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Isaac Holmes, Account of the U. S., derived during a residence of four years (London, 1823).

William Amphlett, The Emigrant's Directory of the Western States (London, 1819). Cf. Thomson's Bibliog. of Ohio, no. 16.

Zerah Hawley, A Journal of a tour through Connecticut , Massachusetts, New York, the north part of Pennsylvania and Ohio, including a year's residence in that part of the State of Ohio styled New Connecticut or Western Reserve (New Haven, 1822).

A. Welby, Visit to North America and the English settlements in Illinois, with a winter residence at Philadelphia (Lond., 1821).

Since 1820 the published travels are too numerous for particular mention.

The principal record of the advance of trade, manufactures, and material progress in general is Albert S. BollesIndustrial Hist. of the U. S. from the earliest settlement to the present time (Norwich, Conn., 1878, etc.). See, also, J. L. Bishop's Hist. of American Manufactures, 1008-1860 (Philad., 1861); The First Century of the Republic; J. D. B. DeBow's Industrial resources of the South and West (New Orleans, 1852, in 3 vols.) ; L. Stebbins's Eighty Years' Progress of the U. S. (1861-1864 - in divisions by different writers); George Tucker's Progress of the U. S. in Population and Wealth in fifty years, 1790-1840 (N. Y. 1843); T. Pitkin, Statistical view of the Commerce of the U. S., 2d ed., with additions (N. Y., 1817); A. Seybert, Statistical Annals of the U. S., 1789-1818 (Philad., 1818); D. B. Warden, Statistical, political, and historical account of the U. S. (Edinburgh, 1819, in 3 vols.).

The development of the United States is also the main theme of John Macgregor's Progress of America (London, 1847, in two vols.). McMaster has given more than usual attention to this aspect in his history, so far as published; and it is in some measure touched by the other general historians. The divisionary topics of the general subject are treated in monographs, like the following : Samuel Batchelder's Introd. and early progress of the Cotton Manufacture in the United States (Boston, 1863) ; cf. letters in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., iii. 221. B. F. French, Hist. of the Rise and progress of the Iron trade in the U. S., 1621-1857 (N. Y., 1858). Alexander Starbuck, History of the American Whale Fishery to 1870 (Waltham, Mass., 1878).

We must look to local histories for the accounts of the opening of trades and commerce specially associated with places, as in the Memorial Hist. of Boston for the earliest ventures on the northwest coast and the trade in ice.Hunt's American Merchants, and Hunt's Merchants Magazine are useful aids. The histories of our larger cities and industrial centres are necessary in investigations of this progress.

The successive censuses of the United States are the basis of tracing the increase of population, with the steady march of its centre westward along the parallel which lies neighboring to Baltimore and Cincinnati. Cf. W. J. Bromwell's Hist. of immigration to the U. S. 1819–1855 (N. Y., 1856); and on the “ Redemptioners,” see McMaster (ii. 558) and references.

There is no good history of the whole course of American literature since the combining of the colonies in 1776. It is concisely traced by E. P: Whipple in Our First hundred years; and Poole's Index, under “ American Literature” and “ Literature,” will indicate the abundant periodical ventures on this and the other phase of the subject; which can be supplemented by such books as R. W. Griswold's Prose Writers of America, his Poets, and Female Poets of America ; and similar books on the poets of the West by Gallagher, Cogge shall, and better still by Duyckinck's Cyclopædia of American Literature, and by references to the alphabetical arrangement of Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. Unfortunately Moses Coit Tyler's History of Amer. ican Literature is not yet continued into the period of the Revolutionary war. The lives of the leading writers are, in fact, for the present, the best source of the study of the progress of letters. Geo. W. Greene gives a chapter to the Revolutionary period in Historical View (Boston, 1864).2

Apart from the political essay, the best known productions of the Revolutionary period proceeded from a group of poets. It is not easy to give them any order of precedence from merit.

