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Meanwhile, new efforts were made by the Spaniards to push their advantage westward. Gomez, the recreant pilot of Magellan, was sent to explore the eastern coast of the present United States, to find, if possible, a passage by the north, as has been told elsewhere.

The French also, in the voyage of Verrazano, endeavored, if we accept the accounts, to gain their share in the new progress, as illustrated in the Verrazano map.2 To the south the Spaniards sent Loyasa in 1525,9 who succeeded in finding the Straits which Magellan had passed through ; while one of his vessels, driven south as far as fiftyfive degrees in February, 1526, discovered Cape Horn; and the insular character of Tierra del Fuego was thus early divined, though the fact was kept secret from the world.4

In 1526 Sebastian Cabot was sent in command of four vessels to follow Loyasa on the route to the Spice Islands. When he had reached the La Plata he undertook the exploration of it, and never went farther on his way to India. five years were spent here in encampments and boat expeditions. The main river and its tributaries were explored to points over a thousand miles from the sea. He was so impressed with the resources of the country that he sent reports to Spain, and asked for reinforcements to effect the settlement of the region ; but delays in their coming discouraged him, and he set sail for Spain, with drafts and reports which the map-makers made good use of in plentifully bifurcating the La Plata on their maps.6

The belief in a great Antarctic continent, through ignorance, or misunderstanding of the Spanish discovery of Cape Horn, was soon firmly established, the Straits of Magellan forming its northern limits. We find it thus in the map of the Monk Franciscus ; in the map which Thorne, the Englishman, sent from Seville in 1527 ; 6 and in the fac-simile of a map given in the Cartas de Indias.

iv. 310; Jones's edition of Hakluyt's Divers 5 Cabot got little credit from any but the Voyages, p. 47 ; also such general accounts as cartographers. The Council of the Indies would those of Peter Martyr, Oviedo, and Gomara; have sent him into exile for his shortcomings, also Varnhagen's Historia geral do Brazil, sec- except for the clemency of the Emperor. The ond edition, p. 68, with map.

legend on the Cabot map of 1544 regarding this 1 Vol. IV. p. 24.

La Plata expedition is given by Harrisse in his 2 Given in Vol. IV. p. 26. E. Gosselin in his Cabots, p. 356, where that author refers to the origDocuments . . . de la marine Normande (Rouen, inal sources for this voyage, printed in the Raw1876), enumerates (p. 142) some of the voyages don Brown Calendar, vol. iii. no. 115; to the made from Norman ports to Brazil and parts Relazioni di Ambasciatori (Veneti), 2d ser., ii. 9; adjacent after 1523.

Navarrete, v. 456, 457 ; various manuscripts in 3 Galvano, Hakluyt Society's edition, p. 165. the Archives of the Indies; a letter of Luis

4 Drake in October, 1578, did the same, Ramirez, July 10, 1528, published by Varnhagen calling its most southern cape “ Terra nunc bene in the Revista do Inst. Hist. (Trimensal), Rio de cognita.” A sketch of Hondius' map, illus- Janeiro, 1852, p. 14, also in the Nouvelles annales trating Drake's voyage, is given in Kohl's des voyages (1843), iii. 39; a letter of Simão Magellan's-Strasse. Schouten, however, in 1616 Alfonso in Varnhagen's Brazil, etc.; and such was the first actually to double Cape Horn from early accounts as Galvano's (Hakluyt Society's the east. “The merit of the discovery of the edition, p. 169), etc. Cf. Vol. III. pp. 4, 48; southernmost extremity of the new continent Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix's Histoire in fifty-five degrees south latitude," says du Paraguay, 1516-1547 (Paris, 1756), and Humboldt (Cosmos, Eng. tr., ii. 642, iv. 339), modern summaries like Charles A. Washburn's " is due to Francis de Hoces, who commanded History of Paraguay, i. 7, - the work of a United one of Loyasa's ships in 1525. It is very States Minister to Asuncion, published at Boscharacteristically described in Urdaneta's Jour- ton in 1871, — and Sir Woodbine Parish's Buenos nal by the words acabamiento de tierra, the Ayres and the provinces of the Rio de la Plata ; ceasing of the land. De Hoces probably saw from their discovery and conquest by the Spaniards a portion of Tierra del Fuego west of Staten to the establishment of their political independenti. Island; for Cape Horn is situated, according to Second edition, enlarged, with a new map and Fitzroy, in 55° 58' 41'. See Navarrete, v. 28, illustrations (London, 1852). 404."

