at the suggestion of General Miranda, who was himself one of the earliest and one of the most unfortunate of the soldiers of freedom. His life was written by an Englishman. There are several memoirs of Simon Bolivar, the Liberator of Colombia, the best known being by his aide-de-camp, Colonel Holstein.?

Materials for the colonial history of Colombia will be found in the history of the discovery and conquest of Nueva Granada by Colonel Acosta, 8 and in the volume containing the Memoirs of its Viceroys, edited by Garcia y Garcia.9

The volumes of Fuñes and Angelis contain the colonial history of Buenos Ayres, which is philosophically treated in the admirable works of Dr. Vicente F. Lopez 10 and Don Luis Dominguez.11 The former president, Mitre, has written a life of General Belgrano,12 and there are biographical sketches of San Martin by Gutierrez 18 and others.

1 [Cf. Manuel Maria Urcullu's Apuntes para la John H. Sherman's General Acc. of Miranda's historia de la revolucion del Alto Perú, hoi Bo Expedition (N. Y., 1808), and Moses Smith's livia, por un patriota (Sucre, 1855). — Ed.] Adventures and Sufferings during the Miranda

2 La Historia de la Independencia del Perú, Expedition (Albany, 1814). — Ev.] 1809-1819, por Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna ? [Mémoires de S. Bolivar, par Ducoudray (Lima, 1860). [An excellent collection of doc- Holstein (1829; Eng. tr., Boston, 1829; London, uments on the Peruvian struggle for indepen- 1830). Cf. notice by Caleb Cushing in North dence was made by Hipólito Herrera, and pub- Amer. Review, Jan., 1829; and other references lished at Lima in 1862, as El Album de Ayacu- in Poole's Index, i. 147. The work of another cho. Coleccion de los principales documentos de member of Bolivar's military family, Tomas C. la guerra de la independencia del Perú. Cf. de Mosquera, Memorias sobre la vida del libertaMariano Felipe Paz Soldan's Historia del Perú dor Simon Bolivar (N. Y., 1853), is of less conindependiente (Lima, 1868, 1870, etc.); and the sequence. There is an incomplete Life of BoliMemoria histórica sobre las operacionas e inciden- var, by Felipe Larrazabal (N. Y., 1866; vol. i. cias de la division libertadora a las órdenes del only). Capt. W. T. Adams's Journal of Voyages jeneral Don Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales to Marguaritta (Dublin, 1824) describes several en su segunda compaña a la sierra del Perú en interviews with Bolivar. — Ed.] 1821 (Buenos Aires, 1832). — Ed.]

8 See ante, II. 582. 3 [Bartolomé Mitre's Historia de Belgrano y 9 Relaciones de los vireyes del nuevo reino de de la independencia Argentina (Buenos Ayres, Granada, etc., compiladas i publicadas por el Dr. 1859; cuarta y definitiva edición corregida y Don José Antonio Garcia y Garcia (New York, aumentada, 1887). Cf. also Mitre's Estudios 1869). históricos sobre la revolucion arjentina : Belgrano There is a map of the viceroyalty of New y Güemes (Buenos Ayres, 1864).— ED.)

Granada of the Revolutionary period (1812) in 4 [One of the latest accounts of Spanish Kerr's Voyages (vol. v. p. i). power before its fall is in François Depon's Voy- 10 Historia de la Republica Argentina, su oriage à la partie orientale de la tierre firme (Paris, gen, su revolucion, y su desarrollo politico; por 1806). Washington Irving is said to have as- Vicente F. Lopez (Buenos Ayres, 1883). sisted in the English translation (N. Y., 1806; 11 Historia Argentina por Luis Dominguez London, 1807). — Ed.]

(Buenos Ayres, 4th ed., 1870). 5 Lettre aux Espagnols Americains par un 12 Historia de Belgrano por Bartolomé Mitre de leur Compatriotes (Philadelphia, 1808), 8vo, (Buenos Ayres, 4th ed., 1887). pp. 42. There is a translation in Burke's Addi- 13 Bosquejo Biografico del General Don José tional Reasons (ed. 1807).

de San Martin, por Juan Maria Gutierrez (Bue6 History of Don F. Miranda's attempt to nos Ayres, 1868). (Juan Garcia del Rio, a seceffect a revolution in So. America, with a life of retary of San Martin while in Peru, is the auMiranda by James Brigg's (London, 1809; Bos- thor of a condensed memoir, Biografia del jerton, 1808, 1810, 1811). [Cf. J. M. Antepara's eral San Martin, por Ricardo Gual i Jaen (LonSouth American Emancipation (London, 1810), don, 1823). Cf. B. V. Mackenna's El jeneral The early history of Chile is contained in the well-known works of Ovalle 1 and Molina, and in the monumental volumes of Claudio Gaye. The war of Chilian independence has found a historian in Don Diego Barros Arana ; 4 while several episodes of that stirring period, such as the life of General O'Higgins, the ostracism of the brothers Car

