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VERY excellent bibliography of the history being such that Southey had apparently not

and geography of Brazil has been prepared heard of it. Ternaux looked upon it as one of under the supervision of Dr. B. F. Ramiz Galvão, the most remarkable treatises upon the New with a supplement by João de Saldanha de Gama, World produced in the sixteenth century. An which was published in two handsome volumes abridgment of it, called Tratado da Terra do at Rio de Janeiro in 1881, as Catalogo da Expo Brazıl, was published in 1576, and is reprinted sição de Historia do Brazil realizada pela Biblio- in the Noticias das Nacãos ultramarinhas (vol. theca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. It is conveni- iv. no. 4). The Tratado descriptivo do Brazil em ently arranged by general topics and geographi- 1587, of Gabriel Soares de Souza, was annotated cal divisions. A section on the maps is given in and published by Varnhagen at Rio de Janeiro, in vol. i. p. 128; and on the bibliographies in vol. 1851. (Catalogo de Historia do Brazil, Bibliotheca ii. p. 1100. It supersedes all other lists of Bra- Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, no. 10.) Purchas, ziliana, though Trübner's Bibliotheca Brazilica, in 1625, in his Pilgrimes, printed in English an 1500-1879, London, 1879 (1000 entries) deserves account of Brazil which he assigned to Manoel notice.

Tristão; but the original Portuguese Do PrinciThe oldest description of Brazil is that which pio e origem dos Indios do Brasil, was printed at makes part of the text of Beneventanus in the Rio de Janeiro in 1881, and its editor, J. C. de Roman Ptolemy of 1508. The earliest compre- Abreu, assigns its authership, apparently with hensive account of the region now known as Bra- good reason, to Fernão Cardim, a Jesuit. (Cf. zil, is found in a book which is scarcely familiar Catalogo de Historia do Brasil, Bibliotheca Nato scholars in its original shape, but three or four cional do Rio de Janeiro, no. 12.) copies being known. There is a copy, however, The oldest general account which Southey in the Carter-Brown Library (Catalogue, i. 307). quotes is Sebastian da Rocha Pitta's Historia da Rich priced it in his day at £4 4s. This is America Portugueza, printed at Lisbon in 1730, Magalhaēs de Gandavo's Historia da Provincia which he speaks of as a valuable antecedent work de Sācta Cruz a qui vulgarmēte chamamos Brazil, to his own, simply because there was no other. which appeared at Lisbon in 1576. There was a (Carter-Brown, iii. 460.) A second edition appreliminary issue of its first book in 1570 (?). peared at Lisbon in 1880. Southey's own History (Catalogo de Historia do Brazil: Bibliotheca Na- of Brazil appeared in three volumes between cional do Rio de Janeiro, nos. 5-6). A French 1810 and 1819,- a book which Southey himself version was included by Ternaux-Compans in his thought well of, which interested Scott, but Voyages published in Paris (vol. ii.) 1837. Field which all have not found readable. Varnhagen (Indian Bibliography, no. 998) speaks of the book says that Southey's work is rather “ Mémoires as giving the earliest account which we have of pour écrire l'histoire de Brésil.” A Portuguese the Brazilian natives. The Grenville Catalogue, version of Southey, made by Dr. Luiz Joaquim in describing a copy of Magalhačs, points out de Oliviera e Castro, and annotated by Dr. Ferhow the Portuguese bibliographies speak of its nandes Pinheiro, was published at Rio de Jacurious and erudite character, and of its rarity neiro in 1862.

