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journals of the Rev. James Smith’s two tours in the Western country (1785 and 1795), some of the papers of Daniel Boone, of Kentucky, and of George Rogers Clark, notes on Kentucky by George Bradford, who settled there in 1779, a copy of the record book of Col. John Todd, the first governor of the Illinois country, after Clark's conquest, the papers and sketches of Robert McAfee, and the autobiography of Rev. William Hickman, who visited Ke cky in 1776; copies of the correspondence of the Spanish minister Gardoqui, drawn from the Spanish archives, and owned by Col. John Mason Brown of Louisville; the Breckenridge MSS., at Lexington, Ky., belonging to Ethelbert D. Warfield ; the Clay papers, owned by Mrs. Lucretia Hart Clay ; and the Blount MSS., owned by the Hon. W. D. Stephens of Los Angeles, California.

Of the collection of papers in the Northwest, that of Lyman C. Draper of Madison is probably one of the most important, and is probably the largest in private hands west of the Alleghanies. He possesses the papers of Gen. George Rogers Clark, and has amassed much concerning the history of Joseph Brant, Daniel Boone, Robertson, Simon Kenton, Sumter, Sevier, Brady, Tecumseh, and the Wetzels.

The Pioneer and Historical Society of Michigan has drawn upon the Canadian archives and the Haldimand Papers for the material relative to the early history of their State, which is found in volume ix. and later volumes of their Collections.

The Wisconsin Historical Society, as its secretary, Mr. R. G. Thwaites, informs me, has 115 folio volumes of MSS., beside account books and journals, chiefly relating to the fur trade, Indian affairs, and early settlements of the Northwest, particularly of Wisconsin. In addition to these, it has a number of miscellaneous MS. volumes covering a wider field.

Mention has been made elsewhere 1 of the leading historical societies of the Northwest, in which such papers as exist pertaining to this region are mainly gathered. The Chicago, Western Reserve, and Minnesota Historical Societies have small manuscript collections. 0. H. Marshall has an Index Rerum to subjects connected with early Western history, referring to original sources, in his Historical Writings (1887).

The papers of Andrew Jackson are now the subject of litigation ; 2 and those of the later leading men of the Western States, like Henry Clay, are described elsewhere.: The Lewis Cass papers have also been described (ante, V. p. 561).

A statement is made in another place of what was done by the State of Louisiana to secure the documentary evidences of its history (ante, V. p. 74) and of the disappearance of most of it. The Editor saw (May, 1889) what there was left of them in the keeping of Tulane University at New Orleans.

III. FOREIGN ARCHIVES.

1. ENGLISH AND CANADIAN. - As early as 1617 King James had projected a State Paper Office; 4 but the Public Records Act, under which the British Archives are now regulated, was passed in 1837 (assented to by Victoria, Aug., 1838), and thus there became, instead of many scattered and unsafe repositories, one Public Record Office, under the supervision of the Master of the Rolls. In 1850 the present building of the Record Office was begun. In 1875 it was reported as practically filled, and in 1877 an Act gave to the archivists discretionary power, but subject to many checks, for destroying useless papers, of which very large masses were supposed to have accumulated.

To this office papers not currently needed in all departments of the government are periodically sent. As different departments take different views of the date back of which their papers become of little current use, Ante, Vol. IV. 198.

1592 (1860-85), 4 vols. ; 1603-1625 (1872-80), 5 vols.; Re2 Ante, VII. 349.

lating to Scotland, 1509-1603 (1858), 2 vols. ; Home Office 3 Ante, Vol. VII.

Papers, of the reign of George III, 1760-1772 (1878-81), 3 • Cf. Brymner's Report on the Canadian Archives, vols. ; Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1557-1719 (1868-83), 1881.

