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Bry, part xi., is not a great improvement, in respect to the Straits themselves, over the chart of Van Weert.?
There was a further development in the Schouten-Lemaire voyage of 1615-1617, when the new passage between Tierra del Fuego and Staten Land was discovered, and Cape Horn was first rounded from the east by Willem Cornelisz Schouten van Hoorn.3 In referring
1 This is taken from the Harvard College 2 Cf. Spilbergen's Speculum, 1619 (priced by copy of the Vera historia admirandæ cuiusdam F. S. Ellis in 1884, no. 276, at £18 18s.), and the nauigationis, quam Huldericus Schmidel, ab anno editions in Hulsius, 1648, etc.; Carter-Brown, 1534 usque ad annum 1554 in Americam vel nouum ii. 195. The map is Kohl's no 402. mundum, iuxta Brasiliam et Rio della Plata con- 3 His original Journael ofte Beschryvinghe apfecit (Noribergæ, 1599).
peared at Amsterdam in 1618 in several editions,
to the other contemporary authority for this voyage, Muller says that “all honor due to the skilful and learned young Lemaire is turned in Schouten's Journal 10 his own profit; and in this and many other circumstances Lemaire's account of this voyage differs
and also at Arnheim. Cf. Tiele, Mémoire bib- sonneuve, no. 2,952; Sunderland, vol. v. no. liographique sur les journaux des nirviguteurs Neer- 11,202. landais, nos. 34, 45; Muller (1877), no. 2,916; In 1619 a German text appeared in De Bry, Stevens, Historical Collection, vol. i. no. 780; part xi., and in Hulsius, part xvi. Latin texts Carter-Brown, ii. 208, with fac-simile of title were issued at Amsterdam in 1619, by Willem and of portrait of Schouten; Murphy, no. 2,234. Jannsen and Van der Keere, independently, and There were other Dutch editions at Amster. in De Bry. Cf. Tiele, nos. 43, 44; Muller, 1872, dam in 1632, 1644, 1645, 1658, 1661, 1663 (1664), nos. 1,957, 1,958, and 1877, nos. 2,918, 2,919; 1688, and as a chap-book in 1766; at Rotter. Carter-Brown, ij. 225, 230, 910; Stevens, no. dam in 1637; at Tot Hoorn in 1648 (with three 782; Sunderland, vol. v. no. 11,203
F. S. different imprints, and additions to the text from Ellis, 1884, no. 266, prices a Jannsen copy at the journals of Lemaire and Aris Claesz, – F. £21.) A very rare Spanish text was published S. Ellis prices one at £6 6s. in 1884, no. 267), at Madrid in 1619 (Rich, 1832, no. 149, — £665.), and at Dockum, 1649. Cf. Tiele, nos. 33, 48, 50, and an English edition, Relation of a Wonderfull 51, 52; Muller (1872), nos. 1,955, 1,959-1,960, Voiage, was printed at London the same year 1,962-1963; (1877), nos. 2,920–2,923; Carter- (Carter-Brown, ii. 231). Thus the book went Brown, ii. 398, 447, 554, 655, 660, 675, 841, through ten editions in eight months, and thirty896, 934, 952; Stevens, Historical Collections, five or forty different issues are chronicled vol. i. no. 785, 786, 788. It was also included in Holland during the seventeenth century. It in Saeghman's Verscheyde Journalen, etc, in is also included in such Engiish collections as 1663. French editions appeared at Amster. Purchas, Dalrymple, etc. dam and Paris in 1618, both of which are rare 1 A fac-simile of the map in the title of the and are worth from 100 to 200 francs, though English edition of Schouten's voyage, The RelaF. S. Ellis prices a copy in fine binding (1884, tion of a Wonderfull l'oyage made by William Cor. no. 265) at £24. Both were repeated the next nelison Schouten (London, 1619). Cf. Carteryear, 1619. Cf. Tiele, nos. 37, 42; Muller, 1872, Brown, ii. 97. Kohl, in his Magellan's-Strasse
, no. 1,956, and 1877, no. 2,917; Stevens, no. gives the map from the Amsterdam, 1619, edition 783; Carter-Brown, ii. 209, 226, 227, 229; MaiThis last is Kohl's no. 403 in his Collection.