Joel Barlow had been encouraged in his college days by Noah Webster and by others to attempt a national epic, and at Northampton (Mass.), during the year following his graduation at Yale (1778), he had made a draft of his Vision of Columbus. For the next three years he was a chaplain in the army, and his letters describe his camp life. The Vision was not published till 1787.8 I The McFingal, a modern epic poem, by John Trumbull, was begun in 1774, when the poet found the subject for his satire in the actions of the Tories of those days, but he did not complete it and publish it entire till 1782 at Hartford.1

1 Cf. Mass. Hist. Soc Proc., Jan., 1856.

? The bibliography of the Revolution has not been adequately prepared. Haven's list appended to Thomas' Hist. of Printing (Amer. Antiq. Soc. Ed.) only comes down through 1775. Catalogues like the Brinley and Carter-Brown are of use, and titles can be picked out in Sabin. The only thorough piece of work yet done for the whole period is confined to one State, namely, C. R. Hil. deburn's Century of printing : the issues of the press in Pennsylvania, 1685-1784 (Philadelphia, 1885-86, in two vols.). The best key to the scattered mass of local historical literature is A. P. C. Griffin's Index of Articles

upon American local history in historical collections in the Boston Public Library (Boston, 1889).

3 It passed to a second edition, and was also reprinted in England the same year; and appeared in other and revised editions in Paris. Recast and augmented it became known as The Columbiad in 1808. Mr. C. B. Todd, who gave some account of Barlow in his History of Redding, Cont., in 1880, later published the extended memoir, Life and Letters of Joel Barlow, with extracts from his works and hitherto unpublished poems (New York, 1886). Mr. Todd had the use of the papers and letters of Barlow, which had been gathered during fifty years by the poet's grandnephew, Prof. Lemuel G. Olmsted, and these papers were memoir - seemingly by himself - was edited by S. G. in the possession of the late Mr. S. L. M. Barlow of New Goodrich at Hartford in 1820, but it did not prove a sucYork. Cf. a paper on “The forgotten American worthies” cessful venture. It has a portrait of the author by his in Lippincott's Magazine, July, 1880; and the Mem. Hist. kinsman, Col. John Trumbull. Trumbull soon removed of Hartford County. For bibliography, see Sabin's Dic. to Detroit (1825), where he lived with his daughter, and tionary; the Harris Collection, p. 19; and the Brinley died in 1831. Cf. “Pleiades of Counecticut” in the AtCatal,, iv. 6782, etc. Cf. Poole's Index, p. 99.

Philip Freneau was of Huguenot stock and was born in New York in 1752, and graduated at Princeton in 1771, a classmate of James Madison. His commencement part, a Poem on the rising glory of America, was

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printed at Philadelphia in 1772. (Cf. Frothingham's Rise of the Republic, 248.) He was captured by the British on the coast of Delaware and confined in a prison-ship, and commemorated his experience in a poem published at Philadelphia in 1781, The British Prison Ship. The first edition of The Poems of Philip Freneau, written chiefly during the late war (Philad., 1786), is a book now become rare.?

lantic Monthly, xv. 187, and the Memorial Hist. Hartford 1 Cf. J. H. Trumbull on the origin of McFingal, in the County, Conn., i. 157. The bibliography is given in the Hist. Mag., xiii. p. 1. The poem has passed through Brinley Catal., iv no. 6959, etc. many editions since, and the Poetical Works of John ? It sometimes brings in these days $30 to $50 (Brinley, Trumbull, with McFingal revised and corrected, and a iv. no. 6864). A second volume followed in 1787 – the Miscellaneous Works of Mr. Philip Freneau (Brinley, iv. In 1834 a Memoir of Phillis Wheatley, by B. B. 6864). The most complete of his own editions was Poems Thacher, was published in Boston, which has become very written between the years 1768 and 1794, a new edition, scarce (Brinley, iv.: 6990). A memoir by Miss M. M. revised and corrected by the author (Monmouth, N. J., Odell was also prefixed to a collected edition of her poems 1795 - Brinley, iv. 6865). In 1809 the third edition ap- (Boston, 2d and 3d ed., 1835 and 1838). An account of her, peared at Philadelphia, – Poems written and published with some of her letters, was printed by Dr. Chas. Deane during the American Revolution, and now republished in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., Nov., 1863 (separately 100 from the original manuscripts (Brinley, iv. 6866). A copies, Boston, 1864), who gives a bibliography of the subvolume containing his productions written after 1797 ap- ject, which may be supplemented by the titles in Brinley, peared at New York in 1815. The greatest activity of iv. 6983, showing some which had escaped Dr. Deane. Freneau's life came after the Revolution, and a full account 3 The fullest bibliography of any part of American literis given in Duyckinck (i. p. 327-348) and in the introduc- ature is the Harris Coliection of American Poetry, edited tory memoir by Evert A. Duyckinck, given in an edition by J. C. Stockbridge (Providence, 1886), - an unworthy of his Poems relating to the American Revolution (New record, as it proved, of the assiduous attention of Mr. C. York, 1865), bringing together in one volume these special Fiske Harris of Providence, in gathering a collection valupoems which appeared in Freneau's different volumes. able for its extent, if not in any great part for its merit. Cl. Mag. of Amer. Hist., Feb., 1887, p. 121, for an ac- The collection was bought after Mr. Harris's death by count of Freneau, with a fac-simile of an early portrait and Senator H. B. Anthony of Rhode Island; and was be. of the title of the edition of 1809.