5 vols. ; Colonial Series, 1513-1668 (1880), 6 vols.; Foreign Thomas's Handbook of the Public Records. Cf. ante, and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509–1535 III. 343. The officer of the Public Records Office most (1886), 14 vols. ; Foreign Series, Edward VI-Elizabeth, familiar with the papers in it relating to America is Mr. W. 1547-77 (1861-80), 13 vols. : Relating to Spain, preserved Noel Sainsbury. Mr. Bancroft has said of him (No. in the Archives at Simancas and elsewhere, 1485-1536 Carolina Col. Records, i. p. vii), “My own collection of (1862-86), 9 vols. ; Venetian, 1203-1558 (1864-1884), 8 vols. ; documents is full of copies of papers which he has made Carew Papers, 1515-1624 (1867-73), 6 vols. ; Calendarium for me. Having been so long in service, and so much ap- Genealogicum, Henry III-Edward I (1865), 2 vols. ; Sylpealed to by American scholars, he has become thoroughly labus in English of Rymer's Fædera, 1066-1654, with Index familiar with the subject, as may be seen from his Colonial and Appendix (1869-85), 3 vols. Series of State Papers." The Master of the Rolls began The most important group for the American student is in 1856 to make systematic publication of synopses or ab- the Colonial Series, though some of the others throw ocstracts of the papers in his charge under the general title casional light, and the series relating to Spain and Venice of Calendar of State Papers, etc., and down to 1886 one are not without interest for the earliest years of American hundred and thirty-four volumes had been printed, divided discovery. Since this enumeration was made, another volas follows:

ume of the Calendar of State Papers, America and the Domestic Series: Edward to Charles 1547-1641 West Indies, 1009-1074, has been published; but too late (1856-82), 29 vols. ; during the Commonwealth, 1649-60 to be availed of in the present work. It is a new evidence (1875-86), 13 vols, ; Charles II, 1660-67 (1860-6), 7 vols. ; of the ways of Mr. Sainsbury, in securing the gratitude of Relating to Ireland, 1171-1307 (1875-86), 5 vols. ; 1509- American historical students.

the latest papers now in the Public Record Office vary in date from 1840 to 1860, accordingly. The limit later than which general access to papers is not permitted varies, according to the character of the papers, from 1760 to 1820; but it is possible, under influence and with restrictions and reservations, to examine later papers. 1

In 1869 it was decided by Parliament to have searches made in collections of papers outside the Public Record Office, and to this end a Royal Historical Manuscripts Commission was established, to examine and report upon semi-public and family archives, in cases where access might be allowed. One essential result of the progress of this work has been that families possessing historical papers have in some cases transferred them to public depositories.2 The commission was reconstituted under a new royal warrant, March 24, 1886.

The First Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts was published in London in 1870, but nothing of special moment touching American history appeared till, in the Second Report (1871), the papers of the Earl of Cathcart 4 were calendared, in which we find much relating to Carteret and New Jersey; the papers of the Duke of Bedford; those of Andrew Elliot, collector of New York, 1778–83, his letters from New York, 1781-89; letters of Sir Henry Clinton, 1780-81; American war papers, 1778-82; and the American papers of the quartermaster-general, 1780-82. In the Third Report (1872) we find (p. 108) the papers on the American war (1775-80) preserved among the Northumberland manuscripts at Alnwick Castle; a great deal of importance respecting the Southern colonies in the Shaftesbury Papers (cf. ante, V. 356); something in those in the Dr. Williams Library, and in those of the House of Lords, which are continued in the Fourth and Seventh Reports.

In the Fourth Report (1874) there is (p. 397, etc.) the address of the Sons of Liberty of Boston, June 6, 1768, signed by Benjamin Kent, Thomas Young, Benjamin Church, Jr., John Adams, and Joseph Warren; and another address of Oct. 5; 1768. There are other letters of 1768-1770, from Kent, Wm. Palfrey, and Samuel Adams; and a series of letters (1769-1784) from Charleston, S. C. The papers of the Marquis of Bath, Earl de la Warre, and others are included in this Report.