Don José de San Martin (Santiago, 1863). Ignacio Victor Eyzaguirre's Histoire ecclésiasThere appeared in Paris, in 1858, as by “ Pruvo. tique, politique, et littéraire du Chili, as transnena," a work thought to be the labor of José de lated by L. Poillon (Lille, 1855), in 3 volumes. la Riva Agüero, which excited the animadver- B. Menendez's Manual de historia y cronologia sions of the South Americans, because of its de Chile (Paris, 1860). The studies of José V. attacks on San Martin and Bolivar.

It was Lastarria in his Miscelanea (Valparaiso), and called Memorias i documentos para la historia de parts of his Historia Constitucional del medio la independencia del Perú i causas del mal éxito sigio 1800-1825 (Gante, 1866). But the most que ha tenido ésta. (Cf. Arana's Notas, no. 341.) considerable is the Historia jeneral de Chili of - ED.)

Diego Barros Arana (Santiago, 1884, etc.), in 1 [Cf. ante, Vol. I. p. 576. The history by eight volumes. Of the Historiadores de Chile, Cordova y Figueroa, coming down to 1717, has coleccion de documentos relativos a la historia already been mentioned. Cf. ante, II. 573. – nacional (Santiago, 1861, etc.), eleven volumes ED.)

had been published up to 1879. Cf. Biblioteca 2 (Juan Ignacio Molina (b. 1740; d. 1824) Beéche, pp. 547-8. A leading record of the last was a Chilian Jesuit, who, after his expulsion period of Chilian history which comes within with his order, went to Bologna, and applied the scope of the present chapter is B. V. Machimself to writing his Saggio sulla storia natu- kenna's Don Diego Portales, con mas de 500 dorale del Chili (Bologna, 1782) and his Saggio cumentos inéditos (Valparaiso, 1863). For the sulla storia civile del Chili (Bologna, 1787), the bibliography of Chile the essential help is got last containing a list of writers on Chile (pp. from Ramon Briseño's Estadística bibliográfica 324-328). An augmented edition of the first de la literatura Chilena (Santiago, 1862, 1879), in book, Lo Stesso Libro, appeared at Bologna, two volumes. — Ed.] 1810. On publishing his second part, Storia 4 Diego Barros Arana's Historia jeneral de la Civile, Molina says that he had got on very independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1854-58; Paris, well with printed books and the Abbé Olivares' 1856), in four volumes, is considered the best MSS. down to 1665; but after that period he narrative for the period 1810-1820. [An aug. had to depend on the personal recollections of mented second edition of the first volume was others and on such works as he could procure. published in 1863. The period of Chilian indeThere is a Spanish version, Compendio de la his- pendence can be further studied in the following toria geografica, natural y civil del reyno de Chile, books: M. L. Amunátegui's Los precursores de escrito in Italiano. Primera parte traducida la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870). Melen Español por Domingo Joseph de Arquellada choir Martinez's Memoria histórica, sobre la revioMendoza (Segunda parte por Nicolas de la Cruz lucion de Chile, desde el cautiverio de Fernando y Bahamonde] (Madrid, 1787, 1795); a German, VII. hasta 1814, escrita de orden del Rei (Valpaby J. D. Brandis (Leipzig, 1786); a French, by raiso, 1848) is a documentary collection of imGruvel (Paris, 1789); and an English one, made portance for the early stages of the revolution. in part by Richard Alsop and in part by Wm. Miguel Luis Amunátegui's La reconquista EsShaler, appropriating notes from the Spanish pañola, apuntes para la historia de Chile, 1814 i and French translations (Middletown, Conn., 1817 (Santiago, 1851). José de Ballesteros's 1808). This English version, somewhat remod- Revista de la guerra de la independencia de Chile, elled, was reprinted in London, 1809.

