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into a ten years' truce with the Dutch, French, dernière guerre faite au Brésil entre les Portugais and English ; but Holland purposely protracted et les Hollandais (Paris, 1651). A Dutch transthe negotiations till Nassau could secure Bahia lation of Moreau appeared at Amsterdam, 1652 : and Maranham. It was no easy task, however, Beschryving van de Berverten der I ortuguezen for Nassau to gain much in the face of Portu- in Brasil. The Journael ofter Kort discours noguese revolts, and his later rule brought him tende de rebellye der Portugesen, 1645 (Arnheim, scant success and no credit. His treachery and 1647) is an important source of the Portuguese deceit failed of its purpose, and in 1644 he returned to Holland.

A Portuguese Brazil Company was soon creThe principal work on Nassau's government ated, and this strengthened the hands of the is Caspar Baelæus's (or Caspar van Baerle’s) Portuguese in various ways. It sent a fleet to Rerum per octennium in Brasilia et alibi nuper succor Fernandes, but when it arrived it found gestarum sub præfectura Comitis 7. Mauritii, that this leader had won a second victory over Nassoviæ comitis Historia (Amsterdam, 1647 ; 2d the Dutch forces, on the old battlefield near ed. Clivis, 1660 ; in German, Cleve, 1659, 1684). the Guararape hills. Events all converged to

Johan Nieuhof was in the country for nine wards a successful close of the war for the Poryears, in the employ of the West India Company, tuguese, and attacking Recife by sea and land, and his Zee en Lant Reise (Amsterdam, 1682; in that redoubtable port fell into their hands in English in Pinkerton's Voyages, xiv. pp. 697- 1654, and this practically ended the long strug881) covers the period 1640–1649, extending be- gle. The Portuguese were at last masters. yond Nassau's term.

The general literature of the war is extensive, The withdrawal of Nassau, and the less con- and it can be conveniently surveyed in sections ciliatory measures of his successors, induced a of the Catalogo de Historia do Brazil (vol. i. pp. serious revolt under the lead of a rich Portuguese 484, 494; Susplemento, pp. 1653, 1656, etc.). So merchant, Joam Fernandes Vieira, who finally far as the Dutch chronicled its events, the titles succeeded in luring the Dutch into the country, can be found in Asher and in Muller's Ameri. where, at the battle of Tapicura, he completely cana (1872), nos. 185-286. routed them, Aug. 3, 1645. Other successes fol- There are a few important contributions of lowed on the Portuguese side, and it was not more or less general scope before the Portulong before the insurgent leader was in a posi- guese achieved their crowning success :tion to threaten Recife and Olinda.

Relations veritables et curieuses de l'isle de Meanwhile affairs were complicated by advices Madagascar et du Brésil (Paris, 1651). from Lisbon. The Portuguese king dreaded

Matthias van den Broeck's Journael ... wegen an alliance between Spain and the Dutch, and de revolte van de Portuguese in Brasiel (Amsterwas anxious to avert it by conciliatory conduct dam, 1651). It has a view of Pernambuco (Retowards Holland. His consequent orders were cife) and the sea-fight. Richard Fleckno, the enough to show Fernandes that he was not to English dramatist, visited Brazil not long before be sustained in his vigorous onsets against the this, and we have his observations in his Relo. Dutch. Hesitating to obey the royal orders, the tion of ten years' Travells (London, 1654?). faction of the king made an attempt to kill him. Perhaps the best account near the events is In Europe some diplomatic fence and not a Duarte da Albuquerque Coello's Memorias dialittle courteous deceit were going on between rias de la guerra del Brasil (Madrid, 1654 ; in the Portuguese ambassador Francisco de Sousa Portuguese, with annotations, Rio, 1855). and the government of the States; but it all Later we have :ended in open war.

