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failing to indicate omissions in a letter, though he might have had the example of Chief Justice Marshall, was not justifiable when the appearance of the printed page was such that one might naturally infer that the text was complete. Sparks never felt that the final amends made by Mahon were adequate, though, as Dr. Ellis 1 shows, social courtesies were later somewhat laboriously cultivated between these two American and English historians.

Four volumes of Sparks's copies of the Correspondence of Washington, 1775-1797, are in the Cabinet of the Massachusetts Historical Society, being those printed by him in his Washington.

There are, however, among the Sparks MSS. (no. Ixv.) five volumes of Washington's letters to various persons, 1754-1789, which were copied while the originals were in Sparks's possession, and which were not

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1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., X. 267. Cf. also remarks of Mr. Winthrop on Stanhope's death, and a letter in which Stanhope said that Dr. Ellis's account of the controversy had been done with candor and courtesy (Ibid., xiv. 192, 196).

Sparks's character as an editor has of late years been reconsidered in various ways. Mr. William H. Smith found among the Bouquet Papers (included in the Haldimand Papers in the British Museum MSS. 21,641, 21,658) the original letters which Washington wrote to that officer during the French war, and unaware of the existence of copies of them among the Parkman MSS. in the Massachusetts Historical Society, and of the synopsis of them made by

JARED SPARKS.* Brymner, the Dominion archivist, in 1873, and supposing them new to students, he communicated them to the Mag. Washington's Writings now in progress, as edited by Mr. of Amer. History, Feb., 1888, printing in parallel columns Ford. This last gentleman makes in his prospectus the the genuine text with that of Sparks, as far as the latter following statements : editor printed them (11), and adding such (14) as Sparks did "Since Mr. Sparks issued his edition of Washington's not print. These were accompanied with charges affecting writings in 1834-37, an immense mass of new material, the integrity of Sparks, in utter disregard of the natural in- illustrating the history of the Revolution and the first years ference to be drawn from Sparks's preface to his second vol- of the nation's existence, has been discovered. Manuscript ume,-whence Smith had drawn Sparks's text,—that Sparks collections, which in his day were jealously guarded in priwas obliged to use the letter-book copies, as subsequently vate hands, have been dispersed or deposited in public in-. worked over by Washington himself, since at that time the stitutions, and so in a greater measure become accessible to existence of the originals sent to Bouquet was not known. the students of American history. The purchase of the Sparks was doubtless responsible for some of the changes papers of Washington by the national government, as well which he had made, but the bulk of the divergences pointed as the acquisition of the private correspondence of other out by Smith was due to Washington himself. Hence the leading spirits of that time, have preserved from dispersion attack on Sparks was unwarranted in its extent. It was and destruction historical material, the value of which can subsequently denied by officers of the Department of State hardly be estimated, and of which little study and use have that any evidence existed in the Washington Papers to as yet been made. In addition to these rich stores of hisshow that Washington had ever at a late day rewritten his torical manuscripts, the close and minute study of Ameriletters. It was represented in reply, that, whatever Sparks's can biography and local history has rescued from oblivion shortcomings as an editor might be, his veracity was un- much valuable information, and so prepared the way to a questioned. Upon further search being made, the identical more complete collection of Washington's correspondence, volumes used by Sparks, and proving his statements, were public and private, than could have been thought possible found, as is acknowledged in Worthington C. Ford's preface at the time Mr. Sparks compiled his volumes. Where he to his edition of Washington's writings.

