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dicate the honor of this country, at the same time that it rendered full justice to the opposite cause." 1 In due time Mahon undertook the task as a component part of his History of England, 1713-1783 (fifth ed. revised, London, 1838), of which the events previous to 1774 are treated in vol. v., those for 1774 to 1780 in vol. vi., and the close of the war in vol. vii.2 The account of the Revolution is on the whole a temperate one, and the reader is “impressed with the sincerity and general fairness of the writer;" and must recognize " the diligence and depth of his researches."3 The style of the book is hardly a polished one, and his reflections ar mostly too obvious to be called for.

Lecky (Hist. of England, i. p. vi) says of his predecessor : “Lord Stanhope was not able to bring to his. task the artistic talent, the power, or the philosophical insight of some of his contemporaries; but no one can have studied with care the period about which he wrote without a feeling of deep respect for the range and accuracy of his research, for his very unusual skill of selecting facts, and for his transparent honesty of purpose."

Among the more recent general histories of England, reference may be made to the Reign of George the Third in the Pictorial History of England, with its decided Tory bearing; Wm. Massey's History of Eng. land during the reign of George III. (London, 1855-1863, vol. i., covering 1745-1770; ii., 1770-80; iii., 178193; iv., 1793-1802), judicial in tone, with a tendency to be severe on the king ; Viscount Bury's Exodus of the Western Nations, in which (vol. ii. ch. 10) is a severe arraignment of Grenville's policy, while in his condensed narrative there is more or less confounding of events, particularly those of local bearing; Knight's Popular Hist. of England, which represents the average British view; and for the political changes, Charles Duke Yonge's Constitutional History of England (London, 1882). Buckle's Hist. of Civilization, chapter vii., dwells on the political degeneracy of the times. Wright traces the daily humors in his Caricature History of the Georges.

W. E. H. Lecky, in the third and fourth volumes of his History of England in the Eighteenth Century, tells in most respects the story of the Revolution admirably, and for its extent his narrative is hardly equalled. His foot-notes show that he had used the most essential authorities, and he is both judicious and careful. Reasonable Americans will hardly dispute his principal conclusions. He teaches 5 them to understand that the “patriots” of the Revolution were no more superlative heroes than the men which troublous times amid jealous excitements commonly produce. He gives 6 a very explicit account of the way in which the king dominated the methods of the war.

At a late day of the war appeared a View of the history of Great Britain, during the administration of Lord North, to the second session of the fifteenth parliament. In two parts. With statements of the public expenditure of that period (Dublin, 1782). This was recast in a more concise form by Hilliard d'Auber. teuil, who added a narrative of the war, and published it in Paris in 1784, in two volumes, as Histoire de l'administration de Lord North, ministre des finances en Angleterre, depuis 1770 jusqu'en 1782, et de la guerre de l'Amérique septentrionale jusqu'à la paix, suivie du tableau historique des finances d'Angleterre, depuis Guillaume III. jusqu'en 1784 (Londres, 1784).7

There is as yet no English general history of the United States of distinctive value. The one prepared by Henry Fergus for Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia (London, 1830) did its inadequate service fisty years ago. The more pretentious History and Topography of the United States, edited by John Howard Hinton, was finished as a subscription serial in 1832, with plates. It told the story of the Revolution without reference to Lexington and Bunker Hill. Samuel L. Knapp revised it, and it was issued at Boston in two quarto volumes in 1834. It passed to later editions in England, and was again amended and extended in another American edition by Dr. John 0. Choules. Mr. W. H. Bartlett, the draughtsman, began a History of the United States (London, 1856), but the continuation and completion of it fell to B. B. Woodward. It appeared in three large volumes, the first coming down to 1789, the second to the administration, and the third to the period of publication. What is known as Cassell's United States (London, 1876) is a three-volume quarto pictorial publication, assigned to Edmund Ollier on the title-page, and Col. Joseph L. Chester, an American antiquary resident in London, is said to have been concerned in it. The latest is Percy Greg's History of the United States from the foundation of Virginia to the reconstruction of the Union (London, 1887, in 2 vols.), which has a Southern partisan tone, and some surprising turns of observation.