The very important Shelburne papers had been arranged for the Marquis of Lansdowne by Sir James Lacaita, and in 1870 Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice, a grandson of Shelburne, went through the mass to prepare a report and partial calendar for the Commission, the portion of which relating to the American war will be found in their Fifth Report (1876), – the same papers which Bancroft had examined at an earlier day (Hist. United States, final revision, iii. 484 ; cf. also ante, Vol. VII. 167). The letters of George III to Shelburne were found at Bowood subsequent to the time when Mr. Bancroft examined the papers (Life of Shelburne, i. p. xi), but they were later shown to him, and Bancroft in turn placed at Fitzmaurice's service his own notes from the Shel. burne papers when Fitzmaurice was preparing the Life of William, Earl of Shelburne (London, 1873-76, in three volumes), which was based upon the Shelburne, Fox, and Bute papers, the Fox papers being then in the possession of Lady Holland, and the Bute manuscripts in charge of Lord Harrowby. The Shelburne papers began as early as 1686. (Cf. ante, V. 164, 356.) This report also contains the Cholmondeley papers. In the Sixth Report (1877) there are the Strachey Papers (described pp. xiv, xv). In the Seventh Report are the papers of the Earl of Egmont (1709-30), covering letters of Bishop Berkeley, many of them written from Rhode Island. We learn here, too, something of Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia. In the Eighth Report (1881, p. 287) are the Cornwallis papers, belonging to Lord Braybrook, but deposited in the Public Record Office. Here also are the papers of the Duke of Manchester. In the Ninth Report (part iii., 1884) are the papers of Mrs. Stopford Sackville (pp. 81-118), of Drayton House, Northamptonshire, which throw some new light on the views and conduct of the British generals and ministry during the American Revolution ; and a few letters of Count Rumford during his service in the field in 1781 (pp. 118-120). In the Tenth Report, the calendar of the Weston Papers (App., p. 228) shows the treaty of April 3, 1764, made by Sir Wm. Johnson and the Senecas, and those of July 18 (p. 231) with the Hurons, of Aug. 6 (p. 232) with the Chenusio Indians ; also a letter of Gen. Gage, dated New York, Sept. 21, 1764, on the Indian treaties and movements against them, is printed (App., pp. 236, 382). The Westmoreland papers in this Report supplement the Sackville papers in the Ninth Report.1

1 Alexander Brown, in his Genesis of the United States, dence of Lord Stormont, British ambassador in France has made use of some of the earlier colonial

papers. (1776-1778), in two volumes (no. lxi.), - both from the Papers, 1748-63, from the Public Record Office are among State Paper Office, — and that (no. lxxii.) of Sir Joseph the Parkman transcripts in the Mass. Hist. Society. (Cf. Yorke in Holland (Jan., 1776-Dec., 1780). Cf. on these ante, V. 617.) The papers called the Quebec Series diplomatic series, ante, Vol. VII. 68, 73, 165; and Amer. throw much light on the border warfare of the colonies. Antiq. Soc. Proc., Oct., 1858. There are in the Sparks MSS. (no. xliii. vol. iii.) a series For papers in the War Office on the war in Canada of transcripts made by Sparks in 1840 from the volumes in (1812, etc.), see ante, Vol. VII. p. 427; and for those at the Public Record Office marked “ Military Correspon- Ottawa, see Brymner's Report, 1881, p. 12. dence, vols. i. to x." (1763-1774), which include letters of 2 Cf. on the Commission, The Month, Ix. p. 44. The Gage, Halifax, H. S. Conway, Shelburne, Hilleborough, First Report was printed in 1870, and reprinted in 1874 Hutchinson, Dartmouth, Haldimand; and Sparks copied (Sessional Paper, C. 55); the Second, 1871; Third, 1872; earlier (1829) a similar volume of transcripts (no. Iviii.). Fourth, 1873; Fifth, 1876; Sixth, 1877; Seventh, 1879;

There is also no. xxxii.) a collection of extracts from the Eighth, 1881; Ninth, 1883; Tenth, 1885; Eleventh, 1887. correspondence of Dartmouth, Germain, Gase, Howe, A Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Salisbury Clinton, and Coruwallis ; and in Ibid. no. xxv., he copied, was also issued separately in 1883. Great care is taken by as found

among the Ward Papers, various letters of Con- the Commission that private papers, or legal documents way, Barré, Shelburne, and others, for the years 1765- affecting titles, should not be examined, and no report on 1766.

