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to their breach of treaties with England, particularly their breach of the articles of capitulation for the surrender of Surinam in 1067 (London, 1760).

The French, under the Comte d'Estrees, once more attacked Cayenne, Dec. 21, 1676. (Cf. Eugène Sue's Hist. de la Marine Française, ii. 411.)

We have, a few years later, a Dutch description in Adrian van Berkel's Amerikaansche Voyagien (Amsterdam, 1695), of which a German version was later published: Beschreibung seiner Reisen nach Rio de Berbice und Surinam (Memmingen, 1789).

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Early in the next century we follow the fortunes of Surinam in such recitals of Cassard's exploits (1712) as are given in Norman's Corsairs of France (London, 1887), p. 141, and in the contemporary Beschryvinge van Zuriname, by J. D. Herlein (1718).

The French settlements are described by Pierre Barrère, who was there in 1722-24, in his Nouvelle Relation de la France Equinoxiale (Paris, 1743), and this same writer printed a more distinctly descriptive Essai in 1749. Father Labat worked up some material put into his hands in his Voyage du Chevalier des Marchais en Guinée, ... et à Cayenne, fait en 1725-27 (Paris, 1730; Amsterdam, 1731).

The English cartographer Thomas Jefferys in 1760 brought the region into notice in his French Dominions

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* Part of a map in Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), ii. 418. Cf. maps in Labat's Voyage du Chev. des Har. chais (Amsterdam, 1831); Pierre Barrère's ance Equinoxiale (Paris, 1743); Bellin's Desc. Géog. de Guiare (Paris, 1763); Prévost's Voyages, vol. xi. ; London Magazine, 1763.

The most common maps of the last century of the whole country of Guiana were Bellin's and D'Anville's, which last is in Labat, Prévost, and the Alg. Hist. der Reisen, etc.

in North and South America, and in 1763 there was a revival of interest in Europe. Bellin, the French geographer, published his Description géographique de Guyane (Paris, 1763), with its numerous maps ; and in Holland we find Thomas Pistorius's Korte en Zakelyke Beschryvinge van de Colonie van Zuriname (Amsterdam, 1763).

During the rest of the century it is mainly personal experiences, as reflecting the social and political conditions, that help us. We now encounter such books as these :

Philip Fermin's Description de Surinam (Amsterdam, 1769).

Jan Jacob Hartsinck's Beschryving van Guiana (Amsterdam, 1770; German, Berlin, 1784), with various maps and views.

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From Staat van Amerika (Amsterdam, 1766), ii. 448. Cf. Allg. Hist. der Reisen (1754), xii. 56.

J. G. Stedman's Narrative of a five years' expedition against the revolted negroes of Surinam (17721777). It helps the student by its graphic and cartographical aids, and was so popular a book as to have been frequently reprinted (London, 1796, 1800, 1813; in French, Paris, 1797 ; in German, Halle, 1797).

Remarques critiques sur le tableau historique et politique de la colonie de Surinam (Londres, 1779).

Philip Fermin's Tableau historique et politique de l'état ancien et actuel de la colonie de Surinam et des causes de sa décadence (Maestricht, 1778; in English, London, 1781). Firmin was for a long time a resident in the colony.

D. de la Nassy's Essai historique sur le colonie de Surinam (Paramaribo, 1788), in two volumes.
J. F. Ludwig's Surinam (Jena, 1789).

In 1796 the British, under Major-General Whyte, took possession of a portion of the country, and in 1802 the peace of Amiens restored the same to the Dutch ; but the next year the English arms repossessed the region, and in 1814 the sections now known as Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice were confirmed to British rule.1

The three possessions of the English, Dutch, and French are usually separately considered since the latter part of the last century. It is enough for the English part to refer to H. G. Dalton's Hist. of British Guiana (London, 1855). A publication of the Society of Portuguese Jews, called Essai historique sur la colonie de Surinam, avec l'histoire de la nation Juive Portugaise et Allemande y etablié (Paramaribo, 1788; in Dutch, Amsterdam, 1791), elucidates the history of the Dutch portion. For the French region we have larger resources : Bajon's Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Cayenne et de la Guiana Françoise (Paris, 1777, — an abridged German version, Erfurt, 1780-84). Gallard de Terraube's Tableau de Cayenne en de la Guiane Française (Paris, 1799), the result of three voyages to rectify the cartography. A French work, of which I have only seen the German translation, Reise nach Guiana und Cayenne, nebst einer Vebersicht der ältern dahin gemachten Reisen und neuern Nachrichten von diesem Lande (Hamburg, 1799). Neue Reise nach Cayenne (Leipzig, 1799). Ferdinan 1 Denis's La Guyanne, ou Histoire, etc., de cette partie de l'Amérique (Paris, 1823). Frédéric Bouyer's La Guyane Française (Paris, 1867).