1 Mahon's (Stanhope's) England, vi. app. p. i.

2 It was originally published in six volumes, 1836-51, some of the early volumes undergoing revision before the whole was completed. A third revision took place in 1853– 54. Stanhope died in 1875. Cf. Edwards' Men of Eminence (London), vol. i.; Doyle's Official Baronage, üi. 408. There is an American edition edited by Henry Reed, whom the English author thanks for “his great care and accuracy" (Mahon, v. 73).

3 R. C. Winthrop, in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., xiv. 193. Palfrey, however, of his earlier edition said that he felt very confident that Mahon had never seen Hutchinson's History (cf. N. Amer. Rev., July, 1852; Jan., 1855; International Mag., v. 164).

4 Buckle (ch. vii.) dwells on the barbarities of the British mode of warfare, and cites his authorities. Lecky (iv. 106)

thinks it difficult to measure the barbarities exactly because
of the American exaggerations.

5 Vol. iv. p. 113.
6.Vol. iv. 76.

? There is a German translation by A. Wittenberg (Hamburg, 1783), and a Spanish one (Madrid, 1806). Sabin, viii. 31,901-3. The personal characteristics of the king and the quality of his relations with North have at last been set forth explicitly in The Correspondence of King George III. with Lord North, 1768-1783, edited from Originals at Windsor, with an introduction and notes by W. Bodham Donne (London, 1867, in two volumes). In this book it was first made apparent that the minister for five years had, against his own judgment, done the king's bidding in sustaining the war. The popular estimate of North has been by this book considerably changed.

3. FRENCH.— The Courier de l'Europe, a French journal published in London, had ceased, owing to a diversity of opinion as to editorial management, and was succeeded in May, 1777, by the Courier politique et literaire, annoncés et avis divers: a French Evening Post, to be conducted “on the subject of politics, strictly impartial (with decency) to all parties.” It was continued to 1785,— making 18 vols. in all, and contains current records relating to the War of Independence. There is a set in Harvard College library.

The Mémoires of Lafayette are noted elsewhere. Scheffer, who wrote a Histoire des États-Unis (Paris, 1825), is said by Balch to have received some assistance from Lafayette.

An aid of Lafayette, Comte de Moret de Pontgibaud, is commemorated in the Mémoires du Comte de M...., précédés de Cing lettres, ou considérations sur les mémoires particuliers (par le Comte C. M. de Salaberry] (Paris, 1828).1

The Mémoires politiques, historiques, et politiques de Rochambeau were published at Paris in 1809, and an English translation of the portion relating to the American Revolution, by M. W. E. Wright, was printed at Paris in 1838.2

Of Rochambeau's officers we possess several of their own memoirs. The Souvenirs du lieut.-général Comte Mathieu Dumas, publiés par son fils (Paris, 1839, in 3 vols.), and the English edition, Memoirs of his own Times (London, 1839). The Mémoires de Monsieur le duc de Lauzun par lui-même (Paris, 1822).3 The Mémoires du Comte de Ségur were printed in Paris in 1825 and 1842, and an English translation at London in 1825-27.4

Balch, during his sojourn in Paris, brought to light a MS. journal of Claude Blanchard, chief commissary, 1780-83, of the French army, which was translated by William Duane and edited by Thomas Balch, and was printed at Albany in 1876. It has few military details.5

Rochambeau probably either wrote himself, or perhaps only dictated, that account of his American expedition ó which forms a part of the Histoire des troubles de l'Amérique Anglaise, écrite d'après les mémoires les plus authentiques," by François Soulès, which was published in Paris in 1787, in four volumes.8 Sparks 9 calls this history the best written and most authentic in the French language, and says that the portion relating to the movements of Rochambeau's army is nearly identical with a narrative later published in Rochambeau's Mémoires. A large part of Soulès' book was, Sparks further says, read in manuscript by Rochambeau and the minister of war. 10

The Révolution de l'Amérique of the Abbé Raynal was issued in 1781,11 with the imprint of Londres, but the book is thought to have been actually printed at Geneva. 12

A work of Michel René Hilliard d’Auberteuil was published at Brussels in 1781-82, under the general title of Essais historiques et politiques, the first volume reading, in addition, sur les Anglo-Américains, and the second, sur la révolution de l'Amérique septentrionale.18

J. Mandrillon's Le Spectateur Américain, ou remarques générales sur l'Amérique et sur la République des treize États-Unis (Amsterdam, 1784; 2d ed., enlarged, 1785). Odet Julien Leboucher's Histoire de la dernière guerre entre la Grand Bretagne, les États-Unis d'Amé

de Manuscrits ... relatifs à la Nouvelle France (Que? Cf. Tuckerman's America and her Commentators, bec, 1884), vol. iv. pp. 343-376. P. 111.