papers is published without the consent of the owner of the In no. Iv. there is a series of papers relating to attempted papers. Nearly all the larger collections have been readily negotiations between England and the United States (1776- and temporarily transferred by their owners to the Public 1779), which were copied for Sparks under the direction of Record Office, to facilitate the examination. John G. Palfrey, at the State Paper Office, in 1856, as well I am indebted for this and other information of the work as selections and memoranda made by Sparks himself (no. of the Commission to H. C. Maxwell Lyte, Esq., deputy Ivi.) in the public offices of London and Paris and in the keeper of the Records, Rolls House, London. British Museum.

3 This volume has one index for Report

1 and 2.

Later Copies of the correspondence of Lord Grantham, Eng. Reports have each an index. lish ambassador to Spain, 1776-1779, in two vols., are also 4 Cf. ante, Vol. V. 604, for the use which has been made in the Sparks MSS. (no. xxiii.), as well as the correspon- of this material.

In the Eleventh Report a good deal of light is thrown on the final campaigns for the conquest of Canada in the manuscripts of the Marquess Townshend (App., part iv.), including letters of Gen. Murray. Here also are the papers of the Earl of Dartmouth (App., part v.). Much light is shed on early Carolina history.

The manuscript collections of the British Museum are now supposed to contain somewhat over five mil. lion separate papers, making something short of 50,000 volumes. C'p to about fifty years ago these manuscripts as acquired were arranged under the distinctive appellations belonging to them, and may be enumerated thus (with the date of acquisition): Cottonian (1753), 900 vols.; Harleian (1753), 7,639 vols.; Royal (1753), 1,950 vols.; Lansdowne (1807), 1,245 vols. ; Hargrave (1813), 499 vols.; Burney (1817), 524 vols.; King's (1823), 438 vols.; Egerton (1829), 2,568 vols.; Arundel (1831), 550 vols. After 1831 the accessions have been arranged in one series, called “Additional Manuscripts," and including the Sloane Collection, 4,000 vols. This later classification contained, in 1881, 31,380 volumes. Though there are papers of much interest in the King's, Egerton,2 and the other earlier collections, it is among these Additional Manuscripts, in the Haldimand Papers, that we find the richest stores pertaining to the American Revolution. These Haldimand Papers are embraced in 232 volumes, covering the years 1758–1785, mainly in Canada, though an interval was passed by Haldimand in Florida. These papers, catalogued in the printed Index to MSS. in the Brit. Mus. (London, 1880), p. 679, are marked as having been acquired between 1854 and 1875,8 and are called Official Correspondence and Papers of Gen. Frederick Haldimand during his various Commands, 1758– 1785 (B. M. Add. MSS., nos. 21,661-21,982). They include letters of Earl Howe to Haldimand, 1778-1785 (no. 21,709) ; Sir William Howe's, 1778-1779, 1781 (nos. 21,734, 21,807, 21,808); Sir Henry Clinton's, 1777– 1783 (nos. 21,807, 21,808); Burgoyne’s, 1779-1782 (nos. 21,732, 21,733, 21,734), and Washington's, 1780-3 (in no. 21,835).

There is a volume of copies of those relating to the French war among the Parkman Papers in the Massachusetts Historical Society; but the most extensive transcripts in America is the series made from them for the Canadian government at Ottawa, which have been described in the Reports of the Dominion archivist Douglas Brymner.4 In his Report for 1884 he has begun an elaborate calendar of the entire collection, which it is intended finally to publish separately.

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The Haldimand Papers include a series of correspondence with the governors of the American colonies, 1765-1774; his correspondence with Germain and the home government, reporting on affairs in the colories; and the minutes of the Council at Quebec, 1778-1784, beside a great variety of other important papers. It is the fullest repository which we have of the attempted negotiations for sundering Vermont from the American cause.5

Haldimand was a friend of Henry Bouquet (who died in 1765), and inherited his papers, so that what are known as the Bouquet Papers are a component part of the Haldimand Papers. These are also indexed in the Catal. of MSS. in the Brit. Museum.