Timothy Dwight, David Humphreys, and Francis Hopkinson are the only other names to complete this early group.1

Of the other sex the most conspicuous are of the two extremes of the social scale. Mercy Warren represented the social wit of the higher circles of life in Massachusetts; and Phillis Wheatley, a young negress, slave to a Boston merchant, attracted the attention of Washington, and has since elicited the sympathy of such as have become interested in her sad career.2

The ballad literature of the time has had special treatment in Duyckinck (i. p. 427), in Frank Moore's Songs and Ballads of the Revolution, and in his incomplete Illustrated Ballad History of the American Revolution (six parts). Winthrop Sargent has collected the Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution. For the period immediately following upon the close of the war, there is a cursory survey in Schouler (ii

. 259), but it took the ripening of many years to bring American literature into competition with that of older peoples.3

There is a paper on the colleges in the Revolution by Joel T. Headley in the Knickerbocker Mag., lvii. p. 353. Duyckinck follows their progress in a summary manner; and the histories of the principal ones, like Harvard and Yale, disclose their relations to the Revolutionary struggle.

To the later life of the Republic several series of publications, sustained for restricted periods, have been given to the printing of original Revolutionary documents, like the Publications of the Seventy-six Society (Philad., 1855-57), in four volumes,4 150 copies printed; C. I. Bushnell's Crumbs for Antiquarians (18621866, in 2 vols.); Munsell's Historical Series (Albany, 1857–61) and his Series of American Local History (Albany, 1863, etc.) only in part pertain to the Revolution ;5 only two numbers were issued by The Club (New York, 1857,6 one hundred copies), which was then merged in the Bradford Club, which issued seven numbers, only four of which, however, pertained to the Revolution.7 Only one number was issued of a series purporting to be published by the Zenger Club (New York, 1861).8 H. B. Dawson's Gleanings from the Harvest-field of American history (New York, 1860, etc.

- 250 copies printed).

queathed by him to the library of Brown University. 1 For Dwight, see the Mem. Hist. Hartford Co., i. 157. + Brinley, no. 4140; Cooke, no. 2245. For Humphreys, see the bibliographical data in the Brin- 5 Alofsen, nos. 10, 11. ley Catal., iv. no. 6876, and H. P. Johnston's Yale and • The first number was Melvin's Journal of the Kerneher honor roll in the American Revolution (New York, bec Expedition (1775), and it was reprinted ostensibly by 1888). For Hopkinson, see Sanderson's Signers of the the Franklin Club, Philad., 1864. Cf. Alofsen Catal. (1876), Declaration of Independence, vol. ii. (with portrait by nos. 12, 13