For R. C. Winthrop's visit to the chateau of Ro- 9 Washington, viii. 135. chambeau, see Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., xx. 99.

10 Cf. Sparks MSS., no. xxxii. 3 An edition, under the supervision of Louis Lacour, was 11 Two editions this year, one of 171, the other of 183 printed in 1855; but, interdicted for a while, it was repub- pages. lished in 1858 (Sabin, x. nos. 39,271-72). An edition was 12 An edition also appeared at Dublin. There was the published at Paris in 1880, with an introductory study of same year (1781) a Dutch translation at Amsterdam, and Lauzun and his memoirs by Georges d'Heylli. There was an English one, Revolution in America, at London. In an English edition in London (1822).

1782 another English version, Revolution of America, was 4 Cf. Tuckerman, America and her Commentators, p. published at Salem, and at Edinburgh in 1783. Sometimes, 117. The Mémoires ou souvenirs et anecdotes form vols. but probably falsely, attributed to Raynal is the Tableau i.-iii. of his (Euvres complètes, published at Paris in 33 et révolutions des Colonies Anglaises dans l'Amérique sep vols., 1824-1830.

tentrionale (Paris, 1788). Cf. Letter addressed to the Abbé • Cf. Balch, Les Français en Amérique, p. 8; Revue Raynal on the affairs of North America, in which the militaire française (1869). The original text has since mistakes of the Abbé's account of the Revolution of Amer. been printed in Paris (1881) as Guerre d'Amérique 1780- ica are corrected and cleared up by Thomas Paine (Phila1783. Journal de campagne de Claude Blanchard, com- delphia ; reprinted in London, 1782), and a French version missaire des guerres principal au Corps Auxiliaire Fran- by Cerisier, Brussels, 1783. çais sous le commandement du lieutenant-général comte 13 Sabin, viii. p. 295. There were octavo editions in 1781 de Rochambeau.

and 1784, and a quarto edition in 1782. The list given (vol. 6 Balch, p. 16.

ü. 413) by Hilliard d'Auberteuil on the French officers in 7 Leclerc, Bibl. Amer., no. 1014.

A German transla- the American service is reprinted in the Mag. of American tion was published at Zurich in 1788.

History, June, 1879. Hilliard d'Auberteuil sent various 8 A "Mémoire sur la guerre de l'independance des États- copies of his Essais, through Franklin, to gentlemen in Unis, à date de l'arrivée du corps français, 1780, ecrit par America, to be corrected for a new edition (Bigelow's Monsieur le Comte de Rochambeau, par ordre du ministre Franklin, iii. 203). pour le Sieur François Solés, auteur," is in the Collection

1 Balch, p. 15

rique, la France, l'Espagne, et la Hollande depuis son commencement en 1775 jusqu'à sa fin en 1783, was published anonymously at Paris in 1787, and, with a slightly changed title, in 1788. The title was further changed to Histoire de la guerre de l'indépendance in the Paris edition of 1830.

Filippo Mazzei, who lived several years in Virginia, is held to be the author of Recherches historiques et politiques sur les États-Unis de l'Amérique septentrionale par un citoyen de Virginie, avec quatre lettres d'un bourgeois de New Heaven sur l'unité de la legislation (Colle, 1788), in four volumes. Lafayette told Sparks that he deemed the book authentic and worthy of confidence.

Guillaume Tell Poussin's Les États-Unis d'Amérique, 1815-1873 (Paris, 1874), has appeared in an English version.

Count Adolphe de Circourt, in translating and annotating that part of Bancroft's United States which contains his account of the French alliance, had published it separately as Histoire de l'action Commune de la France et de l'Amérique pour l'indépendance des États-Unis (Paris, 1876), making three volumes, in the second of which the translator embodied some Conclusions Historiques of his own, in which he gave a summary of the rise and progress of American independence. This paper, translated into English and furnished with a preface by its author, is printed in the Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, Oct., 1876. Circourt's third volume is documentary.