1 Cf. ante, Vol. VI. 516.

2 See ante, III. 343. This collection contains numerous Acadia papers, N. E. Hist. Geneal Reg.. April, 1886.

3 They were mainly bequeathed to the Museum by Wil. liam, nephew (or probably grand-nephew) of Gen. Haldimand. Cf. account of Haldimand by G. D. Scull in the Penna. Mag. of Hist., 1884, viji. p. 300, and Brymner's account of Haldimand in his Report for 1887.

4 Cf. his Report (appended to the reports of the Commissioner of Agriculture) for 1873, 1981, and 1882.

5 Cf. “Haldimand Papers, with contemporaneous history, 1779-1783,"' in Vermont Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. ii , and the statements respecting the importance of these papers in inv stigating this question, as detailed in Vol. VI., ante. Haldimand at one time captured B. Arnold's papers. Penna. Mag. of Hist., viii. 309.

Many papers supplementing the Haldimand Papers are in the Quebec series in the Public Record Office, making ten volumes, and these are noted in Brymner's Report for 1883, p. 79.

The papers of William Eden, who was one of the peace commissioners to this country during the Revolution, now known as the Auckland Papers, from his subsequent title, are in the University library, at Cambridge, England.1

There are also in the British Museum a collection of official copies of deciphered letters, 1777-1780 (Add. MSS., no. 24,321), and miscellaneous papers, 1774-1783 (no. 29,237); and a Journal of Sir Wm. Howe's army in America, 1776 (Egerton MSS., no. 2135, folios 7 and 9). There are topographical and graphic records of some use in Catalogue of maps, prints, drawings, etc., forming the geographical and topographical collection attached to the library of George III, and presented by George IV. to the Museum (London, 1829, in two volumes).

The offices of the Board of Trade or Lords of Trade were the receptacle of large numbers of American papers, and thence have come a considerable accession to various private collections. The letters of Sir Wm. Johnson, for instance, to the Lords of Trade, 1766-1767, are among the Shelburne papers (vol. li.), as noted in the Hist. MSS. Com. Report, v. 219.

The papers of the Board of Trade from 1696 to its dissolution in 1782, making over 2,000 large volumes, were in 1842 added to the State Paper Office.

The collection of papers amassed by George Chalmers, which have here and there increased so many large American collections, came largely from Chalmers' opportunities as secretary of the Board of Trade. Thorpe's Catalogue, Supplement, 1843, no. 621, embracing Chalmers' papers, show the original office copy of the minutes of the Board of Trade for Dec. 23, 1766-July 29, 1767. This volume was bought by Sparks in 1843, and is now among the Sparks MSS. (no. iii.)

A considerable portion of the Chalmers manuscripts came by purchase in 1843 into the hands of Sparks, and are now in the Sparks MSS.2 Such of them as relate to the Revolutionary period are in no. v. and in no. xxxviii., the latter containing some of Lord Dunmore's papers, which had belonged to Chalmers, but when Sparks copied them in 1845 they belonged to Thomas Aspinwall,3 beside a volume of original papers (no. liii.), 1752-1779.

A collection of papers, formed by Chalmers, now in the Sparks MSS. (no. x.), and relating to New England, covers in the main papers relating to the agitation that preceded the hostilities of 1775.