1 In 1550, fifty Indians from Brazil exhibited their war dances and combats before Catherine de Médicis at Rouen ; and an account of the ceremony, published at Rouen the next year, was reprinted at Paris in 1850: Ferdinand Denis' Une Fête Brésilienne célébrée a Rouen en 1550, suivie d'un fragment du XVIe siècle roulant sur la théogonie des anciens peuples du Brésil et des poésies en langue tupique de Christovam Valente, Paris, 1850. (Cf. Sabin, v. p. 343 : Gaffarel, Brésil Français, p. 130.) Gabriel Gravier printed in the Bulletin de la Société Normande de Géographie, in 1880-81, some papers which were published separately at Paris in 1881, as Etude sur le Sauvage du Brésil (63 pp.). Varnhagen treats of the relations of the first colonists of Brazil with the natives, in bis Historia do Brazil, 1877, sec. xiii. C. R. Markham, in his compilation on Expertitions into the Valley of the Amazons (Hakluyt Society, 1859), has given an annotated list of the tribes of the great valley, drawn from the sources which he enumerates. Richard F. Burton, in his Introduction on the Indians of Brazil, prefixed to his volume of Hans Stade, published by the Hakluyt Society, says that Varnhagen was the earliest to solve the ethnological confusion which pervades the earlier writers, upon whom Southey had depended Burton (p. lxxvi.) enumerates the principal sources of the sixteenth century. Cf. Cat. Hist. Brazil, Bibl. Nac., ii. p. 997.

“ Exa

John Armitage's Hist. of Brazil, 1808-1831 country's history, and among his writings may (London, 1836), is a continuation of Southey, be named his Corographica historica (Rio, 1858– and it was translated into Portuguese (Rio, 63), an encyclopedic work in five volumes; his 1837). There are less important English histo- Brazil historico (Rio, 1866–67), with its mass of ries by Andrew Grant (London, 1809), and by iginal documents on the iscovery and settleJames Henderson (London, 1821). A consider- ment; his Historia do Brazil (Rio, 1871-73), in able portion of Robert Grant Watson's Spanish two volumes; and his Cronica geral e minuciosa and Portuguese South America during the colo do Imperio do Brazil desde a descoberta do Novo nial period (London, 1884) is given to tracing Mondo até o anno de 1879 (Rio, 1879). the progress of Brazil down to the early part of The most valuable source for the history of this century.

Brazil among its periodicals is the Revista Tri. The most considerable study of the early mensal de historia e geographia ou Jornal do In. French connection with the country is found in stituto Historici Geographico Brazilerro, begun in Paul Gaffarel's Histoire du Brésil Français, 1878, 1839. in regard to which Gravier published an

The Catalogo de Historia do Brazil, above remen Critique” in the Bulletin de la Société de ferred to, is conveniently subdivided, so that the Géographie de Paris, November, 1878. Joseph student readily discerns the extent of the docuFrançois Lafitau gave a French view of the Portu- mentary sources (i. 475, and also under minor guese relations in his Histoire des Découvertes et heads); the material for the history of the sepConquêtes des Portuguais dans le Nouveau Monde arate provinces (i. 463); the maps tracing dis(Paris, 1733, 1734, 1736), in four volumes. The coveries (i. 128; Supplemento, 1628) or el'icidatearliest French specific historical narrative is ing military campaigns (i. 969); histories of camAlphonse de Beauchamp's Histoire du Brésil, paigns, battles, sieges, etc. (i. 923); early voy1500-1810 (Paris, 1815), of which there are Por- ages (i 79), etc. The best bibliography of the tuguese translations (Lisbon, 1817, 1834 ; Rio, Dutch West India Company and its connection 1818, 1819). Later works are Charles Reybaud's with Brazilian history is to be found in G. M. Le Colonisation de Brésil : Documents officiels Asher’s Bibliog. and Hist. Essay on the Dutch (Paris, 1858) and Baron Edouard de Septen- books and pamphlets relating to New Netherland ville's Brésil sous la domination portuguaise (Pa- and to the Dutch West India Company (Amster. ris, 1872).