6 See fac-simile in Vol. III. p. 17.

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The distinctively Spanish maps of 1527 and 1529 - respectively assigned, the one formerly to Ferdinand Columbus, though with scant evidence, and the other to the

1 Sketch of a section of the so-called Sebas. ? Cf. sketch, Vol. II. p. 43. In addition to tian Cabot mappemonde in the National Library the reproductions of this map elsewhere named, at Paris, following a photographic reproduction one can be found in Ernst Mayer's Die Entwickin Harvard College Library.

lung der Seekarten bis zur Gegenwart (Wien, 1877). VOL. VIII. – 25



royal hydrographer, Ribero — confine the shores of this supposable continent to what Magellan actually saw. Much the same may be said of the Homem mappemonde of about

1530, preserved in the British Museum; of the atlas at Turin;' of another mappemonde of about this time which Peschel

has described and drawn in :::

colored fac-simile;of the 1 desanson

Agnese map of 1536,8 the type of so many others, including

the Bodleian manuscript of Estrecho de

about the same date. femende

In the Finæus map of 1531, Magallaes

and in Schöner's of 1533, the

great southern continent takes TIERA DE

very definite shape about the
It was

some time after RIBERO, 1529.

1535, when the details of the

coast of Chili first came to be partially understood in Europe, that this completion of the western coast of South America was drawn in the map with anything like precision; though Münster“ and Apianus,5 in 1540, and the Nancy globe, 6 had given it a seemingly definite line. It was drawn with a dotted line in the Homem of 1540 (?); ? in the portolano (1539) which Charles V. gave to Philip II., the possible work of Agnese ; 8 in the Mercator gores of 1541;9 and with equal

S. Augustin uncertainty in the great mappemonde of Sebastian Cabot in 1544. Both the determinate and dotted-line delineations of the west coast are shown in the maps of an atlas in the Riccardi Palace at Florence.10 The coast is

The lande drawn continuous, though without names, in

of a French mappemonde (1540 ?), which was

Brazzz acquired by the British Museum in 1790, and which in Kohl's opinion was derived from French sources.

The Ulpius globe 11 leaves the coast unbroken, but calls it “terra incognita."

Rotz's map in his Idrography, preserved



i Figured in the Jahresbericht des Vereins für Erdkunde in Dresden, 1870, Tab. vii.

? In the Jahresbericht des Vereins für Erdkunde in Leipzig, 1871. % See Vol. IV. p. 71.

MARTINES, 1578. 4 See Vol. IV. p. 41.

5 Lelewel, pl. 46; repeated in the 1545 edition of Apianus.

Marciana at Venice. Cf. Studi biog. e bibliog., etc, 6 See sketch, Vol. II. p. 433. ? See Vol. II. p. 456, for a sketch.

9 See Vol. II. p. 177. 8 See Vol. II. p. 445. The same uncertainty 19 Shown in the Fahrbuch des Vereins für Era is shown in the Agnese map of 1543 at Gotha, kunde in Dresden, 1870, Tab. vii. and ix. and in those of 1554 preserved in the Biblioteca 11 Fac-simile in Vol. IV. p. 42.

ji. 139.

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in the British Museum, repeated the new feature in the eastern parts which was shown in the French mappemonde of 1540 (?) in making a large part of Brazil an island, feature which was long preserved with some cartographers, and appears more pronounced still in the manuscript atlas of Johannes Martines, 1578, now in the British Museum, and is still differently conceived in the manuscript map of Johannes à Doetechum, made about 1585.

Four years after Cabot's desertion of the La Plata, Pedro de Mendoza led an expedition thither to possess the country, which in part he called Buenos Ayres, from the salubrity of the climate. The enmity of the natives and famine finally drove him away; but he left his lieutenant, Ayolas, who explored the stream and founded the city of Asuncion in 1537. To make good the hold which Ayolas had established, and in the belief that he was dead, — somewhat in advance of the fact, though the natives in due time murdered him and his followers, — Alvar Cabeça de Vaca was despatched from Spain, in 1540, with a following of four hundred men. He divided his force, part attempting to reach Asuncion from the coast overland, and part by following the river. After much hardship and adventure, both parties finally arrived at the settlement within a month of each other. Not much gain to geography came of the subsequent proceedings.

1 This follows the map given in Wieser's apply the designation "Terra australis” to the Magalhães-Strasse. Wieser thinks (p. 66) that supposed Antarctic continent. the 1531 map of Finæus is the earliest map to 2 Kohl's Collection, no. 424.


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He fought disease and want, and at last succumbed to a mutiny, which put in command Irala, one of Mendoza's men who had remained, and Cabeça de Vaca found himself a prisoner to his own followers. After a detention of nearly a year he was sent to Spain. Irala proved to be a hero of discovery; he forced an expedition through to Peru, and established a route across the continent. He showed himself also to be an able governor, and made of his people, whose amalgamation with the natives he encouraged, a nation of marked characteristics. He died in 1557 ; but there was no one to take his place, and Paraguay never again had a governor in all respects his equal. 3

1 This follows the map given in Wieser's documentos relativos a la historia antigua y mod. Magalhậes-Strasse.

erna de las provincias del Rio de la Plata. Ilus2 The fifth section of Cartas de Indias con- trados con notas y disertaciones por Pedro de Angelis tains papers relating to the region of the La (Buenos-Aires, 1836-1837). Plata (1555-1556) during the administration of 3 We have a plain narrative of these exploits Martinez de Irala. Cf. also Coleccion de obras » of Mendoza and Cabeça de Vaca in an account

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