was obliged to be content with a rough draft or transcript, Further statements regarding Sparks's editorial canons often imperfect and intended as a mere memorandum, the were made in an address on the Manuscript Sources of the original may now be seen; where he was unable to find an American Revolution, by Justin Winsor (Papers A mer. explanation of the subject matter of one of Washington's Hist. Asso., 4th meeting, and Mag. Amer. Hist., July, letters, the proper understanding of which depended more 1887); in a paper by Mellen Chamberlain (Papers A mer. upon a letter written to Washington than upon the reply, Hist. Asso., iii. 35); and by Herbert B. Adams on the we are now in the possession of such letter; many private “ Pioneer work of Jared Sparks " in the Mag. of A mer. papers of Washington, supposed to have been lost, have History, July, 1888. The project of Secretary Bayard to been brought to light, while it is within easy bounds of truth print the Washington Papers, as well as others in the De- to assert that for every letter that Mr. Sparks printed, ten partment of State, seemed again to draw attention to the are available, throwing new and valuable light upon the subject, as did the late Francis Wharton's proposed edition military and political history of the day, and furnishing the of the Diplomatic Correspondence, and the edition of means for deciding finally many questions that are in dis

A reproduction of Andrews' engraving (1855) of Stuart's unfinished portrait painted in 1828. There is a half-length painted by T. Sully and engraved by S. A. Schoff, which accompanies a memoir in the National Port. Gallery. There is an engraving of a bust by Powers, owned by the family, of which casts exist in Harvard College library and in the Mass. Hist. Soc. library.

printed by Sparks; and during the last fifty years a very great number of Washington's letters have been printed which Sparks either did not know of, or could not include in his scheme.1

As a necessary complement to the body of Washington letters, Sparks had selected, while the papers were in his hands, a body of letters addressed to Washington, and from copies of them then made he arranged and published in four volumes at a later day, Correspondence of the American Revolution, being letters of eminent men to George Washington from the time of his taking command of the army to the end of his Presi. dency (Boston, 1853). He printed all letters entire, and corrected “ errors of grammar and obvious blunders, the result of hasty composition.” 2 He points out the necessity of this in respect to some of the English letters of Rochambeau and Lafayette.3

Beside the letter-books bound in Washington's time, there came into Sparks's hands a considerable mass of loose papers in bundles, and while they were at Cambridge, Sparks had these last arranged in a chronological order and bound, and added an index. The entire collection as it now stands in the library of the Depart. ment of State has an extent of more than two hundred bound volumes, including 62 volumes of letters written by Washington, and 119 of letters addressed to him.

The second and third manuscript accessions to the collections in the Department of State were successive parts of the Madison Papers bought in 1837 and 1845.4

pute through lack of the historical information needed to this point (1781) Washington did not resume his journal determine them.

till Sept., 1784. His diary in 1789-90 has been printed. “Of the immense official correspondence which Wash- Another important paper is one giving Washington's charington conducted during the Revolution, only a very small acterization of his old companions-in-arms, written in 1791, part was printed by Mr. Sparks; and a large number of let- when it was necessary to consider their fitness anew for ters throwing important light upon military movements, the service in case of a war with France. Sparks knew it, and motives and the consequences, were rejected.

there is a copy in the Sparks MSS., xxxii., vol. ii. The ** The charge has often been made that the misdirected original is now in the State Library at Albany, and it has zeal of Mr. Sparks led him into taking strange liberties with been printed (1879) by Dr. Henry A. Homes, the librarian, the written text of Washington, and there is much in his and less perfectly in the Magazine of American History, volumes to support the charge. In some instances parts of ii. 81. two letters are found joined as one, without any note of ex- There is also among the Washington Papers the final planation ; in others, a change of words, of punctuation, draft of Washington's expenses during the Revolutionary or grammatical construction, the omission or insertion of war, all in his own hand, rendered as his only claim of a phrases, and the passing over of entire paragraphs, have pecuniary nature upon the country, since he declined to lent a misleading tone to the printed text, and given occa- receive any compensation for his services. They extend sion to disputes that a stricter adherence to the written

page from June, 1775, to June, 1783. This document has been would have prevented.”