1813-1826 (Santiago, 1851), has a good reputaIt seems to be uncertain whether an earlier tion. Cf. Journal of a residence in Chili by a book, Compendio della storia del regno del Chile young American [J. F. Coffin) during the revolu(Bologna, 1776), was the work of Molina or of tionary scenes of 1817-19 (Boston, 1823). Père Vidaurre. Cf. Notas para una bibliografia Lady Maria Dundas Graham, in her Journal de obras anonimas y seudonimas, por Diego Bar of a residence in Chile, 1822 (London, 1824), says ros Arana (Santiago, 1882), no. 106. — Ed.] that the patriots, after Rancagua, burnt all public

(Historia fisica y politica de Chile, segun papers to prevent their falling into the hands of documentos adquiridos en esta republica durante the Spaniards, so that up to 1817 there are no doze años de residencia en ella, y publicada bajo such records in Chile, and nothing was printed los auspicios del supremo Gobierno, HISTORIA till the middle of 1818. She recounts in her (Paris, 1854) in eight vols. ; DOCUMENTOS (Pa. introduction what she could learn from O'Higris, 1852) in two volumes. There is an accom- gins and others. Later documents are given in panying atlas of maps and plates in folio. There her appendix. are later histories of some importance : José Other documentary sources are noted in B. V.

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rera, and Revelaciones Intimas of General San Martin, are due to the pen of that most prolific Chilian author, Vicuña Mackenna. A short life of General O'Higgins, approved by his family, was published at Lima. An elaborate life has also appeared.?

The history of the achievements of that feet, commanded and officered by Englishmen, which conveyed General San Martin and his army to Peru, was written by its commander. Lord Cochrane (then Earl of Dundonald) wrote a narrative of his South American services, and after his death a biography was published by his son, the present Earl, and Mr. H. Fox Bourne. But the most interesting story of the war of independence in Chile and Peru has been told from the letters and papers of General Miller,5 who participated in all the operations from the passage of the Andes to Ayacucho, both by sea and land. These events, from the Spanish point of view, were narrated by Terragas, and by General Garcia Camba, who criticised the story as told by Miller.

Colonel Vicente de Ballivian has published DIEGO BARROS ARANA.*

a series of official documents relating to the

history of Bolivia during the colonial period, including some curious annals of the city of Potosi.? He added a valuable bibliography.

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Mackenna's La Guerra a muerte : Memoria so- of Dundonald, by Thomas, urth Earl of Dunbre las ultimas campañas de la independencia de donald, and H. Fox Bourne (8vo, London, 2 Chile, 1819 a 1824, escrita sobre documentos ente- vols., 1869). ramente inéditos (Santiago, 1868). — Ed.]

5 Memoirs of General Aliller, in the service of 1 [El ostracismo de los Carreras, los jenerales the Republic of Peru, by John Miller (London, José Miguel i Juan José i el coronel Luis Carre- 2d ed., enlarged, 1829). [With an appendix of ra; episodio de la independencia de Sud America documents. The author used General Miller's (Santiago, 1857). It has a map. – ED] papers, which show his participancy for ten

2 La corona del Héroe : Recopilacion de datos years in the conflicts in La Plata, Chile, and documentos para perpetuar la memoria del je- Peru. There is a Spanish translation by Gen. neral Don Bernardo O'Higgins, con una introd. J. M. de Torrijos, whose preface is translated por Don Benj. Vicuña Mackenna (Santiago, in the 2d English edition. J. P. and W. P. Rob1872). B. V. Mackenna's El ostracismo del jene- ertson in their Letters from South America (Lonral Don Bernardo O'Higgins, escrite sobre docu- don, 1843), go over a good deal of Miller's mentos inéditos i noticias autenticas (Valparaiso,

— Ed.] 1860). Miguel Luis Amunátegui's La Dictadura 6 Camba's Memorias para la historia de las de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1853).

armas Españolas en el Peri (Madrid, 1846). 3 Narrative of services in the liberation of 7 Archivio Boliviano. Coleccion de documentos Chili, Peru, and Brazil, by the Earl of Dundon- relativos a la Historia de Bolivia publicados por ald (London, 2 vols., 1859), – translated into Vicente de Ballivian y Roxas (Paris, 1872). Spanish under Cochrane's direction (London, [Add to this : Ramon Sotomayor Valdes's Es1859), and annotated by Manuel Bilboa, printed tudio histórico de Bolivia bajo la administracion at Lima in 1863. Ignacio Zenteno published in del jeneral don José Maria Achá, con una introducrefutation Documentos justificativos sobre la es- cion que contiene el compendio de la guerra de la pedicion libertadora del Perú. (Santiago, 1861). independencia i de los gobiernos de dicha Repu. 4 Life of Thomas Lord Cochrane, roth Earl blica hasta 1861 (Santiago de Chile, 1874). — Ed.]

• After a likeness prefixed to his Historia Jeneral de Chile (Santiago, 1884).

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