The second volume of the Aspinwall Papers, as published by the Mass. Hist. Soc. in vol. xl. of their Collections, — the originals of which are now in the library of the late Mr. Samuel L. M. Barlow (d. July, 1889) of New York, - cover in the main the period from 1763 to 1776, though there are a few of a later date. They came from the Chalmers collection. Some of the earlier ones are letters to Monckton after he had left his command in New York, mainly from John Watts, who had been left in charge of the general's affairs. There are other letters of Gov. Eden of Maryland, the long instructions to Lord Dunmore in 1771 and 1772, Chalmers' minutes of the official correspondence with the colonial governors in 1773–74,4 letters of Gage to Dartmouth in 1774, Dunmore's correspondence with the home government (1774-75) and with others, and a few letters addressed to Franklin (1775).5

The chief military papers on the British side are those now known as the Carleton or Dorchester Papers, though perhaps more frequently referred to in America as Headquarters Papers. They begin with General Howe's assumption of command in Boston in 1775, and such documents as that officer had collected were handed over to his successor, Sir Henry Clinton, who added to them those of his own term as commander-inchief in America ; and these passing to Sir Guy Carleton, who was the last British general in chief command, were further increased in his hands, so that when arranged by his secretary, Maurice Morgan, into whose keeping they ultimately came, they next passed to John Symons of Paddington, and were by him given to the Royal Institution (1804). Sparks represents the originals as arranged in more than forty volumes; but later reports make the extent fifty-six volumes, and they are said to contain over 20,000 documents.

It would seem that Clinton failed to turn over to Carleton all of his headquarters papers, retaining, it is surmised, such as he might find useful in his own defence, if the controversy between him and Cornwallis were pushed to extremities. Such is supposed to be the history of sundry lots of Clinton's papers, which were noted in 1882 in a London auction catalogue as in the “ library of the late Col. Henry Clinton," which included books and papers from his ancestors (H. P. Johnston in Mag. of Amer. Hist., viii. 200). Among such was a letter of Washington to Clinton, with the latter's annotations, copies of André's letters to Washington and Clinton, a letter of Clinton to Lord George Germain, July, 1778, about the retreat from Philadelphia and on the battle of Monmouth, and printed copies of the Clinton-Cornwallis tracts with Clinton's annotations. There

1 Cf. ante, VII. 51. A letter of Lambert Wickes, from these papers, dated at St. Malo, July 8, 1777, and giving an account of his naval exploits, is printed in the London Athenæum, July 14, 1888, p. 66.

2 See the present History, Vol. V. pp. 352, 354.

3 From these Aspinwall Papers there is printed in the Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., xxxiv. 367, “Queries of George Chalmers, with answers of Gen. Gage, in relation to Brad.

dock's expedition, the Stamp Act, and Gage's administration of Mass. Bay."

• Many of the circular letters sent to the colonial gover. nors during the early years of the controversy will be found in Trumbull MSS. (vols. ii., iii, iv.), and they are usually printed in such collections as the New Hampshire Papers, the New Jersey Archives, etc.

6 Cf. list of the Chalmers MSS., ante, Vol. V. 354.

was also included, and later sent with other papers to New York to be sold at auction, a collection of 20 maps, illustrating Clinton's campaign in the Jerseys, dated 1778-1782, and nearly all drawn by J. Hills, which were bought by the Library of Congress (May, 1882), and two manuscripts, one called “ Private Intelligence,” Jan. 20 to July, 1781 (150 pp.), and the other marked “Information of deserters and others, not included in the Private Intelligence" (100 pp.), both of which were bought by Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet of New York; and as annotated by Edw. F. De Lancy, the former of these two manuscripts has been printed in the Magazine of Amer. Hist. (x. 327, 409, 497 ; xi. 53, 156, 247, 342, 433, 533 ; xii. 72, 162). It proves to be one of what was probably a series of record books, kept at headquarters, in which were entered the reports and correspondence accruing under the method employed or sanctioned by Clinton for obtaining tidings in a clandestine way from the American camp. It is a revelation of the speed and accuracy which attended this secret service; and its records have been held to tarnish the reputation of men supposed at the time to be loyal, like John Sullivan, and Samuel H. Parsons, and the wily Heron of Connecticut.

It is said that in the basement of the Royal Institution there is a further mass of unexamined papers, which were left out of the bound series.

There are in the Sparks MSS. three series of copies from these papers. One (no. xiii.) covers the correspondence of Sir Henry Clinton and Haldimand, 1779-1781; another, in two volumes (no. xlv.), is called “ British Papers relating to the American Revolution, selected (Nov., 1846] from the correspondence of the British commanders-in-chief ;” and a third (no. Ixx.) contains papers relating to the intercourse between Canada and Vermont in 1780-1782. Sparks had the first two series copied in 1840, and the last in 1844.