published as Monuments of Washington's Patriotissa, a 1 Some of the main sources of this kind may be indi- fac-simile of his public accounts kept during the Revoluécated: - Lives of such of his officers as Reed, Greene, etc.; tionary War, and some of the most interesting documents collections like the Mount Vernon letters in the Long connected with his military command and Civil AdminIsland Historical Society (cf. M. D. Conway in Harper's istration (Washington, 1841). A copy of Monroe's Pick Monthly, April, 1889); the Letters from Washington to of the Conduct of the Executive, with Washington's marHeath, in Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., xliv.; the Letters by Wash- ginal annotations, was given by him to Judge Bushrod ington, Adams, Jefferson, and others, written during Washington, and by the latter to Judge Story, and while and after the Revolution, to 7. Langdon, New Hamp- in the latter's hands Sparks copied the annotations. (Ci. shire (edited by A, L. Elwyn) (Philadelphia, 1880); the ante, VII. 514.) These he printed, so far as they touched correspondence of Washington and R. H. Lee, given in the body of that book, but with the same license of amendthe Life of the latter (vol. ii. pp. 1-36); C W. Butter- ment and expurgation which he was accustomed to allow to field's Washington-Crawford Correspondence (Cincinnati, himself; and only indicated indebtedness by saying that he 1877); letters to Chastellux in the Catholic World, Nov., was under obligation to "an eminent jurist." The book 1867; numerous letters in the Mag. of American History, was left by Judge Story to Harvard College, and being, particularly Feb. and Aug., 1879, and Feb., 1880 ; others for no apparent reason, sealed up by its late president, in the No. Amer. Review, Nov., 1886. In the Mag. of Edward Everett, it was only lately brought to light. Amer. Hist., iii. p. 150, there is a list of Washington's let- 2 The work contains about 1000 letters from nearly 200 ters printed since Sparks's edition.

writers. He added in appendixes various letters, mostly The letters above noted as in the Long Island Historical from the papers of Schuyler, Gates, Lee, Lincoln, Sullivan, Society, 150 in number, dated 1793-99, are announced for and Stark, illustrating the invasion of Canada in 1775-76; publication under the editing of M. D. Conway. Cf. Edw. movements in Virginia and South Carolina in 1776; the Everett's Orations, iv. 446, for comments on this record of campaign against Burgoyne (1777), and the movements on Washington's last years at Mount Vernon.

the Hudson (1777). In addition to those in print, there are large numbers of The letters of Col. Armand (1777-1791) in their imperfect Washington's letters never printed. These may be found English, copied from those among the Washington Papers, in archives of the States, in the cabinets of the Massachu- are printed in the N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1878. setts and other historical societies, and in all the principal 3 Sparks explains that, after Washington's death, Lafay. collections of papers amassed by Washington's officers, ette's letters to him were returned to their writer, and that to say nothing of the stray examples in numerous autograph he had printed those which he gave from copies furnished collections.

by Lafayette or by his son. The files of these copies are There are also other writings of Washington, now in noted in the Sparks Catalogue, p. 226, nos. 84-89. print, which Sparks did not include in his volumes. Such 4 Statutes at Large, 171, 309; ix. 235 ; xi, 117; M. is his Journal, the original of which is now among the 573 ; xiv. 348. $30,000 and $25,000 were paid for these lots Washington Papers, Parts of it, Aug. 1, 1781, to Nov. 5, respectively. Cf. advertisement to vol. i. of Letters and 1781, are printed in the Mag. of Amer. Hist., 1881. From other Writings of Madison.

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The papers consist of both originals and copies, and J. C. Hamilton says the copies omit parts of the originals, and that in his Republic of the United States he had made use of these omitted parts. When Madison was known to be preparing his papers for transmission, he was often supposed to be preparing an historical review of his times; but he seems never to have intended such a work.1

The fourth purchase was the Monroe Papers, in 1849, for which $20,000 were paid.?