About the beginning of the present century there was an important documentary collection published by V. P. Malouet, Collection de N1émoires et Correspondance officielles sur l'administration des Colonics, et notamment sur la Guiane Française et Hollandaise (Paris, l'an x), in five volumes.

THE REVOLUTION IN THE NORTHWEST. — The literature of the revolutionary period of this century in the northwestern parts of South America is not well represented collectively in any bibliography, and must mostly be eliminated from the larger groupings of the native publications. For such purpose, the Biblioteca de ex Coronel Pineda (Bogota, 1853) chronicles the issues of the press from 1774 to 1850. P. Herrera published an Esayo sobre la Historia de la Literatura Ecuatoriana (Quito, 1860). J. M. Vergara y Vergara's Historia de la literatura en Nueva Grenada (Bogota, 1867). J. M. Spence's Land of Bolivar, vol. ii., has a list on Venezuela. J. M. Rojas's Biblioteca de escritores Venezolanos Contemporáneos (Caracas, 1875).

One of the principal documentary sources for the period from 1808 to the establishment of South American independence is Charles Calvo's Annales historiques de la révolution de l'Amérique latine (Paris, 1864–67; also in Spanish, Paris, 1864-67), in five volumes, which is the second series of his Recueil des Traités. The whole field is surveyed in Mariano Torrente's Historia de la Revolucion Hispano-Americana (Madrid, 1829), in three volumes ; but the view is a Spanish one, and not satisfactory to Spanish-Americans. Some of the characteristic illustrative publications of the time are:

Alvado Florez Estrada's Impartial Examination of the Dispute between Spain and her American Colonies, an English translation by W. Burdon (London, 1872).

Manuel Palacio Fajardo's Outline of the Revolution in South America (London, 1817; N. Y., 1817). There is a French version (Paris, 1817; revised, 1819).2

Dominique Dafour de Pradt's Des Colonies et de la Révolution Actuelle de l'Amérique (Paris, 1817; Bordeaux, in Spanish, 1817); and J. D. Williams's translation of De Pradt's Europe and America in 1891 (London, 1822).

W. B. Stevenson's A historical and descriptive narrative of twenty years' residence in South America ; containing travels in Arauco, Chile, Peru, and Colombia; with an account of the revolution (1821-1824), its rise, progress, and results (London, 1825).

The arguments that induced the interposition of the English are found in –

Wm. Burke's South American Independence, and his Additional Reasons for our immediately emancipating Spanish America (London, 1808).

William Walton's Present State of the Spanish Colonies (London, 1810), and his Exposé of the dissen. sions of Spanish America (London, 1854).

M. G. Mulhall's English in South America (Buenos Ayres, 1879).

The lives of Bolivar, already referred to, gather the essential elements of the story. The basis of all is the considerable Coleccion de documentos, relativos a la vida pública del libertador de Colombia y del Peru, Simon Bolivar para servir a la historia de la independencia de Sur América (Caracas, 1826, 1833), in 22 volumes, and the Documentos para la historia de la vida publica del Libertador de Colombia, Perú y Bolivia, Puestos por orden cronológico, y con adiciones y notas que la ilustran, por el general José Felix Blanco y Ramon Azpurua (Caracas, 1875–77), in fourteen volumes.

1 Cf. P. M. Netscher's Geschiedenis van de Kolonien 2 D. B. Arana's Notas para una bibliografia, no. 157. Essequibo, Demerary en Berbice (La Haye, 1888).