dam, 1854-67).1 Among the Portuguese writers the earlier periods are examined by Varnhagen, a writer par. So far as the history of Brazil is connected V ticularly competent, in his Historia geral do Bra with the explorations that finally defined its coast zil, 1854; his conclusions, however, are in some line, the subject is treated in another section of respects questioned by D'Avezac in his Considé- the present volume, on the “Historical Chorogrations géographiques sur l'histoire du Brésil, pub- raphy of South America.” ? lished originally in the Bulletin de la Société de It was not till after 1530 that the settlements Géographie de Paris, May and June, 1857. In took shape and captaincies began to be created the same periodical, March and April, 1858, along the coast, and Rio de Janeiro, San Vicent, Varnhagen defended his views in a paper, which Porto Seguro, Bahia, Pernambuco, Maranham, was also published separately as Examen de quel- and other designations of these divisionary reques points de l'histoire géographique du Brésil. gions begin to appear in the accounts of the counUnder his title as Visconde de Porto Seguro, he try; and at last, in 1549, De Sousa, with his published his Historia geral do Brazil antes da seat at Bahia, was made governor-general over sua separação e independencia de Portugal in a all. It was he who introduced Nobrega and his second edition (2 vols.) at Rio de Janeiro, 1877. Jesuits, and it is from the letters of this order See an enumeration of the modern histories of that we get some of our best historical material, Brazil in Catalogo de Historia do Brazil, Biblio- as contained in the Avisi particolari delle Indie theca Nacional, p. 455, and Supplement, p. 1649. di Portugallo (Roma, 1552), and the Novi Avisi The best known of the Portuguese are those of (1553).* We derive also considerable help from Francisco Solano Constancio (Paris, 1839), Gen- the descriptions of Hans Stade (1547–55), elseeral J. I. de Abreu Lima (Rio, 1848), and José where referred to; as well from the contributions Pedro Xavier Pinheiro (Bahia, 1854). A. J. de of Thevet and Lery to the story of Villagagnon's Mello Moraes has been a prolific writer on his company at Rio de Janeiro, till the Portuguese 1 Cf. ante, IV. 498.

2 See a later page. 3 Bahia remained the capital till 1763. For plans of San Salvador (Bahia), see one of 1625 in Varnhagen's Hist, do Brazil (1877); the “ Baya de Todos os Sanctos," with the city, in De Laet's West Ind. Comp. (1644), and a view; another view in Frezier’s Relation du Voyage (1717); and those in Prévost (xiv.) and the Allg. Hist. der Reisen, xvi.

4 Cf. also Copia de unas Cartas de algunos padres de la Comp. de Jesus que escriuieron de la India, Japon, y Brasil (Lisbon, 1555), – Leclerc, no. 2723.

finally acquired permanent possession of the place long war with the Dutch, who through the agency in 1567, and named it San Sebastian. In 1570 of the West India Company were determined to the Portuguese captaincies were generally flour- establish themselves on the coast at as many ishing. The French were trading at Paraiba points as possible. The first movement of the with a view to getting a foothold on that part of invaders was to attack (1623) San Salvador or the coast, and with their usual skill they got the Bahia de Todos los Santos, which they easily Indians on their side in the conflict which they occupied. There is a journal of the transaction had with the Portuguese. The English hovered attached to an anonymous Reys-Boeck van het abuut in their ships, and Cavendish harried the rijcke Brasilien (1624), and contemporary accoast, but with no great success. Hakluyt and counts, more or less the same, are known : Purchas preserve some reports of eye-witnesses * Beschreibung von Eroberung der Statt S. Salduring these years, and tell us what they can of vator in Brasilia ” (1624), in De Bry, xiii. ; again Cavendish and his exploits. In 1594 a large in Hulsius, xxvi.; Purchas's Pilgrimes, ii. 1858; British expedition under James Lancaster en- Ternaux-Compans' Archives des Voyages, i. 452. deavored to get at Olinda, the capital of Pernam- In March, 1625, a large fleet, sent out by united buco, but the failed in that, though they got Spain and Portugal, under the command of Juan some booty, and escaped the dangers of the Por- Fajaro and Fadrique de Toledo, appeared off the tuguese fire-ships.