Of the monographs on the Revolution and of those broader histories which include accounts of it, but which are all of little importance, mention may be made of a few:

Abrégé de la Révolution de l'Amérique Anglaise (1774-1778) par M.... Américain (Paris, 1778). The author was Paul Ulric Dubuisson,1

The Abbé Pierre Charpentier de Longchamps' Histoire impartiale des évènemens militaires et politiques de la dernière guerre (1775-1783), dans les quatre parties du monde (Paris, 1785; 3d ed., revised and enlarged, Amsterdam, 1787).

Chas and Lebrun's Histoire politique et philosophique de la révolution de l'Amérique septentrionale (Paris, 1802).

Chevalier de Langeac's Anecdotes anglaises et américaines. Années 1770 à 1783, published anonymously in Paris, 1813.2

P. J. S. Dufey's Résumé de l'histoire des Révolutions de l'Amérique septentrionale (Paris, 1826, in two volumes).

Edward Laboulaye's Histoire des États-Unis, 1620-1789 (Paris, 1856-66; 2d ed., 1867). The second of its three volumes covers the Revolutionary war, and is the substance of lectures given by him at the Col. lege de France, which were planned for the enlightenment of French students, without effort at original research.3

Frédérick Nolte's Histoire des États-Unis de l'Amérique depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours (Paris, 1879), in two vols.

The centennial of 1876 brought from the Marquis de Talleyrand-Périgord an Étude sur la république des États-Unis d'Amérique, 1776-1876 (New York, 1876).

The participation of the French in the Revolutionary war has several special treatments : –

J. F. Milliroux's Conféderation Américaine (Paris, 1861) gives France the credit of the success of the Revolution.

Thomas Balch's Les Français en Amérique pendant la guerre de l'indépendance des États-Unis, 1777– 1783 (Paris, 1872), gives notices of the French regiments and officers. Edwin Martin Stone's Our French allies in the great war of the American Revolution (Providence, 1884) was occasioned by the visit of the French representatives to Newport at the time of the anniversary of the surrender of Yorktown.

Léon Chotteau's La Guerre de l'indépendance (1775-1783); les français en Amérique, avec une préface par Edouard Laboulaye, reached a third edition in Paris in 1882. There is also a paper on the French participation in the Revue militaire française (1870, vol. ii.).4

The most important contribution of this kind, however, is Doniol's Participation de la France à l'établisse. ment des États-Unis, which is not yet, however, completed.5

The naval aspects of the French participation is traced in Edouard Chevalier's Histoire de la marine Française pendant la guerre de l'indépendance Américaine (Paris, 1877).6

1 A German translation, Historischer Abriss, etc., was published at Berne in 1779. Cf. Vorstellung der Staatsveränderung in Nordamerika von den ersten Unruhen im Jahr 1774 bis zu dem Bündniss der Krone Frankreichs mit den K'olonien, von einem Amerikaner (Zweyte Auflage. Bern, 1784).

2 Cf. Amerikanische Anekdoten aus den neuesten Zeiten. Ein Auszug aus dem Französischen (Leipzig, 1789).

3 C. K. Adams, Manual of Hist. Literature, p. 534. The book is becoming rare

4 A French critical sketch of the military operations is in the Political Mag., iii. 459.

5 See Vol. VII. p. 79.

6 Extrait du journal d'un officier de la marine de l'Escadre de M. le Comte d'Estaing (1782); Relation des combats et des évènements de la guerre maritime, ART Y. 7. Kerguélen (Paris, 1796); Hennequin's Biographie maritime ou notices historiques sur la vie et les campagnes des marins célèbres (Paris, 1835-1837, in three vols.).

There is a memoir by Sydney Everett of the commander of the French fleet at Newport in the N. E. Hist. and Geneal, Reg. (Oct., 1873, p. 404); and an account of his death there, and monument, in E. M. Stone's French Al lies (p. 341).

