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Villegagnon then deserted his companions and returned to France;? while the Portuguese, after a year or two, attacked and destroyed the post in 1560. Beyond some narratives of the events, this futile attempt at colonization left no trace, and added little, beyond the

chance descriptions of Thevet, De Léry, and others, to the knowledge which Europe was garnering of the New World in this direction.

The French again occupied the post, but only till 1567; when on St. Sebastian's Day, January 20, the fort was again attacked, and the Portuguese ever after maintained the foothold which their forces had won.2

PORT DE LA CRUS

SANT JULLIENTI

C.oe LAS
VIRGINES

Gomara says that the voyage of Camargo, in 1540, first gave to Europe something approaching a tolerably accurate knowledge of the west coast of Patagonia and Chili. Münster does not seem to have profited by this in the “ Typus universalis,"

which appeared in the Ptolemy of 1545, and DETROIT DE

was re-engraved in that of 1552 and in the MAGAILLANT. Cosmographia of Münster in 1554;

s but Juan Freire in his manuscript map (1546)

evidently drew from Camargo for this part, as NICOLAS VALLARD, 1547.4

he drew from Pigafetta for the east coast.

The draft of Patagonia and the Straits of Magellan in the Nicolas Vallard atlas of 1547, now in the Sir Thomas Phillipps Collection, indicates rather dependence upon Portuguese reports than upon Spanish ; and the Portuguese nomenclature of the coast is hardly disguised by the French transformations which it has undergone. The small Spanish map which Medina was allowed to insert in his Arte de navegar, in 1545, was cut off below the La Plata ; but the same cut was

not shown here – is in a lake, supposed to Popellinière, Les trois mondes, iii. 2. On Ville be the Lake of Xarayes, discovered by Cabeça gagnon himself cf. Bayle's Dictionnaire ; Guérin, de Vaca before 1546.

Navigateurs Français, p. 162, and his Marins illus1 Villegagnon published a reply to the tres, p. 231; Gosselin, Marine Normande (docucharges against him, — Response aux libelles pub- ments), p. 147; Faillon, Colonie Française, i. 534; liez contre le Chevalier de Villegaignon, au lecteur Nouvelles annales des voyages (1854), iv. 188; Chrestien (Paris), 1561. F.S. Ellis priced a copy Crespin, Histoire des martyrs; C. W. Baird's (1884, no. 302) at £ 5 5s.

Huguenot Emigration to America (N. Y. 1885). 2 Parkman tells the story of this French fail- 3 In the first engraving South America is ure in a summarized way, but graphically, in his called “America seu insula Brasilii;” and in Pioneers of France, chap. ii; and Gaffarel re- the newly engraved one “ Ameria [sic] vel hearses it at considerable length in his Brésil Brasilii insula.” Français (p. 139, etc.), with ample references. 4 The inscription on this atlas, “ Dieu pour

The ungodly tilting of the two religious fac- Espoir. Nicolas Vallard de Dieppe, 1547," ren. tions in the colony is well shown in the Histoire ders it uncertain if Vallard was the owner or des choses mémorables advenues au la terre du maker ; but Kohl says (no. 447) that the inBrésil, published (at Geneva] in 1561 (Carter- scriptions in the body of the map are in the Brown, i. 237), and Nouvelles annales des z'oyages, same hand. The tropic of Capricorn is marked; vol. xl. Cf. also Nicolas Barre's Copie de quel- but the degrees of longitude, though traced, are ques lettres sur la navigation du Chevalier de not numbered. The bay of Rio de Janeiro is Villegaignon, Paris, 1557. (Ternaux-Compans, drawn, but not named. i. 102; cf. De Bry, iii. 285, 295, for a Latin ver- 6 A similar dependence on Portuguese origision. The French was again reprinted in Gaf. nals characterized a French map of an outline farel's Brésil Français, p. 373, etc.)

very like the Vallard map. It belonged to JoThere are passing mentions of the events mard when Kohl made the drawing of it which in Lescarbot, Nouvelle France (1612), p. 146, and is in the Washington Collection (no. 358).

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patched out rudely down to the Straits of Magellan, but not beyond, when it appeared in the edition of 1549, as shown in the annexed fac-simile.

The Ptolemy of

1548 gave a greater CARTA MARI

prolongation of South

America toward the OCEANOAPTEN

south than earlier maps had shown. The maps

of this edition were the INDIA SVIRILOR

work of Gastaldi, who

made a diamond-shaped Carlo 47

island of Tierra del Fuego, - a novelty at the time.