The Dutch sent a fleet and Francisco de Brito Freyre's Nova Lusitania, 6000 troops to succor Recife, where it arrived in historia da guerra brasilica (Lisboa, 1675). 1646. Two years later 6000 more troops were Luis de Menenez, Conde da Ericeyra's His sent over ; but the great preponderance of the toria de Portugal restaurado (Lisbon, 1679, 1710; Dutch in the field did not prevent the Portu 2d vol. 1698; new ed. 1751-59, in 4 vols.) is of guese leaders, Fernandes and Vidal, gaining over importance for the period 1640 to 1668. them a victory on the hillsides not far from The period 1624-54 is covered in Father Recife, and it was not long before the Portu- Raphael de Jesus's Castrioto Lusitano, ou historia guese occupied Olinda.

da guerra entre o Brasil e a Hollanda (Paris, There is a “ Histoire de ce qui c'est passé en 1844, - original ed., Lisbon, 1679). la guerre faite au pays du Brezil entre les Portu- The war has some individualized expositions gais et les Hollandais, 1644-1648, avec la carte in two works of the present day: et description du Recif par Pierre Moreau," P. M. Netscher's Les Hollandais au Brésil: contained in Relations veritables et curieuses de notice historique sur les Pays-Bas et le Brésil au Madagascar et du Brésil ; avec l'histoire de la 17e siècle (La Haye, 1853).

1 There is a likeness of Fernandes Vieira in Castrioto Lusitano : Parte I. Entrepresa e restauração de Pernambuco e das capitanias confinantes (Lisboa, 1679).

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* From the Mémoires de M. du Guay-Trouin (Amsterdam, 1740). There is a fac-simile map in Varnhagen's Hist. do Brazil (1877), p. 8o; also see Sieur François Frogers's Relation of a Voyage, 1695-97 (London, 1798), and Giuseppi's Istoria delle Guerre del Regno del Brasile (Roma, 1698), lib. vi. 155. Cf. José de Souza's Memorias historicas do Rio de Janeiro (Rio, 1820, etc.), in eight volumes; and Balthazar da Silva's Annaes do Rio de Janeiro contendo a descoberta e conquista deste paiz, a fundação da cidade (Rio, 1834-35), in seven quarto volumes. Cf. other titles in Cat. de Hist. do Brazil, i. p. 471.

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Varnhagen's Historia das lutas com os hollan- fleet had just preceded him, and was within. dezes do Brazil desde 1024 a 1054 (Vienna, 1871; Its commander lacked courage, and beached new ed. improved, Lisbon, 1872), which led to and fired his ships. His spirit pervading the a pamphlet controversy between Netscher and garrisons of the forts, they were speedily capVarnhagen (1873–74).

tured and the town occupied. The French ad

miral soon exacted a large ransom for the town, | The Portuguese confirmed in their possession and, departing with his plunder, he sought to lay of Brazil, a difference soon began between the Bahia under contribution, but failed. Thence courts of Lisbon and Madrid as to the bounds recrossing the ocean, and encountering much to be settled upon as dividing their South Amer- peril and disaster, he reached home; and still, ican realms. It was manifest that the old bull despite his later misfortunes, was enabled to pay of Alexander VI, establishing a line of demarca- a profit of almost a hundred per cent. into the tion, was not going to satisfy Portugal under hands of the expectant merchants. the new conditions ; but the question of its va- The documentary sources on the French side lidity was seriously discussed in 1681.1

of this expedition are given in Eugène Sue's This was but the beginning of the disputes Histoire de la Marine française (v. 300). Cf. which lasted as long as each power had a foot- Du Guay-Trouin's Mémoires (Amsterdam, 1748); v hold on the continent.2

Frédéric Koenig's Du Guay- Trouin (Tours,

1876); Norman's Corsairs of France (p. 231); An insurrection which took place in 1683-84 and the titles in the Catal. de Hist. do Brazil in Maranham raised a fear for a while that the (i. 516). The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) came neighboring French in Guiana would become opportunely to confirm the Portuguese in their involved, but an expedition sent out by the king possessions, and to stay the French cupidity. in 1685, under Gomez Freyre, rapidly quelled A frenzy for the newly found diamond fields the rising