4. GERMAN AND ITALIAN. The most valuable contributions in German to the history of te Revolution have been the later monographs of Kapp on Steuben and De Kalb, and sundry books respecting the mercenaries of Hesse and Brunswick, of which more detailed mention is made elsewhere.

Julius August Remer published at Braunschweig in 1777-78, in three volumes, his Amerikanisches Archiv.1

Among the earlier subsidiary works, though not of much importance, are Adam F drich Geisler's Kurze Karakter- und Thaten-schilderungen (Dresden and Leipzig, 1784), which gives some account of British and of German auxiliary officers of the war ;? Schlözer’s Correspondenz (Göttingen, 1781), which gives some characteristics of the American officers;3 and M. C. Sprengel's Geschichte der Revolution von N. Amerika (Speyer, 1785), which is a small treatise with a map of the States based on Faden's.

The most considerable German history of the United States is K. F. Neumann's Geschichte der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (Berlin, 1866, in three vols.), which is enthusiastically Northern in its tone. It comes down to the inauguration of Lincoln.4

H. von Holst's Verfassung und Demokratie der Vereinigten Staaten (Düsseldorf, 1873, etc.) is more particularly described in another place. See Vol. VII, index.

Some of the military criticisms of Heinrich Dietrich von Bülow, translated from his Militärische und Vermischte Schriften (Leipzig, 1853), are in the Historical Magazine, ix. 105, 141.

In the early years of this century an Italian, Carlo Botta, instigated by the talk which he heard in a Paris salon, set to work on a history of the American Revolution, and, as the Storia della guerra Americana, published it in Paris in 1809, in four volumes. The work was enthusiastically received, and until Bancroft's volumes on the Revolution appeared, was generally held to be the best account of the struggle, though his method of putting long speeches into the mouths of the leading personages provoked some criticism, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson particularly taking exception to them. Adams, though in his letters he expresses no favorable opinion of it,9 praised it to the American translator. Jefferson called it superior to all others. Grahame, in the preface to his latest edition, says he was deterred from giving the history of the Revolution by the excellence of Botta's work, “ of so much merit and so well suited to the present era.” Prescott in still called it the best, and Bancroft so late as 1875 called it admirable.10

There is also a Storia delle Colonie Inglesi in America, by C. D. Londonio (Milano, 1813, in 3 vols.), which includes the Revolutionary war. 1 Sabin, xvii. 69,549.

was now added to the French Botta, as well as an engrav2 Sabin, vii. no. 26,843.

ing of Stuart's Washington, made originally for the French 3 Penna. Mag. of Hist., vi. 125.

version of Marshall. Botta was translated into English by 4 C. K. Adams' Manual, 535. Von Holst disparages it George Alexander Otis of Boston, and published at Phila(Eng. transl. i. 240).

delphia in 1820, in three volumes, at Boston in 1826 in two 5 G. W. Greene, German Element in the War of Inde- volumes, and at New Haven (1838) and Glasgow (1844) and pendence, p. vii. Cf. Prescott's Essays, p. 209.

Buffalo (1854) — not to name other editions. Cf. North 6 Storia della guerra del independenza degli stati uniti Amer. Review (vol. xii.) by F. C. Gray; and Letters and d'America is the title which Botta gave his book, and the other writings of Madison, iii. 32, 201, 203. publisher furnished the shorter title. He affixes a list of 8 Adams (Works, x. 172), referring to a speech on inde. the English and French books on which he based his pendence given to R. H. Lee, writes to Thomas McKean work, - among them are Gordon, Ramsay, Andrews, Mar- of it “as a splendid morsel of oratory — how faithful you shall, Hilliard d'Auberteuil, Soulès.

can judge." Botta contended that the speeches were gen7 It was reprinted at Milano in 1819 in four volumes; uine reproductions of their authors, or of the parties to and at Livorno in 1825-26 in seven volumes. A French which the alleged speakers belonged, though he confesses translation appeared at Paris in 1812-13, in four volumes, to have added some embellishment to the speeches of edited by M. de Sevelinges. The French preface was Richard Henry Lee and John Dickinson, for and against translated in the Milan edition. The French publisher had independence. already in 1808 printed a French translation of Marshall's

Works, X. 177.
Washington, and had reëngraved Marshall's Atlas, which 10 United States, orig. ed., X. 131.

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