These may be supplemented by such works as Interesting official documents relating to the United Provinces of Venezuela (London, 1812, in both English and Spanish); Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la revolution de la Capitainerie générale de Caracas jusqu'au mois d'août, 1814, by H. Poudenx and F. Mayer (Paris, 1815); Major George Flinter's Hist. of the Revolution in Caracas (London, 1819); José Domingo Diaz's Recuerdos sobre la rebelion de Caracas (Madrid, 1829), the record of an eye-witness, and secretary of Morillo ; Geo. Laval Chesterton's Narrative of proceedings in Venezuela, 1819-1820 (London, 1820); R. M. Baralt and R. Diaz's Historia de Venezuela, 1797–1830 (Paris, 1841, –

-a continuation of Baralt's Historia de Venezuela desde el descubrimiento hasta 1797, Paris, 1841), works too Spanish to be wholly pleasing to South American readers ; Rafter's Memoirs of Gregor M'Gregor, comprising a sketch of the Revolution in New Grenada and Venezuela (London, 1820); J. A. de Plaza's Memorias para la historia de la Nueva Granada (Bogota, 1830), which, however, only comes down to 1810, but in his Compendio de la historia de la Nueva Grenada (Bogota, 1830) he tells the story in a condensed way to 1831 ; Guillaume Lallement's Histoire de la Colombie (Paris, 1826); José Manuel Restrepo's Historia de la revolucion de la república de Colombia (Paris, 1827, in ten vols., with an atlas ; 2d ed., Besanzon, 1858, in 3 vols.); The Present State of Colombia, containing an account of the principal events of its revolutionary war (London, 1827).

There are a number of contemporary records of the period following the declaration independence: Alexander Walker's Colombia (Londres, 1822). G. T. Mollien's Voyage dans la république de Colombia (Paris, 1823, 1825; English trans., Lond., 1824). W. B. Stevenson’s Historical and descriptive narrative of twenty years' residence in South America (London, 1825). Col. William Duane's Visit to Colombia, 1822-23 (Philad., 1826). Capt. Chas. Stuart Cochrane's Residence and Travels in Colombia, 1823–24 (London, 1825). Lieutenant Richard Bache's Notes on Colombia, 1822–23 (Philad., 1827).

PERU AND CHILE. — The descriptions of Peru and Chile in the seventeenth and eighteenth century are an important element in our knowledge of the history of that time. They come in the main from navigators, members of religious orders, and latterly more particularly from travellers. The Descripcion del regno de Chile, by Francisco Ponce de Leon, was presented to the king in the form of a memorial, and later printed at Madrid about 1644. (Leclerc, no. 1965.)

The voyage of Frezier on the coasts of Chile and Peru in 1712-14 was the most noticeable of its time, and the maps and plates which accompanied its relation attracted popular notice.1

The voyage of Alonzo Carillo Lazo to Peru in 1745-49, originally written in Spanish, was presented in French by the Abbé de la Blancharderie as Nouveau Voyage fait au Pérou (Paris, 1751), and in an English dress (London, 1753).

The travels of the early part of the present century are not so important as historical material.2

The material in relation to the Church and missions of both Peru and Chile is extensive and needs to be used in parallel study. The general histories give much; but there are details in many sectional works.

The most famous of the Spanish prelates sent to Peru to take the headship of its Church and its missions was Toribio, who at forty-three reached Lima as its archbishop. From this time till his death in 1606 his personality was a conspicuous one both in the affairs of the Church and in the labors among the native tribes. The first considerable life of Toribio was that by Antonio de Leon Pinelo, who founded it on a mass of documents which he possessed: Vida de D. Torribio Alfonso Montgrovejo, arçobispo de la ciudad de los Reyes (Madrid, 1653), which was followed by the Italian memoir by Michel Angelo Lapi, Vita del servo di Dio, Torrvio (Roma, 1656). An effort later began to secure his canonization, and Cypriano de Herrera published his Mirabilis Vita (Roma, 1670), which was based on the material sent from Lima in aid of the movement. Anastasio Nicoselli's Vita di S. Toribio (Roma, 1726) is simply drawn from Herrera. There was another Vita Venerabilis Toribii (Patavii, 1670) published by an Augustine monk, Francisco Macedo. The beatification took place in 1679, and his canonization in 1726. Meanwhile, in 1683, Francisco Antonio de Montalvo made Toribio the subject of some important books, El sol del Nuevo Mondo, and Breve teatro de las acciones de la Vida del bienaventurado Toribio (Roma). A later account is in Ant. Guerrero Martinez Rubio's El phenix de las becas (Salamanca, 1728).