The fifth included, beside the second part of the Madison Papers as already mentioned, the papers of Thomas Jefferson and of Alexander Hamilton,3

The Jefferson Papers were found after his death to embrace 26,000 letters written to him, and the drafts of 16,000 written by him. They were in the hands of his grandson, Randolph, when he published his edition in 1829; and Tucker in 1837 made further use of them. When the government acquired them 5 they made 137 quarto volumes as bound. Randall found material still in the possession of the family, which formed an addition to the assistance he got from those in the government's hands, a large part of which had never appeared in any edition of Jefferson's works.6

The papers of Hamilton, embraced in 65 folio volumes, and costing the government $25,000, had been used by Mr. John C. Hamilton in his Life of his father in 1840, and were drawn upon by him again in 1850 in editing for the government an edition of Hamilton's writings.7

Respectfully thinly

Jared Spartis

yout

The last mass of historical papers acquired (1882) by the Department of State is what is known as the Stevens Collection of the Papers of Franklin.

It is first necessary to trace their relations to what know of the manuscripts of Franklin. No publication of the works of Franklin, of any historical importance, appeared before the Collection edited by Benjamin Vaughan in 1779.8 What is known as the Robinson edition of the Works of Franklin appeared in 1793, and included the re-Englished version of the Autobiography, with a continuation, mainly by Dr. Stuber, taken from the Columbian Magazine. Then came Castéra's edition in French in 1797 or 1798 (“ an VI de la Republique ") in two volumes.

The London trade edition of 1806 was edited by Marshall, with the assistance of Benjamin Vaughan, and in the preface there was a charge that an authoritative edition of Franklin's writings from material in the hands of his grandson, Wm. Temple Franklin, had been kept back by the interference of the British government, who had paid for the suppression of the papers. There is no evidence to support such a charge, and W. T. Franklin indignantly denied it, though it is not improbable that his father, Gov. William Franklin, who lived till 1813, a pensioner of the crown for services rendered in America, may have been adverse to the publication of the family material. It is also not unlikely that the interests of the London publishers were so centred in the successive trade editions that no one would give sufficient encouragement to a new venture. The charge of bribery was sifted and found without warrant in the Edinburgh Review (July, 1806), but there was nevertheless a certain uneasy suspicion not wholly allayed, and shared in some degrec by Jefferson, 10 that found some ground in the comparative scarcity of the diplomatic papers, which W. T. Franklin finally included in his Memoirs of the life and writings of Benjamin Franklin, written by himself to a late period, and continued to the time of his death by his grandson, William Temple Franklin, now first published from the original manuscripts, comprising the private correspondence and public negotiations of Dr. Franklin, and a selection from his political, philosophical, and miscellaneous works (London, 1818, 1817, 1819, — 3 vols. in this order of date). This was published in three quarto volumes, and in six octavos. William Duane had already entered upon the publication of an edition in Philadelphia (first volume issued in 1809) when W. T. Franklin's was announced, and by a later agreement the two editors finally worked in unison, one preparing the edition for the London market and the other that for the American, which last was issued in six octavo volumes and contains considerable matter not in the London edition.

1 Letters and other Writings, iii. 293. 30°, 448, 549, 5 Reports on the purchase. Cf. Tompkin's Bibl. Jef603;

iv. 45, 182. I am informed by Mr. W. C. Foid, that fersoniana (N. Y., 1887), and Poore's Descriptive Cataa mass of letters to Madison from Washington, E. Ran. logue. dolph, E. Pendleton, Jos. Jones, Jonathan Drayton and 6 Cf., on the lives of Jefferson and the material used in others, beside several hundred drafts of his own letters, them, ante, Vol. VII. p. 303, etc. An additional collection were retained by Mrs. Madison, and passed into the hands is described in a Classified List of manuscripts, books, corof Mr. F. B. McGuire of Washington, who now owns them. respondence, etc., of Thomas Hefferson, offered by pur

2 Statutes at Large, ix. 370. There are also Monroe chase to the United States by Sarah N. Randolph (Washpapers in the keeping of Mrs. S. L. Gouverneur, jr. ington, 1889). This collection consists of 36«o letters written I am informed that they have latterly been deposited in by, and 5000 to, Jefferson; beside farm, garden, poc!:et, the Department of State, and a Calendar of them printed. law memorandum, diary and account books, with other Schouler (United States, ii., preface) speaks (1882) of the papers. unassorted mass of the Monroe papers in the State Depart- 7 Statutes at Large, ix. 284, 646. The originals were ment, and further says (iii., preface) that he examined the also examined, and such as had been printed were collated entire mass. These papers are at present classified in with J. C. Hamilton's text for Henry Cabot Lodge's ediboxes and roughly calendared.