Capt. Francis Duncan, who in his History of the Royal Artillery gave a chapter on “The Gunner who governed New York," referring to Gen. James Pattison, furnished copies of the letters of that officer, who was in command in New York from July 5, 1779, to Aug. 13, 1780, which were printed in the N. Y. Hist. Soc. Collections, 1875. The letters begin at New York, Jan. 10, 1779.

There is in Harvard College library, given to it by Wm. B. Sprague, D. D., of Albany, a volume of Gen. Thomas Gage's letters, addressed to Col. Bradstreet, deputy quartermaster-general, and to Sir William Johnson. They include four in 1759, written from Fort Stanwix and Oswego, and one from Montreal in 1762. After this last date they were all written from New York city, beginning Feb. 6, 1763, — those to Bradstreet ending Oct., 1769; those to Johnson, May 11, 1773. They are all originals in Gage's handwriting, and apparently came from the Bradstreet and Johnson Papers.

Many letters and despatches of Gage during 1766-1767, written from New York, are noted among the Shelburne Papers (vols. xlix., 1., li.) in the Hist. MSS. Com. Rept., v. 218, etc. There are occasional letters of Gage among the Trumbull MSS.

There are also in the British Museum various papers of Gen. Gage, like his general and regimental orders, 1759-1777; his letters to the commanding officer at Niagara, 1759-1774 ; his Florida papers, 1763-1774 ; his correspondence with Haldimand, 1758–1781, with the English ministry, 1760-1778, and with Bouquet, 17631765.

The papers of Chatham are nearly all in print in the Chatham Correspondence; but George Bancroft mentions his use of two volumes of familiar notes, full of allusions to America, which passed between Hollis and Chatham. The same historian had access to the autobiography of the third Duke of Grafton, and the journal of the Earl of Dartmouth; and he refers to some Bedford papers which were not included in the published Bedford Correspondence.

Bancroft also had the use of two series of letters of the king, – useful in forming an estimate of the character of George III. One contained the letters written by him early in life to his governor, Lord Harcourt. The other consisted of his frequent notes to his prime minister, North, during the period of the American troubles. These were also used by Mahon (v., App., p. xlvii), who prints some of them, saying that he followed a transcript made by Sir James Mackintosh, which later passed into the hands of Brougham. The correspondence has since been printed, edited by Donne.3

“ The entire correspondence of Mr. Oswald, in the negotiation in the peace of 1782, with the American commissioners at Paris, copied from a manuscript volume in the possession of the Marquis of Lansdowne, London, Feb., 1829; and also the correspondence of Mr. Grenville and Fitzherbert, copied from the originals in the office of Foreign Affairs in London,” is the endorsement which Sparks has put on no. xl. of the Sparks MSS. Letters of Grantham and Fitzherbert (1782-83) are in Ibid. no. xxxii. vol. i.

There are now on deposit in the Public Record Office the papers of the Duke of Manchester, which in part concern the negotiations for peace, and they have been calendared in the Hist. MSS. Commission, Report VIII., part ii. pp. 17, 123, etc.

The records and correspondence of the Commission for negotiating the peace 1782 on the part of Eng.

1 Catalogue of a private library; also books and papers of Sir Henry Clinton. To be sold at auction, May 26th, 1882 (N. Y., 1882)

2 George B. Loring has in a tract gathered the evidence which he contends removes or at least renders doubtful the implications of these British records as respects Parsons. (Cf. Mag. Amer. Hist., Oct., 1888; Jan., 1889.) Unfor

tunately it is both difficult and easy to clarify wilful deceit, and opinions are likely to differ. Some of Mr. Loring's arguments could as well serve the opposite side.

3 The Correspondence of King George III. with Lord North, 1768-1783. Edited from originals at Windsor with an introduction and Notes by W. Bodham Donne (London, 1867).

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