Fray Antonio de la Calancha's Corónica moralizada del orden de San Augustin en el Perú (Barcelona, 1638) is an important chronicle, continued in a second volume, never completed however, by Fray Diego de Cordova, which was printed at Lima in 1653 (Leclerc, no. 1701). There is a French translation (Toulouse, 1653), and Brulius's Historia Peruana ordinis erimitarum S. P. Augustini libri octodecim (Antuerpiæ, 1651) is called a translation.

1 The original edition, Relation du Voyage de la mer Sutcliffe, Sixteen years in Chile and Peru, 1822-1839 du Sud aux côtes du Chily et du Pérou fait pendant les (London, 1841). Robert Proctor's Narrative of a jourannées 1712, 13 et 1714 (Paris, 1716). A later edition ney across the Andes and of a residence in Lima, etc., (Paris, 1732) is the same with a new title and some addi- 1823-24 (London, 1825). Capt. Basil Hall's Extracts from tions in an appendix. There was a French edition also at a Journal on the Coasts of Chile, Peru, and Mexico, Amsterdam in 1717; a Dutch one there in 1718; German, 1820-22 (London, 1824; Edinburgh, 4th ed., 1825; also in at Hamburg, 1717, 1718, 1745; and an English version at Constable's Miscellanies, 1826 ; Philad., 1824). John London, in 1717 (Leclerc, nos. 1954, etc. ; Carter-Brown, Miers's Travels in Chile and La Plata (London, 1826). iii. nos. 212, 221, 222, 229, 230, 486, 800).

This writer was an observer of Cochrane's operations. 2 For example: Joseph Skinner on The Present Condi- Lieut. Charles Brand's Journal of a Voyage to Peru tion of Peru (1806). Peter Schmidtmeyer's Travels into (London, 1828). Edmund Temple's Travels in various Chile over the Andes, 1820-21 (London, 1824). Thomas parts of Peru (London, 1830; Philad., 1833).

Fray Andres de S. Nicolas began a history of the labors of the order of Saint Augustine, but his death left it to be finished by some of his brothers, and it appeared at Madrid (1664-1669), in four volumes.

Cordova also published at Lima, in 1630, the life of a famous Franciscan who had died in Lima in 1610, Vida del Apostol del Perú el Venerable Fray Francisco Solano. An enlarged edition was published by Alonso de Mendieta at Madrid in 1743, who prepared it in furtherance of the effort made to secure Solano's canonization.' Father Tiburcio Navarro published a Latin life, Triumphus Charitatis (Rome, 1671), to the same end. He was not canonized till 1726. There was a great ceremony in Lima when that beatific honor was secured, all of which is recounted in Fray Pedro Rodriguez Guillen's El sol y año feliz del Perú San Francisco Solano (Madrid, 1735). There are lesser lives of Solano by Fray Cisneros (Madrid, 1727), B. S. de Feria y Morales (Madrid, 1762), etc. Cf. Leclerc, nos. 1710, 1714, 1731, 1751, 1805.

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An early work on the labors of the Dominicans is Fray Juan Melendez's Tesoros verdaderos de las Yndias (Roma, 1681), in three folio volumes.

As respects the Jesuits and their relation to the progress of events, the Compendio historial e Indice cronológico Peruano y del nuevo Regno de Granada (Madrid, 1684?), of Fray Manuel Rodriguez, covers the events from the discovery down to the date of publication.

For divisionary periods we have the Relatione Breve del P. Diego de Torres, by F. Vuez (Milano, 1603); other details are in Juan Hayus's De Rebus Japonicis, Indicis et Peruanis Epistolae recentiores (Antuerpiae, 1605).

Padre Joseph Puendo's Vida admirable y prodigiosas virtudes del V. Padre Francisco del Castillo (Madrid, 1693) is the story of a priest born in Lima in 1615, who became a Jesuit in 1632, and having acquired great fame as a preacher, died at Lima in 1673.

Miguel de Olivares's Historia de la Compañia de Jesus en Chile (1593-1736), annotated by Diego Barros Arana, makes vo. vii. of the Historiadores de Chile (Santiago, 1874).

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