tion of The Writings of Hamilton, 3 Act making appropriations for the civil and diplo. 8 A supplemental collection, which contained some of matic expenses, approved Aug. 12, 1848. $20,000 were the political paners, appeared in 1787. voted by Congress for the purchase, and $6,000 for the 9 Stevens's Hist. Coll., i. p. 170. printing. Statutes at Large, ix, 284, 594.

10 Bigelow's ed., introd. ; and Edinburgh Review, July, 4 Parton, p. 689.

1830.

The first volume of Duane's edition (the last issued) is called Memoirs of the life and writings of Benjamin Franklin, written by himself and continued by his grand son, W. Temple Franklin, together with the whole of his political, philosophical, and miscellaneous works (Philad., 1818).1

The other volumes are called Works on philosophy, politics, and morals, beside all the writings published in former collections, his diplomatic currespondence, a variety of literary articles and epistolary correspondence, never before published, with memoirs and anecdotes of his life.

Colburn, in London, also published in 1817 Franklin's Private Correspondence, comprising a series of let. ters written between 1753 and 1790, from the originals, by his grandson, William Temple Franklin, which in a second edition (1817) contained a supplement not in the large work. This was only a separate issue of vol. ii. of the Memoirs.

This was the condition of affairs when Sparks, having finished his Washington, turned his attention to Franklin. His first venture was to annotate what he called A Collection of familiar letters and miscellaneous papers of Benjamin Franklin, now for the first time published (Boston, 1833; and beginning Familiar Letters, etc., London, 1833). It was between 1836 and 1840 that he published at Boston, in ten volumes, what remained for fifty years the standard edition of Franklin's works : The Works of Benjamin Franklin, with notes and a life of the author.In the first volume Sparks gave the autobiography, following the text of W. T. Franklin, to which he added a continuation to Franklin's death.3

1 There were reissues of this edition in Philadelphia, Castéra, published in 1998. Another English retranslation 1834, 1840, 1858. Vols. v. and vi, of Duane's edition were appeared also in

1793 in London, published by Parsons, translated badly in French by Charles Malo, and published and called The private life of the late Benjamin Franklin, at Paris, 1817, as Correspondence inédite et secrète du originally written by himself, and now translated Docteur B. Franklin. Cf. Ford's Bibliog. of Franklin, from the French, to which are added some account of his with some parts of which that gentleman has favored me public life, a variety of anecdotes concerning him, by MM. in advance of publication.

Brissot, Condorcet, Rochefoucault, Le Roy, etc., and the ? Reissued, Boston, 1844-56; Chicago, 1882. The plates Eulogium of M. Fauchet. This was the first English were at one time in the hands of Henry Stevens, who in- edition. tended to issue a new edition with the aid of the MSS. in It is not known that this last London translation has his keeping ; but because these MSS. became pledged, or ever been reprinted; and the publisher announced that he for some other reason, the project was added to the nu- had withheld it from earlier issue for the same reasons as merous unperfected ventures of that gentleman (Sabin, vii. influenced Robinson, p. 27). The plates are now, or were recently, owned by The first authentic English text was that included by W. F. Poole, of Chicago.