The second number was the Diary of WaskPine ; cf. also Delaplaine's Repository, 1815; Penna. Mag. ington, 1789-1790, edited by Lossing (1858). The origiof Hist., ii. 237). His house at Bordentown is depicted in nator of The Club was Mr. William J. Davis. Brotherhead's Book of the Signers, 1861, p. 31. Cf. Alli- ? Mr. John B. Moreau was the originator of the Bradbone's Dictionary and Duyckinck's Cyclop. Amer. Lit. ford Club. Its publications were: 1. F. B. Hough's His best known poem of the Revolution is his Battle of Papers concerning the attack on Hatfield and Deerfield the Keg's (Hildeburn, no. 3887; Lossing's Cyclop. U. S. (1859); 2. J. R. Drake and Fitz-Greene Halieck's Croakers, Hist., i. 109).

ed. by J. B. Moreau (1860); 3. John G. Shea's Operations 2 Poems on Various subjects, religious and moral, by of the French fleet under Count de Grasse ( 1864); 4. Henry Phillis Wheatley, Negro servant to Mr. John Wheatley C. Murphy's Anthology of New Netherland (1865); 5. Caof Boston in New England (London, sold in Boston, reer of De Soto in Florida, transl. by B. Smith (1866); 6. 1773). It has the profile figure of the writer sitting at a F. B. Hough's Northern Invasion of Oct., 1780 (1866); writing table, engraved on copper, "published Sept. 1, 7. Wm. G. Simms' Army correspondence of Col Fc 1773, according to act of Parliament." A fac-simile of this Laurens (1867). It also issued as an extra number E. A. print is herewith given. There are two copies of the book Duyckinck's Memorial of John Allan (1864), a New in Harvard College library, both of which have the neat York antiquary. Cf. In Memory of 7. B. Moreau (N. Y., and easy autograph of Phillis on the reverse of the title, — 1886), and the N. E. Hist. and Geneal. Reg., July, 1887. and most if not all of the known copies are so marked. 8 Alofsen, no. 16.

The effect of the newspapers of the country upon its political progress has had some significant recognitions. Books like Frothingham's Rise of the Republic and McMaster's United States have drawn largely from the contemporary press to elucidate that progress. The History of Printing, by Isaiah Thomas, and the History of Journalism in the United States, by Frederick Hudson, offer something like historical treatment of the subject. The spirit of Thomas is purely that of an antiquarian, and he has iittle to say of anything after the war. Hudson's method, unfortunately, discloses the brisk and somewhat sensational habit of a newspaper office, in which the author had his training, but he had the political editor's apprehension of the relation of the press to the current politics of the later years. Mr. S. D. North contributed to the publications of the Tenth Census an extensive paper on The History and Present Condition of the newspaper and periodical press of the U. S. (Washington, 1884). The summary in Andrews's Hist. of Journalism is scant.

Mr. S. G. W. Benjamin, in two papers on “ A Group of Pre-Revolutionary Editors,” and “ Notable Editors between 1776 and 1800" (Mag. Amer. Hist., Jan. and Feb., 1887), has rapidly sketched the careers of some men noted in their day, and in his second paper he tells the story of Rivington, Hugh Gaine, Matthew Carey, and other leading controversialists of the Revolution. All these may be supplemented by references in Poole's Index, under “ Press," “ Newspapers,” and “ Journalism.” The story of the first newspaper published west of the Alleghanies, The Kentucky Gazette, is told in the Mag. Amer. Hist., Aug., 1887. Hudson (p. 195) says The Centinel of the North West Territory, begun in Cincinnati in 1793, was the earliest Western newspaper.

The most considerable account of the New England press is Joseph T. Buckingham's Specimens of Newspaper Literature (Boston, 1850, in two volumes), though the book also contained some accounts of newspapers of other parts of the country. Delano A. Goddard published at Boston in 1880 a paper on the Newspapers and newspaper writers of New England, 1787-1815. The histories of all the larger cities contain as a rule historical sketches of their respective presses.

The newspapers most commonly encountered in the history of politics for the first half century under the Constitution are these:

Benjamin Russell, Massachusetts Centinel (Federal), Boston, 1784; known after 1790 as the Columbian Centinel.

John Fenno, Gazette of the United States (Federal), N. Y. and Philad., 1789, etc.1
Philip Freneau, National Gazette (Republican), Philad., 1791, etc.?
Benjamin F. Bache, and, later, William Duane, General Advertiser and Aurora (Republican), 1790, etc.
The Boston Gazette, which during the war had been a power, became anti-federal and lingered till 1798.
Noah Webster (and others), Minerva (Federal), 1797, etc., later known as the Commercial Advertiser.
Colman, Evening Post (Federal), N. Y., 1800.3

James Cheetham, American Citizen (Republican), N. Y., 1800, etc. It had previously been the N. Y. Journal. Adverse to Burr.