considerably.” Lemaire's narrative, Ephemerides sive descriptio navigationis australis institutæ Ao. 1615, first appeared as the second part of the Latin edition of Herrera's Novus orbis at Amsterdam in 1622, and in French and German the same year. The book is commonly called the Collection de Michel Colin.”] The maps are De Bry's; and we now find the Tierra del Fuego taking its comparatively diminutive form at the apex of the continent, though the old plates with the exaggerated Antarctic continent went slowly out of use.?
1 Cf. Tiele, pp. 56, 59, 312; Camus, pp. 147, 2 Cf. the maps in the Amsterdam edition of 160; Muller (1877), no. 1,840; Leclerc, nos. 280- Linschoten (1644), and that of Kaerius (1646) in 281; Sabin, no. 31,540. Cf. also the edition of Speed's Prospect (London, 1665). Spilbergen's Speculum, no. 1,619 (Carter-Brown, Various maps of this period, showing South ii. 232).
America as well as North, are given in Vol. II.
While Schouten's narrative was keeping the printers busy, another expedition under the brothers Nodal set sail (1618-1619). The narrative of the cruise, Relacion del viage, etc., appeared at Madrid in 1621.1 The map, which on account of its rarity is supposed to have been suppressed by the Spanish Government, was made by Pedro Teixeira Falhernas, the royal cosmographer.2 Nodal had with him some Dutch sailors and pilots who had been with Schouten, and rounded Cape Horn and returned to Spain through Magellan's Straits. His drafts of Tierra del Fuego are superior to Schouten’s, and he put Cape Ilorn a degree nearer its correct latitude. The strait at the southeast of Tierra del Fuego, called after Lemaire before, Nodal now called St. Vincent, a name which was retained for some time on the Spanish maps. The west coast of Patagonia is only roughly drawn. The eastern coast is one of the correctest up to this time; and he gives the proper easterly extension of the southern limb of the continent, which none of the other map-makers had recognized.
There was now little to mend in the general contour of South America on the best maps of the rest of the seventeenth century, though much error in detail still prevailed. The maps of De Laet (1630), of the Mercator atlas (1635), of Jannson's Atlas Minor (1651), and of Heylin in his Cosmographie (1663), are good examples of the better cartography. The tendency had been to place Cape Horn short of its proper latitude ; but Jannson, in 1666, put it a degree too far south. In 1669 Sir John Narborough was despatched by Charles II. to survey the Patagonian waters. He applied many English names, displacing the earlier Spanish and Dutch ones, and used largely antecedent Dutch charts. The map he made is in the British Museum, and a printed copy was published, much reduced by Thornton. There is no present occasion to trace the cartography of the South American continent beyond this point.
1 Sabin, vol. xiii. nos. 55,394-55-395; Leclerc, 2 It is sketched in Kohl's Magellan's-Strasse, nos. 1,980-1,982; Carter-Brown, ii. 250; Nodal where are also a sketch from a manuscript map was reprinted at Cadiz in 1769. This edition (1640) by the Jesuits of Chili, in the National is so rare that Rich priced it in 1832 at £10 10s. Library at Paris, and the map to Brouwer's (Catalogue, no. 158). The map is Kohl's no.404. Reise, 1706.
NOTE. This essay was plated in July, 1885. Since then a posthumous work of Henry Stevens has appeared: Johann Schöner. A reproduction of the globe of 1523 long lost ; his dedicatory letter and the “ De Moluccis” of Maximilianus Transylvanus, with a new translation and notes on the globe. Edited with an introd. and bibliography by C. H. Coote (London, 1888). The preface says that this hitherto unknown series of gores (globe) passed from Henry Stevens' hands to C. H. Kalbfleisch, of New York, in the autumn of 1885. It is held to be of importance in respect to the track of Magellan. The volume is accompanied by the following fac-similes, in addition to the gores of 1523. The Lenox globe; the Boulanger globe (Tross gores); the Schöner globes. of 1515 and 1520, and the Cantino map. These have all been reproduced, or the American parts of them, in earlier volumes of the present work. The Lenox globe was taken (Vol. III., 212) from the cut used by Mr. Coote the Encyclopædia Britannica, acknowledgment being made to that and to the original Stevens source (Vol. III., 214.) Nordenskiöld, in his Facsimile Atlas, and Harrisse, in his Discovery of North America, have each emphatically, and with good reasons, denied the connection of Schöner with this globe.