William Temple Franklin in his Memoirs, correspondence, 3 This volume was issued separately in 1844, 1856, 1857, and selections from the works of Benjamin Franklis, 1859, etc.; reprinted in London in 1850, and in Dessau, London, 1817-18. The editor, to secure a fair copy of the Germany, in 1854.

autobiography for the printer, gave the original MS. to the The autobiography has a distinct story of itself, which then representative of Le Veillard, in exchange for the may well be told here. It was written in parts successively clean copy which Franklin had given to that friend, – the in 1771, 1784, and 1788. It is known that Franklin gave grandson not observing, at the time, that Franklin had added or perhaps lent a copy, before the final pages were written, some pages to the original after the copy had been made to M. le Veillard, mayor of Passy, and it is probable that for Le Veillard, and so accordingly the 1817 edition was at some period copies were intrusted to Dr. Price and Ben- deficient in these final pages. It long remained, however, jamin Vaughan in London. It was first made public early the accepted English text, and is followed by Sparks. A in 1791 in a French version, Mémoires de la vie privée de third French version was made from this 1817 text, and apBenjamin Franklin, écrits par lui-même, published in peared the next year in Paris, without name of translator, Paris by Buisson, usually attributed to Jacques Gibelin ; though it is attributed to M. de la Mardelle. It is called Me but this version was only of the part first written. It is not moires sur la vie et les écrits de Benjamin Franklin, certainly known what copy of the original the translator publiés sur le manuscrit original rédigé par lui-même ex used, though Le Veillard, to vindicate himself against the grande partie, et continué jusqu'à sa mort par 9. 7. charge of injuring W. T. Franklin's interest, published a Franklin (Paris, 1818). It made part of a translation of protest against the publication. It was from this French the entire work: but only 3 volumes, of which this was rendering that a German version was published in Berlin in the first, were printed. 1792; and an English version was printed in London in 1793 A fourth French version, Mémoires sur la vie de Bexby Robinson, in an issue of the works of Franklin edited jamin Franklin, was published by Mons. A. C. Renouard by Vaughan, after the publication had been delayed for in 1828. He seems to have had access to the original then nearly two years in hopes that W. T. Franklin's edition in France, and the final pages omitted in the 1818 edition

This book, the Works of the late Dr. were given. Sparks does not seem to have been aware of Benjamin Franklin, consisting of his life written by him- these additional pages being known when, twenty years self, together with essays, etc., was the same year reprinted later, he

the 1818 text. In 1852 Henry Stevens in Dublin, and has since been often reproduced in Great Brit. examined the original manuscript at Amiens, but declined ain and in America, and the text of the autobiography was to pay the £600 for it which the owners then asked. These followed in the main in an improved French translation by final pages seem to have escaped Laboulaye's notice, when

would appear.

To render his edition as complete as possible, Sparks made special efforts to ferret out what unpublished material there was. He found various letters among the papers of Cadwallader Colden ; others in the Logan MSS. ; a few addressed to John Bartram the botanist; others sent to Jared Eliot, James Bowdoin, Mary Stevenson, Jonathan Williams, Samuel Franklin, Catharine Ray, Charles Thomson, and his sister, Jane Mecom. He also included for the first time a few letters to Lord Kames and David Hume, and the letters written from London by Franklin when the agent Massachusetts.