soon led expeditions to roam or tarry in the The finding of gold in 1691 in the southern interior, and added to the allurements of gold parts of the country changed the centre of pop- mines, which of late had incited adventurous ulation, and, sending a new tide of immigration spirits to push into the interior. Cf. Nuno Marthither, it gave Rio de Janeiro an importance as quez Pereira's Compendio Narrativo do Perethe outlet of the new treasure which it had not grino da America (Lisbon, 1728, 1750). before had, and ultimately (1763) caused the transfer to that magnificent bay of the seat of During the period now ensuing till the comthe general government of the country. A sup- ing of the royal house of Portugal, the titles are position that the product of the mines was laid numerous, and may be found in the Catal, de up in great store in Rio excited the cupidity of Hist. do Brasil (i. pp. 494, 522; Supplemento, the French, and they resolved to attack the 1656, 1658, etc.). The settlement of the bounds town. They made a foolhardy raid from their with Spain on the south had forced a war with fleet in 1710, and the imbecility of the Portu- the Guaranis to push them beyond the Uruguay. guese commander did not prevent the invading The interference and not always concealed hosforce being entoiled in the streets of the town tility of the Jesuits had brought on events (1759and captured. Little mercy was shown to the 1767) which finally ended in their expulsion.3 prisoners; and mercantile eagerness in the A Spanish fleet in 1777 had captured St. CathaFrench ports, with governmental patronage, soon rine's Island 4 and the southern parts of the caused a fleet for reprisals and other gain to peninsula formed by the ocean and the Uruguay; be dispatched under the famous French sea- but under a treaty between the two powers, leader, René du Guay-Trouin. He arrived off brought about by Florida Blanca, while the the bay Sept. II, 1711, and found a Portuguese future territory of Uruguay was confirmed to

1 Cf. Calvo's Recueil des Traités, i. pp. 1, 190, for the bull and its history. See also ante, Vol. II. p. 13, 14, 43, 45, 108, 441, 592. The bull has recently been printed from Eden in the Catholic Historical Researches, Oct., 1886, p. 71, and in Howley's Eccles. Hist. Newfoundland, p. 66. Cf. Navarrete's Opúsculos, ii. 47; American Catholic Quarterly Rev., iii. 339.

2 The negotiations are best followed in Calvo, Recueil des Traités, ii. 242 (1750, etc.); iii. 128, with an historical notice; iv. 126, 333 ; vii.; viii. ; ix.; X. Documents relating to the bounds of Brazil are noted in the Catalogo de Hist. do Brasil (i. p. 892), and maps appertaining (i. p. 178).

3 The story of the Jesuit missions is an interesting one. Cf. titles in the Catal. de Hist. do Brazil (i. 784), and Watson's Spanish and Portuguese So. America, ii. ch. 5. Cf. Simaõ de Vasconcellos' Crónica da Companhia de Jesus do estado do Brazil (Lisbon, 1663), — the introduction of which appeared also separately as Noticids curiosas e necessarias sobre o Brasil (Lisbon, 1668),

. -- and the same author's Vida do Padre Joseph de Anchieta (Lisbon, 1672); and Manoel da Fonseca's Vida do Padre Belchior de Pontes (Lisbon, 1752).

4 Cf. Frezier's Relation du Voyage (Amsterdam, 1717) for a map.

Spain, the island of St. Catharine's was restored Napoleon had forced the court of Lisbon into to Portugal.

an alliance against England, and a British fleet

under Sir Sidney Smith blockaded the Tagus, The great event in the later history of Brazil while Marshal Junot was approaching on the was to come when Rio de Janeiro received the land side. To avoid being crushed between Braganzas, under a secret convention, which can the two, Dom John VI accepted the offer of be found in Calvo (v. 118).

the English ambassador, and on Nov. 29, 1807,

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the archives, treasures, and royal family went Kingdom of Portugal, Algarves, and Brazil. aboard the Portuguese and British fleets and Quiet, however, did not long prevail. Jealousies were transported to Rio de Janeiro, where they between the native Brazilians and the hordes of arrived March 7, 1808, and found safety for the dependants of the royal family, which had folmaterial wealth and an asylum for the royal lowed them to the country, and the defections dignity. The country passed out of a colonial of some among the natives, in order to gain condition when, in Dec., 1815, a decree made it titular distinctions from the crown, brought a kingdom, as an integral part of the United about serious disturbances. A revolt at Pernam

• From Mémoires de Monsieur du Guay-Trouin (Amsterdam, 1740); cf. Sue's Marine française, 'v. 95.