port; and after the Dutch fleet in the harbor had We find an account of French observations in been sunk the town capitulated. On May 22d a a Voyage et Navigation aux Indes Orientales et Dutch succoring fleet appeared, but found it au brésil (Paris, 1611, 1616, and enlarged, 1679). safer to sail northward, whence after mishaps it In 1612 the French attempted to colonize Mar- returned to Holland. The Spanish fleet, meananham, and tidings of it confronted a Portuguese while, leaving a garrison, also sailed for Europe, expedition sent to push their explorations on the experiencing still greater disasters on the way. Amazon. The two parties measured strength There are serviceable contemporary accounts of for a while, but then determined to leave the set- these transactions :tlement of their respective rights to their home Restauracion de la ciudad del Salador i Bahia governments. Events, however, drifted to the de Todos Sanctos en la provincia del Brasil por advantage of the Portuguese, and Maranham was las armas de Don Philippe IV. (Madrid, 1628 ; permanently secured for them.

in Portuguese, with notes, Bahia, 1847). We have an account of these northern regions A Relacion of Francisco de Auendaño y Viin the narrative of a Benedictine monk, printed lela (Seville, 1625). at Paris in 1615; but it is now only accessible In 1627 the Dutch Admiral Heyn, with another in the Voyage dans le nord du Brésil fait durant Dutch fleet, retook the place and made some reles années 1613 et 1014 par le père Yves d'Éve- prisals on the Portuguese marine. We note in reux. Publié d'après l'exemplaire unique conservé Ternaux-Compans' Archives (i. 219), “ La prise à la Bibliothèque impériale de Paris. Avec une de pleusieurs vaisseaux de guerre et de marchanintroduction et des notes par Ferdinand Denis dise sur les Portugais par la flotte hollandoise (Leipzig, 1864). The original title given in the près de la ville de Baye au Brésil ” (1627). Cf. body of the work is as follows: Svitte de l'Histoire Engelbert Gerritz's leven en Daden der Zeeheldes choses plus memorables aduenues en Mara- den Heemskert en Hein (1825). gnan ès années 1613 & 1614. Second Traité. It was on Heyn's return voyage that he made Paris, MDCXV.

capture of the Spanish bullion fleet, which has The Dutch had begun before this to trade been mentioned elsewhere.3 north of the Amazon, and when the Portuguese The Dutch now changed their place of attack. attacked them and occupied the country, the In 1629 they appeared off Olinda. Their feet latter made a new captaincy of it, and called it had rendezvoused at the Cape de Verde islands, Pará. The Jesuits coming at this time to Mar- whence word had come to the Portuguese of anbam, set themselves also in opposition to the their intention to attack them, but the PortuPortuguese, in their endeavors to mitigate the guese failed to be adequately prepared. The severity of the Portuguese treatment of the In- Dutch, by a land attack, captured the place, and dians. So it was that, with the opposition of an then laid siege to the forts St. Francisco and St. order which knew how to retain a strong hold on George, which falling, the Dutch entered and the native mind, the Portuguese were not as wholly possessed the harbor. The lines of powerful in all internal relations as was desira. communication between Recife and Olinda, now ble, when they found themselves forced upon a both within the Dutch control, afforded the Por

1 The history of early explorations of the Amazon is traced in Vol. II., ante.

2 Cf., for instance, the Portuguese persecutions of a leading missionary as set forth in A. de Barros' Vida do Apostolico padre Ant. Vieyra (Lisbon, 1746).