By the Editor.
THE MANUSCRIPT SOURCES OF THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
I. THE FEDERAL ARCHIVES.
Both Sparks and Bancroft inspected to a considerable degree the archives of the general government and of the original thirteen States, and examined some of the more important collections of papers amassed by prominent actors of the Revolution, and to some extent of later periods. When they began this work, something had already been done by the general government in printing certain parts of its archives ; but not much had been done by any State ; and scarcely any of the private papers of the participants in the Revolution had been printed in any systematic way. Previous to the time when these historians set about their studies, and Peter Force began to amass his collections,1 now between sixty and seventy years ago, there had been no one, if we except Gordon and Ramsay, who had at all pushed their researches so as to include any considerable examination of the government archives. After both of these early writers had done their work, there was in 1800 a fire in the War Department, which destroyed some portion of the papers in its keeping; and in 1814, at the capture of the city by the British, there was similar destruction, more or less severe at the War, Navy, and Treasury offices, and the Treasury again suffered in 1833. The Department of State escaped such perils, and it has been the depository of the principal government records, ever since the first Congress, by an act approved Sept. 15, 1789, made it finally responsible for the safe custody of “the acts, records, and seal of the United States." 3 The same act left it to the discretion of the President to send such papers as might be determined on to the War and Treasury Departments, which accounts for rosters and accounts of the Revolution being in those departments.
A report of the council of the American Antiquarian Society, made in October, 1882, by the Hon. George F. Hoar, senator of the United States from Massachusetts, and printed in their Proceedings (new series, vol. ii. p. 118, etc.), gives an “account of the material for historical study now accessible in Washington," in which he enumerates the records of the prize appeal cases (from 1777 down) as a part of the archives of the Supreme Court, which are of themselves complete from 1790 down; and the records of the postal system after its organization by Franklin in 1775, — as among the papers of the Post-Office Department. I learn from Mr. Paul Leicester Ford that a part of the Post Office papers (1775-1789) are among the papers of the Continental Congress in the Department of State. None of the papers in the Post-Office Department cover Franklin's term; the earliest being the ledger kept by Richard Bache, which in 1865 was printed in fac-simile as Franklin's ledger.
In the Indian Bureau there are materials relating to the history of the tribes before the Revolution, collected by Jedidiah Morse.
It is, however, in the library of Congress and at the Department of State that the greatest wealth of Revolutionary papers is found. In the library of Congress are over sixty bound folio volumes of military papers of the generals of the Revolutionary War; the papers of Rochambeau ; thirty-two orderly books, including Washington's at Valley Forge; the Paul Jones papers, in twelve volumes (1776-1778); Georgia state papers (1775-1780); documents of New Hampshire; of Delaware (1680-1794); journal of General Bourne (1771); letter-books of General Nathanael Greene (1781, 1782), in two volumes ; journal of the Baltimore Committee of Safety (1774-1776); record-books of Ephraim Blaine, commissary-general of the Revolutionary army, 1777
1 These are now in the library of Congress, and include a large collection of maps.
2 Reports regarding this loss through invasion are by P. Magruder, clerk of the House (13th Cong., 3d sess., Sept. 22, 1814, House Doc.); by W. Jones, on the loss at the Navy Department (State Papers, Naval Affairs, i. 320);
on the loss of the Executive Department (House Doc., Nov. 17, 1814); a report on Magruder's neglect (House Doc., Dec. 12, 1814), and his reply (Dec. 19); Joseph Pearson's report on the destruction of the library (House Doc. Jan. 10, 1815).
3 Statutes at Large, i. 29, 69.