Europe at this peANGE

riod got its ideas of the great South American

continent largely from Sluce

two maps.

One of these was the Bellero map, which first appeared at Antwerp in 1554; 2 the other was the map which appeared in Ramusio's Collection in 1556, and was repeated in 1565.3 We first get

the general easterly course

of the Amazon after Debi SENAPIONA

Orellana's explorations in 1541, though Homem in 1558 interpreted his accounts with an amusing serpentine regularity, while he left the lower western coast of the continent as undefined as it had been

drawn many years CARTA MARINA, PTOLEMY, 1548.

before.

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1 Cf. no. 59 and no. 60, called “ Carta ma- 3 See Vol. II. p. 228. Another fac-simile of sina,” and used again in the Ptolemy of 1561. Ramusio's map of Brazil is given in Paul Gaf

2 It came out in Gomara's Mexico and his farel's Brésil Français, p. 61. On a portolano Historia general de las Indias, both in 1554 ; in preserved in the Department of the Marine at Darinel de Tirel's poem, La sphère des deux Paris, and ascribed to Guillaume le Testu, see mondes, in 1555; sometimes in Eden's Decades, Gaffarel, Brésil Français, p. 122; Berthelot, in in 1555; in Cieça de Leon's Peru, in 1556; and Journal de l'instruction publique ; F Denis, Une in Levinus Apollonius' De Peruviæ, in 1565- fête Brésilienne à Rouen, in 1550, P. 32. This 1567. Cf. Mapoteca Colombina, p. 2; IIuth, ii. atlas was made in 1555, and was dedicated to 605; Stevens, Bibliotheca geographica, no. 1,987; Coligny. Le Testu was killed in an action with O'Callaghan, no. 613; Rich (1832), no. 30; Drake in 1572 near Nombre de Dios. Gaffarel Carter-Brown, vol. i. nos. 201, 217; Muller (1877), also (p. 115) speaks of the explorations on the no. 893

coast by Jean Alfonsce at an earlier day.

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The huge Antarctic land connecting Tierra del Fuego with the supposable Australia came back to us again in the Martines map, shown on another page, which is probably to

1 See Vol. II. p. 450.

be dated between 1550 and 1560. This last date we may give to a Spanish portolano, preserved in the Bodleian Library, which shows all the South American coast except the northwesterly parts.'

Ruscelli, in the Ptolemy of 1561, gives in one of his maps a dotted line to the Chili coast, and leaves indefinite the southern limits of Tierra del Fuego; but in his “ Tierra nova” the outline of South America is completed.

A map made by Diego Gutierrez, and engraved by Hieronymus Cock in 1562, represents the Amazon much as it is shown by Homem, and introduces an erroneous river

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system (Rio Marannon) south of the Amazon, which prevailed for a considerable time in

the maps.

Passing over the map of Des Liens of Dieppe (1566), preserved in the National Library at Paris, as presenting nothing distinctive, we come to the very indicative great Mercator map of 1569, which introduced a remarkably protuberant outline of the southwestern coast of South America. This feature stood as a type with the map-makers for a long time, though it was not copied in the Spanish mappemonde of 1573, as figured in Lelewel, nor in the Gilbert map of 1576.6 The Mercator type, however, found a successful propagandist in Ortelius, who issued (1570) his great atlas the next year after Mercator, and repeated the same outline of South America in 1575 and 1584. Similar maps, dated 1574, are in the Enchiridion of Philippus Gallæus. The double protuberant angles of the west coast which characterize the Mercator-Ortelius type give place to a single projecting angle in the Descrittione di tutto il Peru of Paulo di Forlani da Verona, — which is without date, but is placed by Kohl about 1570, — in the Porcacchi maps of 1572 and 1576, and in the manuscript Martines map of 1578 in the British Museum. The extended southern polar continent, to

1 There is a drawing of it in the Kohl Col- Plata. It gives with some precision the Bay lection (no. 356).

of Rio de Janeiro. The nomenclature differs 2 This follows Kohl's drawing (no. 429) from Freire's map. It is no. 428 in Kohl's from an atlas of Homem, preserved in the Brit- Collection. ish Museum, which shows the explorations of 3 This map is sketched in Vol. II. p. 452. Orellana. The same atlas contains a map of the

4 Vol. i. pl. 7. coast of Brazil, with two main forks to the La

5 See Vol. III. p. 203.

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