8 Ante, chap. iv.
4 There is a panoramic view of the attack (1630) in Gottfriedt's Newe Welt (1655), p. 626.

tuguese opportunities for keeping up a bushran- The first tidings of the capture of Olinda, as ging warfare, which went on with little cessation. it reached Holland, is in a Copie van de Missive Fleets to relieve each side appeared, but spent sent by General Weerdenburch (Amsterdam, their energies in fighting each other. Finally the 1630; reprinted Utrecht, 1630). Dutch burned Olinda and concentrated at Re- Johan Baers' Olinda inghenomen door D. v. cife. So the war dragged out, with alternation Weerdenburg (Amst., 1638), is an account, by a of success and dismay for either side, until at member of the expedition, of the taking of Olinda. last the Portuguese gaining a little advantage, Pedro Cardena wrote in 1634 an account of the Dutch sent out one of their ablest com- Brazil, where he had long lived, which we only manders, the Count of Nassau, giving him full know in a German translation with notes by powers to complete the conquest and turn it to Christian Leister, Beschreibung des Portugiesi

schen Amerika (Braunschweig, 1780).


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* After an engraving in Caspar van Baerle's Brasilienische Geschichte (Cleve, 1659). There is another in Netscher's Les Hollandais au Brésil (La Haye, 1853). The exploits of Maurice are also celebrated in Plante's Rerum ab Maritio comite Nassaviæ gestarum descriptio poetica (Lugduni Batavorum, 1647). Cf. Ludwig Driesen's Leben des Fürsten Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen (Berlin, 1849).

The Count of Nassau reached Recife Jan., tius, or Mauritiopolis. But the times were far 1637. Hie at once entered upon an active cam- from as peaceful as such adornments might sig. paign. He retook Porto Calvo; 1 he built Fortnify. The Portuguese, under Count Datorne, Mauritz on the San Francisco River, and rebuilt hung with a fleet on the coast, but they accomOlinda. He attacked Bahia unsuccessfully. Cf. plished nothing. On the land the two peoples a Dutch Cort Verhael on the land and naval devastated each other's property as they could operations near Bahia (Nov. 19, 1639-Feb. 28, get a chance. 1640). In order to induce a Dutch immigra- A revolution in Portugal restored the Duke tion, the West India Company threw open the of Braganza to the throne. When the news trade of Brazil, and gave attention to the manu- reached Brazil, both sides were encouraged. facture of sugar in the captured provinces, but Those of the Portuguese who were loyal to the they did not equal the energy of the Portuguese Braganzas looked for help. The Dutch thought in such mercantile enterprises.

that the rivalries of the two Portuguese parties Nassau built himself a palace, and laid out a must inure somehow to the benefit of the Holnew town near Recife, which he called Mauri- landers. Braganza had his motives for entering

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NOTE. — After a plate in Caspar van Baerle's Brasilienische Geschichte (Cleve, 1659). It is also in the Latin ed., Rerum per Octennium in Brasilia (Clivis, 1660). Varnhagen (Hist. do Brazil, 1877) gives a facsimile of an old plan of Recife. Views of Olinda and Recife are given in De Laet's West Indische Compagnie (Leyden, 1644). A plan of Olinda and a map of the region is in Baelæus' Rerum gestarum .. Historia (1647). There is also a plan of Mauritsstadt and Recife on the title of the Dutch edition of Pierre Moreau (Amsterdam, 1652). There is a plan and view of Recife in Claude Barthélemy Morisot's Relations de l'isle de Madagascar et du Brésil (Paris, 1651), and others of Olinda in Ambros Reichsshoffer's Brasilianischund West Indianische Reise Beschreibung (Strassburg, 1677). Others of both places are in Nieuhoff's Zee en Lant Reise (Amsterdam, 1682). There is a view and plan of Maurizea in Giovanni Giuseppi’s istoria delle Guerre del Regno del Brasile (Roma, 1698). A modern plan of the port of Pernambuco, showing the reefs, is in Henry Koster's Travels in Brazil (London, 1816).

2 Carter-Brown, ii. 472.

1 There is a plan in Baelæus, no. 19. VOL. VIII. — 23

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