buco, in 1817, was put down, and no native sol. tion was adopted which was acceptable to both dier was trusted thereafter in the royal army. monarch and people. The way to it had been a The constitutional revolution in the mother thorny one; but the emperor's courage and faircountry in 1821 at once had its counterpart in ness suppressed a revolutionary spirit that could Brazil, which induced Dom John VI to embark have profited by an opportunity and a weaker for Portugal, leaving his son, Dom Pedro I, to ruler. But courage did not make Dom Pedro govern in his stead. The National Cortes at prudent; his war with Montevideo, in which he Lisbon soon ordered the prince's return and the was worsted, showed something of the incon. abolition of royal tribunals at Rio; but Pedro siderate autocrat, and he seemed to forget, as decided to refuse, and to cast in his lot with the years went on, those ardent promises which so Brazilians, while the Portuguese troops in the conciliated the Brazilians when he began his rule. garrison capitulated and were sent home. On So his people and even his army deserted him, the 7th of Sept., 1822, Dom Pedro determined and, with a mob before the palace on April 7, that Brazil should be independent, and on the 1831, he abdicated in favor of his son, the pres12th of Oct. he was proclaimed constitutional ent emperor, Dom Pedro II. Emperor. For a while the Portuguese govern- The literature of this later period is extensive, ment maintained by the troops a contracted do- and will be found in the Hist. do Brazil minion at Bahia and at a few other ports; but (i. pp. 573, 607 ; Supplemento, 1661, 1663). Cf. within three years, the court at Lisbon acknowl. João Manoel Pereira da Silva's Historia da funedged the independence of the new power. dação do Imperio brazileiro (Rio, 1864-68), in

It was not till March, 1824, that a constitu- seven volumes.


The VALLEY OF The La Plata River.— Alexander Dalrymple's Catalogue of authors, who have written on Rio de la Plata, Paraguay, and Chaco (London, 1807), is arranged chronologically, and includes some titles omitted in Pinelo's Epitome (1737). There is a collection of historical documents from 1500 down, including a chronology of the basin of the La Plata, in Martin de Monsey's Description géographique et statistique de la Confédération Argentine (Paris, 1860), in three volumes. The Coleccion de obras y documentos a la historia de la provinceas del Rio de la Plata, edited with notes by Pedro de Angelis (Buenos Ayres, 1836), in six volumes, is a source of importance. Hermann Burmeister's Description de la régiblique Argentine (Paris, 1876), as it is called in the French translation from the German, contains for a first part a history of the discovery and geography of this region.

The cartography of the La Plata Valley and of its several divisions is best traced from the time of Wytfliet and his contemporaries in the enumeration of maps in Uricoechea's Mapoteca Colombiana; to be supplemented by those mentioned in the Brit. Museum Map Catalogue (London, 1887), and by the MS. maps in the British Museum, referred to in Calvo's Recueil des Traités (x. 326). The maps of the last century can be represented by such as Herman Moll's, as given in the Voyage to Buenos Ayres, by Acarete du Biscay (London, 1716); that in Pedro Lozano's Descripcion chorographica (Cordoba, 1733); those in Charlevoix's Paraguay, made by Bellin (1756); the composite maps in general collections, like those in Prévost's Voyages (xiv.), and the German equivalent, the Allg. Hist. der Reisen, 1758 (xvi.). There are also occasional fresh observations in the accounts of such explorers as Bougainville.1 Maps of the present century are abundant, and one of the most widely circulated of the early part of the century is that in Ignacio Nuñez's Noticias de las Provincias unidas del Rio de la Plata (Londres, 1823; in English, 1825; in French, Paris, 1826).? The

maps of Paraguay alone, of which Sanson's of 1650 is one of the earliest, are enumerated in Uricoechea's Mapoteca Colombiana (p. 178, etc.). That in Acarete du Biscay's Acc. of a Voyage ug the River de la Plata (London, 1698) shows the views at the close of that century. The leading cartographical ideas of the next century are found in D'Anville's map, given in 1733 in the Lettres Édifiantes (vol. xxi.), and later in the English translation of Muratori's Missions of Paraguay (London, 1759). Bellin contributed the maps to Charlevoix's Histoire du Paraguay (Paris, 1756-57). Delisle's map is used in Bernardo Ibañez de Echavarri's Histoire du Paraguay (Amsterdam, 1780). The MS. maps in the British Museum are noted in Calvo's Recueil des Traités (x. 331). For a recent map see Geographical Magazine, Sept., 1875.

1 Cf. A. J. Pernetty's Hist. d'un Voyage aux isles 2 A later work by the same author is in better esteem: Malouines, 1763-64 (Paris, nouv ed., 1770), or Hist. of Noticias históricas de la república Arjentina (Buenos the Voyage to the Malouine (or Falkland) Islands, 1763- Ayres, 1857). 64 (London, 1771; 2d ed., 1773), with its chart of La Plata and plans of Buenos Ayres and Montevideo.

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