A mass of correspondence between Franklin, Dr. Cooper, and Gov. Pownall, about the political symptoms which preceded the outbreak of the Revolution, was left in Boston by Dr. Cooper, and taken to England by Dr. Jeffries after the siege, and so found its way into the King's library, - a copy of which Sparks procured. 1 The most important new material Sparks derived from papers which W. T. Franklin left behind in Philadelphia, when he went to England in 1790, with what he supposed to be the most valuable of his grandfather's papers. After being for fifty years undisturbed in the Fox mansion in Philadelphia, these papers were submitted to Sparks. They include what was saved of a mass of papers which Franklin left with Galloway when he went to France in 1776. These papers were either carried off or scattered about Galloway's house when the British evacuated Philadelphia in 1778, and those that could be gathered together were preserved by Bache and were finally added to the Fox collection. Thus it was that Sparks added about 650 pieces to the papers which had before constituted editions of Franklin's writings, and of these 460 had never before been printed. He adds that “many papers known to have once existed he had not been able to find.” This was in 1840. It was not then known how large a proportion of the papers, which W. T. Franklin had taken to London, he had failed to embody in his edition of Franklin's works. There seems to have been some disagreement between Franklin's grandson and Colburn, his publisher, respecting the desired extent of the Works, and it was finally agreed that the venture should be made with three quarto volumes, and that it should rest dependent on the commercial success of the venture whether supplemental volumes should be issued. The public meanwhile was kept ignorant of any such contingent intention. When the grandson died in Paris in 1823, the rest of the manuscripts was locked in a chest and put on deposit in a banker's vault in London, and from thence his widow removed them, Sept. 27 of that same year. Sparks searched for them in vain in 1834, and was forced to supply their places as best he could from the French archives. The papers meanwhile were lying on the, top shelf of an old tailor's shop in St. James's, in loose bundles, which included those which had already been in the printer's hands and those which had not. Just at the time Sparks finished his edition (1840), a gentleman in office under government recovered them and brought them to light, and from time to time offered them for sale in bulk to the British Museum, to Lord Palmerston, and to successive American ministers; but it was supposed that they had all been printed, and negotiations lagged. In 1851 they were offered to Abbott Lawrence, then the American minister, and the owner of them was referred to Henry Stevens, who soon bought the collection, and seeking Colburn, the publisher of the 1817 edition, who was then living, he learned the facts regarding the intended second instalment which the moderate success of the first had never prompted him to undertake, though there had been inducements to reissue, by substituting new titles, the edition of 1817 in 1833 ; and up to that time Colburn had not been able to trace the remaining manuscripts. The papers finally passed out of Henry Stevens' hands as security for a debt, and at this time his brother B. F. Stevens arranged them, undoing some arbitrary disarrangements of W. T. Franklin, and found the entire mass — - including a few added from other sources — to consist of 2938 documents, of which 2310 had never been printed. The 628 which had been printed were found to vary considerably from the print, and to be in some portions defective, particularly those which W. T. Franklin had edited, as he had worked with considerable license in his editing, and Franklin himself had the habit of altering his successive drafts before he gave his

papers

final shape in his press copies. Henry Stevens, who regained possession of them in 1881, reports that the collec

in 1866 he translated the text in Sparks's edition, and pub- autobiography, together with a continuation, produced by lished his version in Paris. The latest issue is called Auto- connecting together, in a chronological order, extracts from biographie : Traduction française par Ed. Laboulaye Franklin's letters and other writings to justify the title, (Paris, 1887).

Life of Franklin, written by himself, now first edited The next year the Hon. Joh Bigelow secured by pur- from original manuscripts and from his printed correchase, for 25,000 francs, the original manuscript from its spondence and other writings. In his third volume Bigelow then owner, the representative of the widow Le Veillard, gives a bibliography, based apparently upon Sabin, and and, collating it with the 1818 edition, found numerous dif- there is an enumeration of the editions of the autobiography ferences -- mostly of minor character – and observed the in the Catal. of works relating to Benj. Franklin in the addition of the final pages. He printed the manuscript

Boston Public Library, p. 9. (Cf. Derby's Fifty years with close accuracy in 1868 at Philadelphia - thus giving among Authors, p. 676; Duyckinck, Cyclop. of Am. Lit., the whole for the first time as Franklin wrote it - under the supplement, p. 142.) Bigelow has again reprinted the autotitle of the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, edited biography in the first volume of his Works of Franklin from his manuscript, with notes and an introduction, – (1887). The most considerable life of Franklin, using the the last tracing elaborately the history of its composition autobiography and other works as material, was The Life and the vicissitudes of its published form. (Cf. Dr. S. A. and Times of Benj. Franklin (1864) by James Parton. Green's Story of a famous book, Boston, 1871, originally References to lesser characterizations will be found in in Atlantic Monthly, Feb., 1871, and H. Stevens's Frank- Allibone (under Sparks and Franklin), Poole's Index, the lin Collection.) Bigelow did not attempt to complete the Mem. Hist. of Boston, ii. 295. etc. story of Franklin's life, as Sparks and others had done ; 1 Cf. Sparks's ed. Franklin's Works (Boston edition), but later in 1874 (second ed. revised, 1879) he reissued the

vii. 440, 475.

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