Smith and, later, Gales, National Intelligencer, Washington, 1800.
Peter Irving, The Morning Chronicle (Republican), N. Y., 1802. Friendly to Burr.

Austin and others, Independent Chronicle (Republican), Boston, 1789. It was originally started in 1776.

Park, Repertory, 1803.
Thomas Ritchie, The Enquirer (Republican), Richmond, Va., 1804.
The Patriot (Republican), Boston, 1809. It was united with the Independent Chronicle in 1817.
Nathan Hale, Boston Daily Advertiser, 1813.
The Massachusetts Mercury (Federal), Boston, 1793 ; later the New England Palladium, 1801.

The first daily was the American Daily Advertiser (Philad., 1784), and the earliest penny paper was the Morning Post (N. Y., 1833).

The particular histories of the press need to be supplemented by the lives of the leading journalists, like Wallace's Col. William Bradford; the memoir of Isaiah Thomas, prefixed to the Amer. Antiq. Society's ed. of his Hist. of Printing; H. E. Scudder's Noah Webster; Recollections of the Life of John Binns, written by himself (Philad., 1854); the Personal Memoirs of Joseph T. Buckingham; a Life of William W. Seaton (Boston, 1871) by his daughter ; the Autobiography of Amos Kendall, ed. by Stickney; the Life of Gerard Hallock; the Memoirs of James Gordon Bennett, and the paper on Bennett by James Parton in his Famous Americans; notices of George D. Prentice (cf. Lippincott's Magazine, Nov., 1869); Charles T. Congdon's Reminiscences of a Journalist (Boston, 1880); the life of William Lloyd Garrison by his sons; the Recollections of a busy life, by Horace Greeley, and Parton's memoir of Greeley; A. Maverick's Henry J. Raymond and the N. Y. press, and a paper in The Galaxy, April, 1870. The measure of the influence of one of the strongest American journalists, though his active share in political history began only with the annexation of Texas, can be got from Geo. S. Merriam's Life and Times of Samuel Bowles (N. Y., 1885) of The Springfield (Mass.) Republican. 1 Hudson, p. 181; McMaster, ii., etc.

3 Reminiscences of the first half century of the N. Y. ? Hudson, p. 185; McMaster, ii. 49; Rives' Madison, Evening Post (N. Y., 1851).

iii. 193

VOL. VIII. — 32

The controversial spirit of the years preceding the outbreak of the war in 1775 had given rise to a kind of publication that the advance of the newspaper press after many years finally superseded. A few of these, beginning with some of these earlier ones, may be mentioned :

A Collection of Tracts from the late newspapers (N. Y., 1769) was a selection of essays from the news. papers of Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts between March 14, 1768, and Jan. 23, 1769, made with impartiality as regards the representation of both sides, and they particularly concerned the controversy over the introduction of bishops. It was a half-sheet weekly, printed for the N. Y. Thursday Journal (Sabin, iv, 14,395).

The Censor was published in Boston in defence of Hutchinson, beginning Nov. 23, 1771, and was printed weekly for some months. It was at first occupied with replies to the articles signed “ Mucius Scævola” in the Massachusetts Spy, and these replies are thought to have been written by Lieut.-Gov. Oliver.

Aitken's General American Register was printed at Philadelphia for 1773 and 1774, and throws much light on postal service and similar details of life at that time (Hildeburn, ii. nos. 2740, 2847).

The serial publication of Thomas Paine called the American Crisis was begun at Philadelphia in 1776 and continued through the war (Hildeburn, ii. 3432, 3595, 3764, 4034, 4227). The papers were reprinted col. lectively as The Crisis, being a series of pamphlets in sixteen numbers, written during the American Revo lution (New York, 1877).

The American Register, a general Repository of History, Politics, and Science, was published in seven volumes between 1806 and 1810,1

The most important of all this kind of publication was Hezekiah Niles' Weekly Register, afterwards known simply as Niles' Register, which was begun in Baltimore in 1811, and which as a gathering of documents of our political history has never lost its value. It was continued till 1849, when 76 volumes had been published. It has since been republished in 36 volumes.

2. ENGLISH. — Early in the outbreak of the war Almon, a London publisher, began a documentary publication, with a sympathetic leaning towards the colonies, or at least against the ministry, which proved to be a valuable repository. Its purpose was to select from all public prints the best account of every material public event. Almon's Remembrancer or Impartial Repository of Public Events was begun in London, June 15, 1775; but the second edition of the first volume has preliminary matter not in the original isşue.2 The editor soon made good his purpose, as Smyth says, of "displaying the injustice of the design and the folly of the councils of Great Britain.” Two years later, and in order to preserve the records of the controversy which foreran the outbreak of hostilities, Almon published in one volume (1777), Prior Documents : or a collection of interesting, authentic papers relating to the dispute between Great Britain and America, showing the causes and progress of that misunderstanding from 1764 to 1775.3 He also published in 1776 what is known as Almon's Tracts, or, as the general title runs, A Collection of the most interesting tracts lately published in England and America on the subject of taxing the American colonies and regulating their trade.

Another periodical, more severe on the ministry than Almon, had already preceded the Remembrancer, but failed to attain success. The first number of The Crisis was begun in London, Jan. 4, 1775, and the set ends June 8, 1776, making as bound two folio volumes.5

A publication more nearly resembling the Remembrancer, and in which, according to Barbier and others, Franklin is said to have had a hand, was begun at Antwerp in 1776, though it is thought to have been printed in Paris. The Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique was continued to 1779, making 24 cahiers in 8 tomes, though it is usually found in seventeen volumes. There is an account of it, with a collation, by P. L. Ford, in the Penna. Mag. of History, July, 1889, p. 222.

1 An Amer. Annual Register had been published at octavo, between 1768 and 1770, with an appendix in 1769; Philadelphia for a single year in 1796; and a publication while the whole, with a collective title and table of contents, under the same name was printed 1825-1833.

was reissued in 1770. He has seen only one complete 2 Between 1775 and 1784 there were 17 vols, issued; copy, that in the British Museum. and with the 2d ed. of vol. i. we have a complete set in 18 5 Some copies are reported as having o8 nos., ending vols. Almon is said to have been aided by Geo. Pownall Oct. 12, 1776.

It was in part reprinted in New York, in (Sparks, no. 2216; Brinley, ii. no. 3934). It is worth about Newport, and in New London. Sabin, v. 17,516-17; $5 a 'volume; though latterly it is often offered in fine Penna, Mag. of Hist., ii. 233. binding at much higher prices. A set is quoted in 1887 at

6 Sabin, i. no. 491.

Sabin notes some other foreign $155

periodicals as throwing a certain reflected light on Amer3 Worth about $10.

ican affairs, like the Affiches Américaines, published at • Sabin, iv. no. 14,392, who cites also no, 14,385, a Col- Port-au-Prince in seven volumes, 1777-1783 (Dictionary, lection of scarce and interesting tracts, written by persons i. no. 493) ; Courier politique et litteraire . of eminence upon the most important political and com- Evening Post, London, 1777-1785 (Ibid., v. no. 17,165), mercial subjects during the years 1763-1770 (London, and Gazette de Leyde (Ibid., vii. p. 191). 1770); Stevens (Nuggets, no. 3267; Catal. of rare books Some amusing instances of the ignorance of the compilers* relating to America, 1885, no. 13) notes The American of the contemporary handbooks, intended to serve the Gazette, being a collection of all the authentic addresses, ordinary European reader of American affairs, have been memorials, letters, etc., which relate to the present dis- noted. In Don Francisco Alvares Noticia del Establece putes between Great Britain and her colonies ; containing miento y Poblacion de las Colonias Inglesas en la A mealso many original papers never before published. He rica Septentrional (Madrid, 1778), we learn that New Eng says six numbers, each with a separate title, appeared in land is divided into eleven provinces and four counties,

.. or French

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